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How have you changed over the
past year?
What has caused those changes?
How do you think you will
change in the next few years?
The Endocrine System
regulates, coordinates
and controls:
 Growth and development.
 Male and female development.
 How your body uses energy.
 Levels of salts and sugars in your
blood.
 The amount (volume) of fluid in
your body.
 Appetite.
 Many other body functions.
The EndocrineEndocrine
GlandsGlands are the
organs of the
Endocrine System.
They produce and
secrete (release)
HormonesHormones.
They are located all
over your body.
Endocrine system and hormones b y alvin bugaoisan BMLS
Gland What it Regulates
Pituitary “Master Gland” that regulates all other
Endocrine Glands, also releases growth
hormone
Thyroid Metabolism, body heat, bone growth
Parathyroids Use of Calcium and Phosphorous
Hypothalamus Links nervous system to endocrine system
Adrenal Response in emergency or stressful
situations, metabolism, blood pressure, salt
balance
Pancreas Blood sugar
Ovaries Production of eggs; female characteristics
Testes Production of sperm; male characteristics
Thymus Parts of the immune system
The answer is
Hormones!
HORMONES ARE CHEMICAL
MESSENGERS THAT ARE SECRETED
(RELEASED) FROM GLANDS INTO
THE BLOOD AND AFFECT CELLS IN
ANOTHER PART OF THE BODY.
Hormones only work on certain cells, called target
cells.
The target cells have special receptors that
“recognize” the hormones and allow them to
influence that cell.
These receptors recognize the hormones.
They “fit” like a lock and key.
Target Cell for
Hormone A
Target Cell for
Hormones A and B
Target Cell for
Hormone B
Target Cell for
Hormone A
Hormone BHormone A
by way of nerves
from the sensory
organs in the nervous
system
Internal stimuliExternal stimuli
by way of nerves
and other hormones
from inside the body
“Autonomic Nervous System”
Brain reacts by way
of secretions from
neurons in
hypothalamus
(neurohormones)
Brain also reacts by
way of nerves from
hypothalamus and
brainstem
DISCUSS YOUR ANSWERS.
Why both kinds
of controls?
What is the
difference between
nerve and hormone
control?
•Remember, external means coming from
outside of your body and internal means
coming from inside of your body.
Stimulus:
 You hear a loud noise
 A large dog runs toward you,
growling and barking
 You eat a large candy bar
 You have not eaten in six hours
 You have strep throat
 A chain of events occur that lead from the
stimulus to the response.
 Negative feedback means that when enough
hormone is in the body, the body stops
producing the hormone until it is needed
again.
You eat. Glucose (sugar)
in the blood increases.
Increased glucose is detected by receptors
that notify the brain. It sends a message
to the pancreas to produce insulin.
Insulin tells muscle and liver to take up
glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy
or store it for later. Brain reduces appetite.
Blood glucose level drops as
it is removed by the cells.
Pancreas stops making insulin.
In the case shown in this picture, the body produces insulin but the target cells become
resistant and unresponsive to it. Diabetes can also be caused by the body not producing
enough insulin. The glucose does not enter the muscle and liver cells like it should and it
builds up in the blood causing complications.
Diabetes
Endocrine system and hormones b y alvin bugaoisan BMLS
The pituitary gland sends a
signal by way of the
hormone oxytocin to the
uterus causing contractions.
The pressure of the fetus
on the cervix sends a signal
back to the brain which
then stimulates the release
of more oxytocin. This
causes more contractions.
The fetus pushes harder on
the cervix. More oxytocin
is released. The system
continues until birth occurs.
A few hormone systems
are positive feedback
systems:
When normal functions lose their negative feedback
control, many times disease is the result.
An example:
•Neurons in the hypothalamus secrete thyroid releasing
hormone (TRH), which stimulates cells in the anterior
pituitary to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
•TSH binds to receptors to cells in the thyroid gland,
stimulating thyroid hormones, which affect all cells in
the body.
