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Gopal Krishan
Scientist - C
National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee- 247667, Uttarakhand, India
D.J. Lapworth, Alan MacDonald, Helen Bonsor
BGS, UK
*Corresponding E-mail: drgopal.krishan@gmail.com
Workshop on
“Improving freshwater monitoring frameworks and data for research and
management”
23-25 January, 2018 at Kochi, Kerala
NIH, Roorkee
Ground
water
quality
Northwest
India
What exists?/What do
we Know?
 Rudimentary Physico-chemical
parameters monitored regularly –
various centre/state govt. Agencies,
acad. institute
 Pollution levels increased drastically
due to anthropogenic factors
 Water levels decreased
 Other important parameters
concerning trace metals etc., high
resolution data are limited and
localised on the spatial scale
What is lacking?/Scope for work
 A comprehensive assessment of the
groundwater –
 Rudimentary and special physico-
chemical parameters
 Heavy metals
 Tracer techniques
 High resolution monitoring
 All undertaken in uniform
experimental protocol, temporal and
spatial scale
 Insight about special properties of the
Groundwater – Does these have
properties unique to it like CC
resilience?
 If so, does high level extration impact
these special properties?
Punjab, Haryana, HP,
Uttarakhand, part of
Rajasthan, N.Delhi and
Western UP
GROUNDWATER
Case Studies
Methodology
Motivation
INTRODUCTION (Background to
groundwater challenges)
High abstraction
Recomm
endations
What are the
recharge
potential?
Scrutinizing the
science behind
contamination
of deep aquifers
Water
Resource
Management
Understand overall
environmental impact on the
GW at present - through all
the parameters
Analysis
Attempt to answer
Impact of
pollution on
special properties
Inferences
Recommendations
Future work
NIH, Roorkee
Population growth and prosperity increases
demand for food, but is there enough
water and energy to sustain this?
•More than 80% of the water abstracted in
Northwest India is used for irrigation
•The availability of cheap water has been a
spring board for agriculture
•Water in many areas is becoming
contaminated (F, As, U) or affected by
salinization
•Increasing irrigation efficiency is not
necessarily the answer
It has been estimated that total volume of groundwater to
be about 30,000 km3. About 20 times the combined annual
flow in the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra (1200 km3).
However as estimated, 23% of this is saline and 37%
affected by arsenic.
NIH, Roorkee
Mechanisms of salinity from
canal irrigation in the Indus
Basin
Increased salinity reduces the types of crops
that can be grown; declining groundwater
levels increases pumping costs, energy
requirements and makes shallow wells fail
NIH, Roorkee
NIH, Roorkee
Some major groundwater issues in the region
1. Increased Groundwater Abstraction
• Falling groundwater levels in agricultural areas
•Tension between agricultural and growing ‘high value’ urban and industrial
users
•Uncertainty about the security of deeper fresh water reserves
• Public vs private interests and allocation
2. Water Quality
• Arsenic, fluoride, salinity, microbial contamination from flooding
• Contamination from agriculture and poor sanitation
• Rising salinity levels in groundwater
• Salinisation problems in irrigated soils
NIH, Roorkee
Draft typology map of the Indo-Gangetic Basin
Criteria: Multi-layered, extensive, thick
unconsolidated alluvium aquifer – coarse
sediment
Falling groundwater levels
Groundwater salinity at depth
Extensive irrigation
Surface water groundwater interaction
Resilience:
+High productivity/storage aquifer
+High potential meteoric recharge
-High abstraction including some cities
-- Significant long-term trends in falling water
table
- - Saline groundwater at depth
Regional setting
Highly abstracted unconsolidated layered
alluvial aquifer system
O1: To collate historical water level responses to abstraction across a representative
catchment
O2: To collate new evidence on recharge processes, groundwater quality, groundwater
residence times, and connectivity of the layered aquifer systems and surface water by
repeated sampling of shallow and deep piezometers using a suite of environmental tracers
Q1: Is there evidence from GWL variations of enhanced recharge potential induced by
abstraction?
