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McKenzie A - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18


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McKenzie A - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

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McKenzie A - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

  1. 1. © NERC All rights reserved Groundwater and water resources – UK India collaborations under the Newton Bhaba initiative. Andrew McKenzie British Geological Survey
  2. 2. © NERC All rights reserved Outline • What is Newton Bhaba? • The Changing Water Cycle projects • Hydroflux – water and climate in the Upper Ganga • The Sustaining Water Resources projects • UPSCAPE – integrated modelling of the Cauvery basin • Making research accessible
  3. 3. © NERC All rights reserved What is Newton Bhaba? • The Newton Bhabha Fund aims to bring together the UK and Indian scientific research and innovation sectors to find joint solutions to the challenges facing India in economic development and social welfare. • How it works: • People: building skills and capacity through training and people exchanges; • Programmes: research collaboration on development topics; • Translation: taking innovation from universities to industry. • What it does: • Sustainable Cities and Rapid Urbanisation • Public Health and Well being • Energy Water Food Nexus 400 Crore Rupees over 5 years
  4. 4. © NERC All rights reserved Acknowledgements (in advance)
  5. 5. © NERC All rights reserved Thinking about outputs and impact The plan The reality Two roads diverged in a wood – I took the one less travelled by and that has made all the difference Two roads diverged in a wood – I took the one less travelled by and now I’m completely lost
  6. 6. © NERC All rights reserved Changing Water Cycle 2012 - 2016 • Mitigating climate change impacts on India agriculture through improved Irrigation water Management • Hydrometeorological feedbacks and changes in water storage and fluxes in northern India • The structure and dynamics of groundwater systems in north-western India under past, present and future climates • Hydrologic and carbon services in the Western Ghats: Response of forests and agro-ecosystems to extreme rainfall events • South Asian Precipitation: A Seamless Assessment: SAPRISE
  7. 7. © NERC All rights reserved Hydroflux - Hydrometeorological feedbacks and changes in water storage and fluxes in northern India • Aim was to integrate climate, land use, surface water and groundwater models, concentrating on the middle and upper Ganga • Project was model led: • Identify model • Define what data is needed • Find existing data • Create new datasets to plug the gaps • Iterate
  8. 8. © NERC All rights reserved Hydroflux - Climate How are climate, land use change and water resources linked? Do changes in land use feedback into changes in climate? Two soil moisture maps for the same timeframe. Project catalysed the development, by IISC, of a satellite based, high spatial/temporal resolution soil moisture dataset that can be used as an input to rainfall/runoff models, whether analysing past events or for forecasting
  9. 9. © NERC All rights reserved Hydroflux – Soil moisture and irrigation If we develop a good spatial time series of soil moisture, and we know how much it’s rained – areas that have soil moisture in the dry season must be irrigating! To interpret the spatial datasets we need data on the relative balance between surface water command areas and an understanding of conjunctive use
  10. 10. © NERC All rights reserved Hydroflux - Land use How has land use changed, and how will it change in the future? Predicting future landuse, 2020-2040. Using available land cover datasets and remote sensing. Developed a new (national) land cover dataset, and a framework (and R package [lulcc]) for modelling future change.
  11. 11. © NERC All rights reserved Hydroflux - Runoff How does land use and climate affect streamflow? Modelling suggested climate change >> land use change, but this is at field level, and changes in the major interventions – dams, irrigation and urban abstraction
  12. 12. © NERC All rights reserved
  13. 13. © NERC All rights reserved Hydroflux - Groundwater What controls groundwater? Climate, land use, aquifer characteristics, abstraction Existing maps and new interpretations developed to better understand aquifer heterogeneity, fieldwork to understand how farmers use water
  14. 14. © NERC All rights reserved Hydroflux - Groundwater Statistical approaches to understanding aquifer heterogenity In this analysis k-mean clustering has been used on hydrographs with at least 10 years of data to identify common behaviours
  15. 15. © NERC All rights reserved Hydroflux - Farmers and groundwater How do farmers actually use groundwater? Unable to get good data on canal water use vs conjunctive groundwater – interviews with 100 farmers to get at the facts
  16. 16. © NERC All rights reserved Hydroflux - Integrating models Integrating models In these images a groundwater mode is used to simulate soil moisture, integrating our knowledge of land use, climate, irrigation, recent soil moisture, abstraction etc. It shows the massive change in the upper Ganga over the last half century 1951-60 2000-01
  17. 17. © NERC All rights reserved