•When blood concentrations of thyroid hormones
increase above a certain level, TRH-secreting neurons
in the hypothalamus are inhibited and stop secreting
TRH.
•If this process is disrupted, the Thyroid keeps
producing hormones and hyperthyroid disease ensues.
Disruption
DO YOU KNOW WHERE EACH HORMONE COMES FROM, WHERE IT ACTS, AND
WHAT THE ACTION IS? GUESS FIRST, THEN CLICK EACH TO FIND OUT.
Progesterone
Thyroxine
Estrogen
Testosterone
Cortisol
Adrenaline
Insulin
Done
Where it comes from: Adrenal
Gland
Where it acts: heart, blood
vessels, eyes
What it does: stimulates heart
rate, increases blood pressure,
dilates pupils
Causes "Adrenaline Rush”
A 'fight and flight' hormone.
 It is released in high stress
conditions or in excitement or
fear.
Loud noise, high temperature
etc. may also trigger its release
since these are also high stress
situations.
Return to hormones slide
• Where it comes from:
ovary (where an egg
was released)
• Where it acts: uterus
• What it does: controls
menstruation in
women and plays a
role in pregnancy.
• One of the
components of birth
control pills
Return to hormones slide
Where it comes from: thyroid
gland
Where it acts: most cells of
the body
What it does: controls the rate
of metabolic processes (how
energy is used) in the body
and influences physical
development
People may not produce
enough of this hormone and
get a condition known as
hypothyroidism. They can
take thyroxine to treat this
condition.
Return to hormones slide
 Where it comes from: testicles
 Where it acts: body-hair cells,
muscle, reproductive structures
 What it does: stimulates
development of male sexual
characteristics
 Testosterone is a steroid and has
been administered to athletes in
order to improve performance.
This is considered to be a form of
doping in most sports and is a very
dangerous practice.
 Females also produce small
amounts of testosterone in their
ovaries that affect muscle
development and other body
functions.
Return to hormones slide
Where it comes from: ovary
Where it acts: breast tissue,
reproductive structures in
female
What it does: stimulates
development of female
sexual characteristics
Estrogen levels may be
related somehow to
migraine headaches in
women.
Return to hormones slide
Where it comes from:
outer part of adrenal gland
Where it acts: multiple
tissues
What it does: mental
stimulation, breaks down
fat and protein to glucose,
anti-inflammation
It is usually referred to as
the "stress hormone" as it
is involved in response to
stress and anxiety.
Return to hormones slide
Where it comes from:
Insulin is produced in the
pancreas
Where it acts: liver,
muscle, and fat tissue
What it does: Insulin
causes cells to take up
glucose (sugar) from the
blood, storing it in the
liver and muscle, and
stopping use of fat as an
energy source.
Problems with insulin
production or use in the
body can lead to diabetes.
Return to hormones slide
What are the functions of the Endocrine System?
Name 5 Endocrine Glands and what they do.
What are hormones?
How do hormones work?
Name some hormones and what they do.
At what times in your life do you think your
Endocrine System is most active?

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Endocrine system and hormones b y alvin bugaoisan BMLS

  • 2. How have you changed over the past year? What has caused those changes? How do you think you will change in the next few years?
  • 3. The Endocrine System regulates, coordinates and controls:  Growth and development.  Male and female development.  How your body uses energy.  Levels of salts and sugars in your blood.  The amount (volume) of fluid in your body.  Appetite.  Many other body functions.
  • 4. The EndocrineEndocrine GlandsGlands are the organs of the Endocrine System. They produce and secrete (release) HormonesHormones. They are located all over your body.
  • 6. Gland What it Regulates Pituitary “Master Gland” that regulates all other Endocrine Glands, also releases growth hormone Thyroid Metabolism, body heat, bone growth Parathyroids Use of Calcium and Phosphorous Hypothalamus Links nervous system to endocrine system Adrenal Response in emergency or stressful situations, metabolism, blood pressure, salt balance Pancreas Blood sugar Ovaries Production of eggs; female characteristics Testes Production of sperm; male characteristics Thymus Parts of the immune system
  • 8. HORMONES ARE CHEMICAL MESSENGERS THAT ARE SECRETED (RELEASED) FROM GLANDS INTO THE BLOOD AND AFFECT CELLS IN ANOTHER PART OF THE BODY.
