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Krishnaswamy J - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

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Krishnaswamy J - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

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Krishnaswamy J - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

  1. 1. Future of India’s rivers: Challenges and Opportunities Jagdish Krishnaswamy
  2. 2. Scientist team Mike Bonell, Jagdish Krishnaswamy, Ravi S Bhalla, Shrinivas Badiger, John Rowan, Nick A Chappell, Wlodek Tych, Srinivas Vaidyanathan, Mahesh Sankaran, Susan Varghese, Naresh Vissa, Trevor Page, Tim Jones & Ciaran Broderick Hydrologic & carbon services in the Western Ghats: Response of forests & agro-ecosystems to extreme rainfall events Rainstorm over Aghanashini experimental basins 27 August 2015
  3. 3. CHANSE: Coupled Human And Natural Systems Environment for water management under uncertainty in the Indo-Gangetic Plain
  4. 4. Riverine and Riparian ecosystems
  5. 5. Fluvial Processes “the great sculptor of the riverscape”
  6. 6. River-floodplain habitats: Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary, Bhagalpur, Bihar
  7. 7. 1976 1994 2015 2001 0____________25km Flooding extent (2013) River channel changes
  8. 8. Etroplus suratensis Tidal effect: Salinity ingress Microphis cuncalis Eubleekeria splendens Aplocheilus lineatus Devario malabaricus Lutjanus russeli Salmophasia boopis Direction of freshwater flow Fish Migrate upstream to spawn Sardinella fimbrataRasbora daniconius
  9. 9. Transformations • Hydro-climatology • Hydrologic alterations • Sediment dynamics
  10. 10. Recent changes in Rainfall 1951-2007 June-November
  11. 11. Recent changes in Rainfall 1951-2007 June-November
  12. 12. Chaitanya, A. V. S. et al. Salinity measurements collected by fishermen reveal a ‘river in the sea’ flowing along the east coast of India. Bull. Am. Meteorol Soc. (2014) doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00243.1
  13. 13. Etroplus suratensis Tidal effect: Salinity ingress Microphis cuncalis Eubleekeria splendens Aplocheilus lineatus Devario malabaricus Lutjanus russeli Salmophasia boopis Direction of freshwater flow Fish Migrate upstream to spawn Sardinella fimbrataRasbora daniconius
  14. 14. Hydro-power and transformation of river-estuary ecology
  15. 15. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 00:05:00 01:30:00 02:55:00 04:20:00 05:45:00 07:10:00 08:35:00 10:00:00 11:25:00 12:50:00 14:15:00 15:40:00 17:05:00 18:30:00 19:55:00 21:20:00 22:45:00 Minihydel projects: “Green-wash”
  16. 16. River inter-linking will rip through 180 km through PAs, 1100 km through forests
  17. 17. Panna Tiger Reserve Inter-Linking of Rivers (ILR) Estimated submergence due to Ken-Betwa Link
  18. 18. Panna Tiger Reserve Submergence zone Inter-Linking of Rivers (ILR) Estimated submergence due to Ken-Betwa Link
  19. 19. Market surveys Artesinal fisheries and associated livelihoods
  20. 20. Waterways and the wholesale modification of India’s Rivers Almost 90% of endangered Ganges river dolphin habitat is in danger Birds like Indian skimmer that depend on undisturbed river stretches will be further threatened Of the last 4 wild breeding populations of critically endangered gharials in the world, 2 are planned for full conversion to waterways There is already very little water in most of the peninsular rivers for waterways Points in red indicate extents of the 111 waterways
  21. 21. River dredging and channelization for waterways • Dredging of river sediment can release contaminants and pollutants into the river water including Arsenic • Displace native fish habitat and river fisheries and local boat traffic that supports 10-12 Million people in Ganga basin alone • Dredging of river bottoms can significantly alter sediment deposition and riverine habitats for endangered species • River dolphins acoustic signals are disturbed by heavy boat traffic and under-water noise (Kelkar et al. 2017)
  22. 22. Invasive fish species found in Indian rivers Rainbow trout: Teesta & WG Common carp: Arunachal & WG Red bellied Piranha: Godavari Mozambique Tilapia: Chalakudy African catfish: Yamuna riverCommon carp: Ganga river Silver carp: Subansiri Giant Gourami: Adyar river Sucker mouth armored catfish: Cauvery river