Q2: Is there evidence of vertical leakage to depth within the layered alluvial system?
Important Environmental Tracers
Stable Isotopes (Recharge sources)
Age Dating Techniques (Groundwater Residence time tracers)
CFCs & SF6
Noble gases
Environmental tritium
Inorganic chemistry: e.g. Cl, NO3 and trace elements
Others
Loggers (water level and conductivity)
Tracer: a substance introduced into a biological organism or other system so
that its subsequent distribution may be readily followed from its colour,
radioactivity, or other distinctive property
Water Quality Parameters
Arsenic, Uranium
Sampling for CFCs, SF6 and stable isotopes
• CFCs and SF6 – modern groundwater
dating tools
• Sample collection by the bottle-in-can
method
• atmospheric air is excluded during
sampling to obtain a representative
sample
• air displacement method for CFCs
and SF6
• specialist techniques and are not
routinely sampled or analysed
CFC sampling
Analysis (rapid and cost-effective )
CFCs and SF6 are measured by gas
chromatography using an electron capture
detector (GC- ECD) following cryogenic pre-
concentration
The detection limit for CFC concentrations in
water is 0.01 pmol/L, while for SF6 it is 0.1
fmol/L
Sampling for noble gases
• Noble gases – thermometry, i.e. recharge
temperature, and excess air assessment
• atmospheric air is excluded during sampling to
obtain a representative sample
• sealed copper tubes for noble gases
• are specialist techniques and are not routinely
sampled or analysed
NIH, Roorkee
• Sampling from paired shallow (<50 mbgl)
and deep (>100 mbgl)
• Pre and post monsoon sampling
Study area – Bist Doab, Punjab, India
NIH, Roorkee
Long-term changes in phreatic GW levels
• Large quantity of data available - CGWB
• Missing meta data is an issue at many sites – e.g.
pumped or observation wells?
NIH, Roorkee
Long-term changes in groundwater levels
Matrix of shallow groundwater security
NIH, Roorkee
Groundwater residence time tracer results
– anthropogenic and natural
NIH, Roorkee
Groundwater nitrate* variations
Depth profiles for selected hydrochemistry for different land use a) SEC (mS/cm), b)
CFC-12, data from Lapworth et al. (2015, (pmol/L), c) DO (mg/L), d) As, e) NO3 (mg/L),
f) F (mg/L), g) Se (mg/L), h) Pb (mg/L). Solid line shows WHO drinking water guideline
values (WHO 2011), dashed line distinguishes deep and shallow sites.
Overall there is a
decrease in
concentration with
depth for all parameters
except As for Urban
sites. For agricultural
sites broad decreases in
concentrations with
depth are observed for
all parameters except F,
Se and As which had no
clear trend with depth.
Highest concentrations
for a range of trace
elements including As,
Pb, Se, and F were found
in sites dominated by
urban/peri-urban land
use, and Pb and NO3
these were close to or
below the WHO
guideline value for
drinking water.
Depth profiles of Uranium and key hydrogeochemical parameters for different land
use a) U (mg/L), b) pH, c) Eh (mV), d) HCO3 (mg/L). Solid line shows WHO drinking
water guideline value of 30 mg/L for Uranium (WHO 2011). Dashed line distinguishes
deep and shallow sites.
Box-plot of selected hydrochemical parameters by land use and borehole depth a) SEC
(mS/cm), b) CFC-12 (pmol/L), c) DO (mg/L), d) pH, e) HCO3 (mg/L), f) U (mg/L), g) NO3
(mg/L), h) Pb (mg/L), i) Cl (mg/L), j) As (mg/L). DAgr = deep agricultural, DUrb = deep urban,
SAgr = Shallow agricultural, SUrb = shallow urban. Solid lines show WHO drinking water
guideline values (WHO 2011).