  • 9. Hormones only work on certain cells, called target cells. The target cells have special receptors that “recognize” the hormones and allow them to influence that cell. These receptors recognize the hormones. They “fit” like a lock and key. Target Cell for Hormone A Target Cell for Hormones A and B Target Cell for Hormone B Target Cell for Hormone A Hormone BHormone A
  • 10. by way of nerves from the sensory organs in the nervous system Internal stimuliExternal stimuli by way of nerves and other hormones from inside the body
  • 11. “Autonomic Nervous System” Brain reacts by way of secretions from neurons in hypothalamus (neurohormones) Brain also reacts by way of nerves from hypothalamus and brainstem
  • 12. DISCUSS YOUR ANSWERS. Why both kinds of controls? What is the difference between nerve and hormone control?
  • 13. •Remember, external means coming from outside of your body and internal means coming from inside of your body.
  • 14. Stimulus:  You hear a loud noise  A large dog runs toward you, growling and barking  You eat a large candy bar  You have not eaten in six hours  You have strep throat
  • 15.  A chain of events occur that lead from the stimulus to the response.
  • 16.  Negative feedback means that when enough hormone is in the body, the body stops producing the hormone until it is needed again. You eat. Glucose (sugar) in the blood increases. Increased glucose is detected by receptors that notify the brain. It sends a message to the pancreas to produce insulin. Insulin tells muscle and liver to take up glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later. Brain reduces appetite. Blood glucose level drops as it is removed by the cells. Pancreas stops making insulin.
  • 17. In the case shown in this picture, the body produces insulin but the target cells become resistant and unresponsive to it. Diabetes can also be caused by the body not producing enough insulin. The glucose does not enter the muscle and liver cells like it should and it builds up in the blood causing complications. Diabetes
  • 19. The pituitary gland sends a signal by way of the hormone oxytocin to the uterus causing contractions. The pressure of the fetus on the cervix sends a signal back to the brain which then stimulates the release of more oxytocin. This causes more contractions. The fetus pushes harder on the cervix. More oxytocin is released. The system continues until birth occurs. A few hormone systems are positive feedback systems:
  • 20. When normal functions lose their negative feedback control, many times disease is the result. An example: •Neurons in the hypothalamus secrete thyroid releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). •TSH binds to receptors to cells in the thyroid gland, stimulating thyroid hormones, which affect all cells in the body. •When blood concentrations of thyroid hormones increase above a certain level, TRH-secreting neurons in the hypothalamus are inhibited and stop secreting TRH. •If this process is disrupted, the Thyroid keeps producing hormones and hyperthyroid disease ensues. Disruption
  • 21. DO YOU KNOW WHERE EACH HORMONE COMES FROM, WHERE IT ACTS, AND WHAT THE ACTION IS? GUESS FIRST, THEN CLICK EACH TO FIND OUT. Progesterone Thyroxine Estrogen Testosterone Cortisol Adrenaline Insulin Done
  • 22. Where it comes from: Adrenal Gland Where it acts: heart, blood vessels, eyes What it does: stimulates heart rate, increases blood pressure, dilates pupils Causes "Adrenaline Rush” A 'fight and flight' hormone.  It is released in high stress conditions or in excitement or fear. Loud noise, high temperature etc. may also trigger its release since these are also high stress situations. Return to hormones slide
  • 23. • Where it comes from: ovary (where an egg was released) • Where it acts: uterus • What it does: controls menstruation in women and plays a role in pregnancy. • One of the components of birth control pills Return to hormones slide
  • 24. Where it comes from: thyroid gland Where it acts: most cells of the body What it does: controls the rate of metabolic processes (how energy is used) in the body and influences physical development People may not produce enough of this hormone and get a condition known as hypothyroidism. They can take thyroxine to treat this condition. Return to hormones slide