  18. 18. © NERC All rights reserved Sustaining Water Resources 2016 - 2020 • Coupled Human And Natural Systems Environment (CHANSE) for water management under uncertainty in the Indo-Gangetic Plain • Sustaining Himalayan Water Resources in a Changing Climate (SusHi-Wat) • Upscaling Catchment Processes for Sustainable Water Management in Peninsular India (UPSCAPE)
  19. 19. © NERC All rights reserved Upscaling Catchment Processes for Sustainable Water Management in Peninsular India (UPSCAPE) • How do human interventions, at various scales, in the hydrological landscape interact to influence the water resources of the Cauvery basin • Project is process led: • Catalogue interventions • Assess our understanding of each one • Field experiments to narrow uncertainty • Field scale models • Basin scale models
  20. 20. © NERC All rights reserved Upscape - Measuring soil moisture Rainfall, evaporation, crop demand are key issues. How can we measure these at various scales? For this we are looking at detailed mapping, inventories and instrumented catchments – IISC’s Berambhadi catchment has multiple sensors, including this ‘COSMOS’ cosmic ray soil moisture probe.
  21. 21. © NERC All rights reserved Upscape - Rural interventions How do small scale interventions in the rural environment affect the hydrological cycle? A small check dam near Bangalore – we have seen these spaced 100 metres apart along small streams, and many tanks and even larger dams no longer ‘cascade’ in monsoon. Work on mapping interventions, through satellite imagery, census data, and instrumented measurements of storage
  22. 22. © NERC All rights reserved Upscape - Geological heterogeneity ‘It’s all Peninsular Gneiss – so we don’t have to think about geology!’ Fracture density is structurally controlled and highly variable. A key question is how connected are fractures one to another. Isotopic tracers, and borehole dilution tests help constrain models to explore connectivity.
  23. 23. © NERC All rights reserved Upscape - Urban hydrology How do towns change the natural hydrology. Quantifying imports, groundwater use, sewage discharges and interactions between lakes and groundwater! Measuring flow and water quality in an urban lake in Bangalore for water balance. Simultaneous observations made in borewells next to the lakes..
  24. 24. © NERC All rights reserved Upscape - Urban groundwater Do deep boreholes react differently from shallow boreholes? Installing continuous water level recorders in shallow and deep wells Installations and sampling areas (indicated by s coding of squares can be ignored) % water supply from BHs Kaikondrah alli Lake Sankay Tank Allalasandr a Lake Lalbagh Lake
  25. 25. © NERC All rights reserved Upscape - Scaling up models We can calibrate and model processes at small scales, but how do we make sure those processes are faithfully reproduced in large scale models? Field/catchment models 10- 100 km2 50 metre grid cells Basin models 10- 100 km2 50 metre grid cells
  26. 26. © NERC All rights reserved
  27. 27. © NERC All rights reserved Where next? India UK Water Quality Program 2018 - 2022 • Innovative low-cost optical sensor platform for water quality monitoring • Fate and Management of Emerging Contaminants • Impact of rainwater harvesting in India on groundwater quality with specific reference to fluoride and micropollutants • Rehabilitation of Vibrio Infested waters of Vembanad Lake: pollution and solution • Future Secular Changes & Remediation of Groundwater Arsenic in the Ganga River Basin • The development and implementation of sensors and treatment technologies for freshwater systems in India • Pathways and evolution of pollutants: Interactions between physical controlling effects, microbial community composition and pollutant biodegradation • Antimicrobial resistance and pollutants: interactive studies and novel sensor technologies
  28. 28. © NERC All rights reserved In summary! Our planned destination! Where we ended up! 6 successful trips to the moon – but none since 1972 Global Teflon market US$ 2.9 Billion!
  29. 29. © NERC All rights reserved Known knowns and known unknowns • Rainfall • Temperature • Potential Evapotranspiration • Surface runoff • Reservoir storage • Land use • Industrial demand • Domestic demand • Leakage from pipes • Water quality • Aquifer geometry, changes in groundwater storage • Agricultural demand, irrigation efficiency Uncertainty • Institutions and regulation • Investment in monitoring • Climate change • Technology • Data accessibility • Wilful blindness!
  30. 30. © NERC All rights reserved Stakeholders and users HYDROFLUX • Academic papers • No formal stakeholder engagement • Project workshops relatively high level • PI/Co-I involvement in Central Government ‘Clean Ganga’ mission UPSCAPE • Academic papers • Formal work package on understanding stakeholder needs • More active involvement of social scientists in dissemination • Stakeholder workshops • Semi-structured interviews • Planning to take results to users via ‘road shows’ • ?
  31. 31. © NERC All rights reserved Collaboration People Meetings (like this) Research exchanges Students Programmes Government Development Banks Other groups Translation Publishing Demonstration
  32. 32. © NERC All rights reserved “El agua, el origen de la vida” ध�वाद ന�ി