Stable isotope results • Large overlap between shallow and deep
GW isotope signatures,
• No significant difference between pre-
post monsoon conditions in deep or
shallow sites
• A few shallow sites show evidence of
surface water recharge – R. Beas alluvial
aquifer
• Evaporative enrichment in some shallow
sites
• No evidence of significant recharge from
R. Satluj and related canal system in the
south of the catchment
Evaporation dominated
Precipitation dominated
Satluj canal dominated
• Q1: Long term GWL data shows
evidence of enhanced recharge
potential
• But there are significant parts of
the catchment where abstraction
is outstripping recharge potential
leading to long term loss of
shallow groundwater security –
cost implications for access to
shallow GW
• Q2: Clear evidence, from a range
of independent groundwater
tracers, that there is significant
vertical leakage and recharge from
shallow sources to depth (>150)
mbgl induced by pumping
• The natural regional
groundwater flow regime is highly
perturbed due to pumping and the
system can be considered highly
isotropic under pumped
conditions
• This has implication for long
term groundwater quality
protection of deep aquifers and
water resource management •
Reduced shallow groundwater
levels in some regions is good
news: lower salinity build up, soil
waterlogging and of course
flooding
NIH, Roorkee
Downloading data (04-04-2016 to 06-04-2016) at Saroya, Bhogpur, Kapurthala and
Sultanpur Lodhi
Radon decay
Natural radioactivity (half-life)
in the ground
uranium-238 ⇒ ⇒ radium-226 ⇒
4.5 billion years 1600 years
radon-222 gas has time to leak into the air ⇒⇒
3.8 days
lead-210 ⇒⇒ lead-206
22 years stable
radon progeny (daughters)
radioactive isotopes of lead, bismuth, and polonium can
be inhaled and deposited in the lungs
STUDY AREA
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Funding
BGS-DFID, UK- Indo-gangetic study
BGS, UK
NIH
Dr. S.K. Jain, Director
Dr. N.C. Ghosh, Sc. G & Head, GWHD
Dr. M.S. Rao, Scientist-D, HID
IIT-Roorkee
Dr. Brijesh Yadav
Organizers
Dr. A.K. Sahai
Dr. Harry
Ms Priya Joshi
Thank you
NIH, Roorkee
NIH, Roorkee
Questions ?

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Gopal K - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

  • 1. Gopal Krishan Scientist - C National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee- 247667, Uttarakhand, India D.J. Lapworth, Alan MacDonald, Helen Bonsor BGS, UK *Corresponding E-mail: drgopal.krishan@gmail.com Workshop on “Improving freshwater monitoring frameworks and data for research and management” 23-25 January, 2018 at Kochi, Kerala NIH, Roorkee
  • 2. Ground water quality Northwest India What exists?/What do we Know?  Rudimentary Physico-chemical parameters monitored regularly – various centre/state govt. Agencies, acad. institute  Pollution levels increased drastically due to anthropogenic factors  Water levels decreased  Other important parameters concerning trace metals etc., high resolution data are limited and localised on the spatial scale What is lacking?/Scope for work  A comprehensive assessment of the groundwater –  Rudimentary and special physico- chemical parameters  Heavy metals  Tracer techniques  High resolution monitoring  All undertaken in uniform experimental protocol, temporal and spatial scale  Insight about special properties of the Groundwater – Does these have properties unique to it like CC resilience?  If so, does high level extration impact these special properties? Punjab, Haryana, HP, Uttarakhand, part of Rajasthan, N.Delhi and Western UP
  • 3. GROUNDWATER Case Studies Methodology Motivation INTRODUCTION (Background to groundwater challenges) High abstraction Recomm endations What are the recharge potential? Scrutinizing the science behind contamination of deep aquifers Water Resource Management Understand overall environmental impact on the GW at present - through all the parameters Analysis Attempt to answer Impact of pollution on special properties Inferences Recommendations Future work
  • 4. NIH, Roorkee Population growth and prosperity increases demand for food, but is there enough water and energy to sustain this? •More than 80% of the water abstracted in Northwest India is used for irrigation •The availability of cheap water has been a spring board for agriculture •Water in many areas is becoming contaminated (F, As, U) or affected by salinization •Increasing irrigation efficiency is not necessarily the answer It has been estimated that total volume of groundwater to be about 30,000 km3. About 20 times the combined annual flow in the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra (1200 km3). However as estimated, 23% of this is saline and 37% affected by arsenic.