  • 25.  Where it comes from: testicles  Where it acts: body-hair cells, muscle, reproductive structures  What it does: stimulates development of male sexual characteristics  Testosterone is a steroid and has been administered to athletes in order to improve performance. This is considered to be a form of doping in most sports and is a very dangerous practice.  Females also produce small amounts of testosterone in their ovaries that affect muscle development and other body functions. Return to hormones slide
  • 26. Where it comes from: ovary Where it acts: breast tissue, reproductive structures in female What it does: stimulates development of female sexual characteristics Estrogen levels may be related somehow to migraine headaches in women. Return to hormones slide
  • 27. Where it comes from: outer part of adrenal gland Where it acts: multiple tissues What it does: mental stimulation, breaks down fat and protein to glucose, anti-inflammation It is usually referred to as the "stress hormone" as it is involved in response to stress and anxiety. Return to hormones slide
  • 28. Where it comes from: Insulin is produced in the pancreas Where it acts: liver, muscle, and fat tissue What it does: Insulin causes cells to take up glucose (sugar) from the blood, storing it in the liver and muscle, and stopping use of fat as an energy source. Problems with insulin production or use in the body can lead to diabetes. Return to hormones slide
  • 29. What are the functions of the Endocrine System? Name 5 Endocrine Glands and what they do. What are hormones? How do hormones work? Name some hormones and what they do. At what times in your life do you think your Endocrine System is most active?

Editor's Notes

  1. Picture from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/33664834@N02/3307321267/
  2. 1. Encourage the students to think about many aspects of how they have changed, from appearance, to how much knowledge they have, to maturity. They may say hair color, hair style, type of clothes they wear, height, intelligence, personality, interests, maturity, friends…. Try to get students to think of social and biological reasons that they have changed. They may say fashions have changed so they changed their style. They may say that their body is causing them to mature and grow. Answers will vary-most will hope to grow taller, mature more, get “smarter.”
  3. Picture from: http://www.childrensdayton.org/images/endo_system2.jpg
  4. Dog picture from: http://animalpetdoctor.homestead.com/pancreas2.jpg Horse picture from: http://www.thehorse.com/images/content/0404/cushingsdiagram.jpg
  5. Point out that there are more endocrine glands, this is just a sample of some.
  6. Because they are in the blood, hormones can get transported to the organs (genitals, brain, blood vessels, etc.).
  7. Picture modified from: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/hormones.html
  8. Nerves and various hormones act on the brain to affect the what the brain does. Such action can affect both behavior and certain control functions of the brain on the body (including feedback control on the level of hormones). External stimuli through the sense organs can also act on the brain to affect what it does. Picture from: http://lh3.ggpht.com/lisa.onizuka/RuK2pQkjzXI/AAAAAAAAG7I/nLrq-VHgYnE/f86ed9857df50f43c9d6b75ab96ace11_full.jpg
  9. The hypothalamus controls the many gland cells in the pituitary by way of secretions from the hypothalamus that get carried by venous blood into the pituitary. Various hormones from the pituitary control many other organs that make hormones. That is why the pituitary is called the “master gland” of the body. The hypothalamus and some neurons in the brainstem supply peripheral nerves that provide automatic and subconscious control over many vital functions, such as blood-vessel diameter, rate and strength of heart beat. This system also can “turn on” the adrenal gland to make adrenalin, a true hormone that raises blood pressure, increases heart rate and strength of contraction. Pictures from http://www.copingskills4kids.net/amazing-brain-facts And http://www.newlifehealthcorporation.com/importance_of_spine.html
  10. They control in different ways. Nerve action is quick (think reflexes) and can be stopped quickly. Hormone action is slower to develop and can last a lot longer.