  23. 23. Challenges • Indian rivers have undergone and are likely to undergo large scale transformations due to human activities and climate change • The complex interactions of climate change, land- use change and hydrologic and sediment alterations are already having major impacts on distribution and demographics of many aquatic species and ecosystem services • Need multi-disciplinary studies on policies, mitigation and management responses
  24. 24. Case study and success story
  25. 25. Estimating Ecological Flows: Son River / Son Gharial Sanctuary
  26. 26. Estimating Ecological Flows: Son River / Son Gharial Sanctuary Threatened flagship species of Son Gharial Sanctuary Images: Tarun Nair, turtlesurvival.org, M.V. Shreeram Gharial Gavialis gangeticus IUCN: Critically Endangered Narrow-headed softshell turtle Chitra indica IUCN: Endangered Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis IUCN: Vulnerable Second longest (~ 210 km) riverine protected area in India. One of only 4 known breeding populations of gharials in India.
  27. 27. Images: Tarun Nair A. Installation of Capacitive Water Level Recorder on the Sone River’s tributaries B & C. Measurement of discharge and cross sectional area for use of Manning’s equation A C B
  28. 28. Damage to gharial nest with eggs Submergence of skimmer breeding habitat on island, due to unseasonal and sudden release of water from the dam
  29. 29. Discharge locations and estimates for Son, Banas and Gopad Rivers; Son Gharial Sanctuary (January - February 2015)
  30. 30. What was achieved • Instrumented and quantitative and field based study of managing regulated flows from a dam for minimizing ecological damage • First ever experimental release of water from a dam with downstream ecological measurements • A model for managing ecological flows in an adaptive frame-work
  31. 31. CHANSE project updates: 24th August 2017 Jagdish Krishnaswamy, Tarun Nair, Nachiket Kelkar
  32. 32. Endangered biodiversity persisting alongside irrigation water use Sugarcane: sugar factories in the area are a big draw Intensive melon cultivation on floodplains Wheat crop nearing harvest time
  33. 33. Sampling design for field data collection: Gandak River Three sampling blocks Each block with known and working CWC gauging sites, sites for monitoring ecological flows and habitat quality Coverage across the command areas and canal divisions Gandak River basin, Bihar and UP, India
  34. 34. Gharial, Gandak River, April 2014 © Tarun Nair, ATREE
  35. 35. Updates: CHANSE project
  36. 36. Survey in near-natural flow condition • Barrage flow release timings: 25 Oct - 25 Dec 2017 for canal maintenance and repairs • Surveys done in middle of this period: 10 Nov - 03 Dec , when the flow could be called near-natural • Estimated discharge from barrage approx. 370 cumecs
  37. 37. The Gandak is a “losing river” Distance from barrage (km) Estimateddischarge(m3/s)
  38. 38. Gharial distribution and habitat mapping in the Gandak N E P A L I N D I A
  39. 39. N E P A L I N D I A River dolphin distribution and habitat mapping in the Gandak
  40. 40. Agriculture: inefficient and excess irrigation • Currently, irrigation is about 25% in excess of actual crop needs in the Gangetic Basin (HydroFlux India*) • Can these wastages be avoided and the water utilized for maintenance of river ecosystem services and biodiversity? *HydroFlux India was a 3-year Indo-UK research project to study climate-land use-hydrology linkages in the Gangetic basin. More details can be found here http://paramo.cc.ic.ac.uk/india/ Source: WWF-India
  41. 41. Solution space • Linking water use efficiency in agriculture and industry to restoring ecological flows in representative sites • Experimental and observational studies and modelling on regulated releases from dams and barrages • Treated waste-water and managed wetlands as in urban and peri-urban areas for ecological revival
  42. 42. Acknowledgements • Tarun Nair, Shishir Rao, Nachiket Kelkar, Vidyadhar Atkore, Shivona Bhojwani and Srinivas Vaidyanathan • Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India and Indo-UK Water Centre

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