  • 5. NIH, Roorkee Mechanisms of salinity from canal irrigation in the Indus Basin Increased salinity reduces the types of crops that can be grown; declining groundwater levels increases pumping costs, energy requirements and makes shallow wells fail
  • 7. NIH, Roorkee Some major groundwater issues in the region 1. Increased Groundwater Abstraction • Falling groundwater levels in agricultural areas •Tension between agricultural and growing ‘high value’ urban and industrial users •Uncertainty about the security of deeper fresh water reserves • Public vs private interests and allocation 2. Water Quality • Arsenic, fluoride, salinity, microbial contamination from flooding • Contamination from agriculture and poor sanitation • Rising salinity levels in groundwater • Salinisation problems in irrigated soils
  • 8. NIH, Roorkee Draft typology map of the Indo-Gangetic Basin Criteria: Multi-layered, extensive, thick unconsolidated alluvium aquifer – coarse sediment Falling groundwater levels Groundwater salinity at depth Extensive irrigation Surface water groundwater interaction Resilience: +High productivity/storage aquifer +High potential meteoric recharge -High abstraction including some cities -- Significant long-term trends in falling water table - - Saline groundwater at depth Regional setting Highly abstracted unconsolidated layered alluvial aquifer system O1: To collate historical water level responses to abstraction across a representative catchment O2: To collate new evidence on recharge processes, groundwater quality, groundwater residence times, and connectivity of the layered aquifer systems and surface water by repeated sampling of shallow and deep piezometers using a suite of environmental tracers Q1: Is there evidence from GWL variations of enhanced recharge potential induced by abstraction? Q2: Is there evidence of vertical leakage to depth within the layered alluvial system?
  • 9. Important Environmental Tracers Stable Isotopes (Recharge sources) Age Dating Techniques (Groundwater Residence time tracers) CFCs & SF6 Noble gases Environmental tritium Inorganic chemistry: e.g. Cl, NO3 and trace elements Others Loggers (water level and conductivity) Tracer: a substance introduced into a biological organism or other system so that its subsequent distribution may be readily followed from its colour, radioactivity, or other distinctive property Water Quality Parameters Arsenic, Uranium
  • 10. Sampling for CFCs, SF6 and stable isotopes • CFCs and SF6 – modern groundwater dating tools • Sample collection by the bottle-in-can method • atmospheric air is excluded during sampling to obtain a representative sample • air displacement method for CFCs and SF6 • specialist techniques and are not routinely sampled or analysed CFC sampling Analysis (rapid and cost-effective ) CFCs and SF6 are measured by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector (GC- ECD) following cryogenic pre- concentration The detection limit for CFC concentrations in water is 0.01 pmol/L, while for SF6 it is 0.1 fmol/L
  • 11. Sampling for noble gases • Noble gases – thermometry, i.e. recharge temperature, and excess air assessment • atmospheric air is excluded during sampling to obtain a representative sample • sealed copper tubes for noble gases • are specialist techniques and are not routinely sampled or analysed
  • 12. NIH, Roorkee • Sampling from paired shallow (<50 mbgl) and deep (>100 mbgl) • Pre and post monsoon sampling Study area – Bist Doab, Punjab, India
  • 13. NIH, Roorkee Long-term changes in phreatic GW levels • Large quantity of data available - CGWB • Missing meta data is an issue at many sites – e.g. pumped or observation wells?