  11. Ask the students to classify these stimuli as external, internal, or combination of both. Pictures from: http://www.terrylove.com/images/mean_dog.jpg http://ww-recipes.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/weight-watchers-snickers-candy-bar-recipe.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_axq6RYBy3y0/SdhgTpVDTKI/AAAAAAAAAQM/o2qCmfSVHIg/s400/balloon-pop.jpg
  12. Picture from: http://geekswithblogs.net/images/geekswithblogs_net/jkhines/Running_Away.gif
  13. Have students locate the places where there are stimuli and responses. Note that these stimuli are internal (within the body). Point out the places where the pancreas produces insulin when blood sugar is high, but then stops producing insulin when the blood sugar drops. This ties into the activities of building the dog watering device and the cup demonstration activity. Description: A good example of negative feedback is the hormone insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is made by the pancreas. Insulin is released by the pancreas when you eat glucose (a kind of sugar). The glucose goes from your stomach to the blood. The amount of glucose in the blood goes up. The pancreas sees this high glucose level. It makes insulin and releases it into the blood. Then the insulin goes through the whole body and tells cells to take glucose out of the blood. Cells use some of this for energy. But some extra is also saved in the cells to use later. When cells take up glucose from the blood this makes the glucose level go down. The pancreas sees this and stops making insulin. When the pancreas stops sending this message (insulin), the cells in the body stop taking extra glucose out of the blood. So the negative feedback works to keep the blood glucose level normal. If glucose is high, the pancreas makes insulin. The insulin causes the glucose to fall. Then this lower level of glucose tells the pancreas to stop making insulin.
  14. Picture from: http://savvyhealthfitness.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/diabetes_type2.jpg In diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin. Insulin is necessary for the body to be able to use glucose for energy. When you eat food, the body breaks down all of the sugars and starches into glucose, which is the basic fuel for the cells in the body. Insulin takes the sugar from the blood into the cells. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, it can lead to diabetes complications.
  15. You may want to take time to point out the risk factors for diabetes in pets and people. Pictures from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-437832/Now-dogs-obese.html and http://www.pypt.org/downloads/Diabetes%20Poster%201.JPG
  16. Vocabulary: Fetus- The unborn baby calf Uterus-the reproductive organ that holds the developing fetus Cervix- the lower part of the uterus that is tightly closed until birth, upon which it opens to allow the baby to pass through to be born Again, have students identify the stimuli and responses. Description of picture: An example of positive feedback is the hormone that causes childbirth (when babies are born.) The hormone that causes this is oxytocin. When the baby is ready to be born, it stretches the muscle in the cervix (the bottom of the womb.) Nerves in the cervix send a message to the pituitary. This message makes the pituitary release more oxytocin. The oxytocin then causes the muscles of the womb to contract, or squeeze. This causes more stretching in the cervix. This stretching then tells the pituitary to make even more oxytocin. So levels of oxytocin keep rising until the squeezing or contractions of the womb force the baby out. (The womb is also called the uterus.)
  17. Animation from: http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/control.html
  18. In a quiz format, ask students the following questions about each hormone: Where does it come from? Where does it act? What does it do? Have students discuss with teacher leading the discussion and clicking on the hormone links.
  19. Ask students why a person would need increased heart rate, blood pressure, etc. in a time of stress. The answer is that these prepare the person to handle the stress. Adrenaline is also known as epinephrine and is the drug in the Epipen used to treat severe allergic reactions. Picture from: http://www.kenrockwell.com/nikon/d200/images/DSC_3008-skydive.jpg
  20. Picture from: http://www.drjohnthomas.com/images/uterus-and-ovaries-labeled-.gif
  21. Picture from: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_XCCKbBzU0dQ/R4uIOecWkbI/AAAAAAAAAAo/mXuieF1eyls/s320/thyroid1.jpg
  22. The adrenal gland also secretes steroids that affect mineral balance. Picture from: http://www.beliefnet.com/healthandhealing/images/exh45027_ma.jpg
  23. The adrenal gland also secretes steroids that affect mineral balance. Picture from: http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/images/hdc_0001_0003_0_img0191.jpg