  • 14. NIH, Roorkee Long-term changes in groundwater levels Matrix of shallow groundwater security
  • 15. NIH, Roorkee Groundwater residence time tracer results – anthropogenic and natural
  • 17. Depth profiles for selected hydrochemistry for different land use a) SEC (mS/cm), b) CFC-12, data from Lapworth et al. (2015, (pmol/L), c) DO (mg/L), d) As, e) NO3 (mg/L), f) F (mg/L), g) Se (mg/L), h) Pb (mg/L). Solid line shows WHO drinking water guideline values (WHO 2011), dashed line distinguishes deep and shallow sites. Overall there is a decrease in concentration with depth for all parameters except As for Urban sites. For agricultural sites broad decreases in concentrations with depth are observed for all parameters except F, Se and As which had no clear trend with depth. Highest concentrations for a range of trace elements including As, Pb, Se, and F were found in sites dominated by urban/peri-urban land use, and Pb and NO3 these were close to or below the WHO guideline value for drinking water.
  • 18. Depth profiles of Uranium and key hydrogeochemical parameters for different land use a) U (mg/L), b) pH, c) Eh (mV), d) HCO3 (mg/L). Solid line shows WHO drinking water guideline value of 30 mg/L for Uranium (WHO 2011). Dashed line distinguishes deep and shallow sites.
  • 19. Box-plot of selected hydrochemical parameters by land use and borehole depth a) SEC (mS/cm), b) CFC-12 (pmol/L), c) DO (mg/L), d) pH, e) HCO3 (mg/L), f) U (mg/L), g) NO3 (mg/L), h) Pb (mg/L), i) Cl (mg/L), j) As (mg/L). DAgr = deep agricultural, DUrb = deep urban, SAgr = Shallow agricultural, SUrb = shallow urban. Solid lines show WHO drinking water guideline values (WHO 2011).
  • 20. Stable isotope results • Large overlap between shallow and deep GW isotope signatures, • No significant difference between pre- post monsoon conditions in deep or shallow sites • A few shallow sites show evidence of surface water recharge – R. Beas alluvial aquifer • Evaporative enrichment in some shallow sites • No evidence of significant recharge from R. Satluj and related canal system in the south of the catchment Evaporation dominated Precipitation dominated Satluj canal dominated
  • 21. • Q1: Long term GWL data shows evidence of enhanced recharge potential • But there are significant parts of the catchment where abstraction is outstripping recharge potential leading to long term loss of shallow groundwater security – cost implications for access to shallow GW • Q2: Clear evidence, from a range of independent groundwater tracers, that there is significant vertical leakage and recharge from shallow sources to depth (>150) mbgl induced by pumping • The natural regional groundwater flow regime is highly perturbed due to pumping and the system can be considered highly isotropic under pumped conditions • This has implication for long term groundwater quality protection of deep aquifers and water resource management • Reduced shallow groundwater levels in some regions is good news: lower salinity build up, soil waterlogging and of course flooding
  • 23. Downloading data (04-04-2016 to 06-04-2016) at Saroya, Bhogpur, Kapurthala and Sultanpur Lodhi
  • 24. Radon decay Natural radioactivity (half-life) in the ground uranium-238 ⇒ ⇒ radium-226 ⇒ 4.5 billion years 1600 years radon-222 gas has time to leak into the air ⇒⇒ 3.8 days lead-210 ⇒⇒ lead-206 22 years stable radon progeny (daughters) radioactive isotopes of lead, bismuth, and polonium can be inhaled and deposited in the lungs
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding BGS-DFID, UK- Indo-gangetic study BGS, UK NIH Dr. S.K. Jain, Director Dr. N.C. Ghosh, Sc. G & Head, GWHD Dr. M.S. Rao, Scientist-D, HID IIT-Roorkee Dr. Brijesh Yadav Organizers Dr. A.K. Sahai Dr. Harry Ms Priya Joshi