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Dr Mark Everard - Day 2- Lancaster Sep18

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Dr Mark Everard - Day 2- Lancaster Sep18

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Dr Mark Everard - Day 2- Lancaster Sep18

  1. 1. Dr Mark Everard Associate Professor of Ecosystem Services, UWE Bristol Reversing the cycle: Water scarcity trends, interlinked vulnerabilities and potential solutions  in a complex dry land Indian catchment: the Banas system, Rajasthan
  2. 2.  Stewardship = resource exploitation + regeneration  Trends in the Banas catchment  Community‐based regeneration in Rajasthan  Upscaling co‐benefits in the Banas catchment …and beyond What we’ll cover today…
  3. 3. European marine fisheries MSY ?
  4. 4. UK ‘sustainable abstraction’
  5. 5. Historic Indian water management • 4.5 millennia of innovative water management o Adaptation to episodic monsoon rains o Wealth of traditional, local knowledge • Community‐based, local groundwater recharge o Tanks, johadi, eris, taanka, rehats, beris, etc. + forest management
  6. 6. Desert or wetland?
  7. 7. Profound changes • Demographics • Urbanisation • Land uses • Climate change • Mechanisation o Tube wells o Dam‐and‐transfer • Marketisation • Governance • Economics
  8. 8. Governance and ownership • State ownership of water • State control of water management o Dispossession from local people o Collapse of traditional, local management and community collaboration o Loss of traditional knowledge
  9. 9. Tube wells and energisation • Private exploitation of water o Receding aquifers o Those with resources pump deepest • Cheap/free electricity to farmers o Absurd economically and equitably • No incentive for recharge o Cycles of socio‐ecological degradation o Village abandonment • Competition, not collaboration Technology and economics
  10. 10. Outcomes for catchment functions Social • Abandonment of recharge • Loss of community cohesion • Loss of traditional wisdom • Drying wells • Fluorosis, As and saline water • Village abandonment • Urban / irrigation vulnerability FCl Environmental • Declining aquifers • Contaminated water • Fragmented river • Drying reservoir • Biodiversity loss Technology / policy • Tube wells replace recharge • Energy costs low • Ready access • Deeper withdrawals Economic • Short‐term stimuli • Long‐term vulnerabilities A degrading socio‐ecological cycle
  11. 11. • Stewardship = resource exploitation + regeneration  Trends in the Banas catchment  Community‐based regeneration in Rajasthan  Upscaling co‐benefits in the Banas catchment …and beyond What we’ll cover today…
  12. 12. What and where is the Banas? Arid or semi‐arid
  13. 13.  Formerly community recharge  Mechanised tube wells  Resort development  Inaccessible water  Fluorosis and salinity  Village abandonment Issues in the rural upper Banas
  14. 14. Bisalpur Dam on the middle Banas  Built for local uses (1987)  Urban appropriation (2006‐9)  Habitat fragmentation  Urban and rural vulnerability  No dam releases  Declining quantity/quality
  15. 15. Jaipur City’s thirsty history • Semi‐arid zone of Rajasthan • 3.5 million now, 4.2 million by 2025 • Over‐abstraction depresses groundwater • Contamination of local sources • Ramgarh Reservoir, 32 km to NE • Built 1897 for local supply, irrigation, fishery • Diverted to Jaipur 1952, enlarged in phases • Ramgarh Lake dry since 2000 • Bisalpur Dam, 120km to SW • Built 1987 for local irrigation and supply • Diverted to Jaipur 2006‐2009, enlarged in phases • Rarely fills, rising fluoride and salt concentrations Where next?  A broken model, with serious linked vulnerabilities
  16. 16.  Formerly connected  Water insecurity  Food insecurity  Wildlife‐human conflict  Reduced flow to Chambal  River fragmentation Impacts on the lower Banas
  17. 17. Tightly linked vulnerabilities RURAL URBAN IRRIGATION WILDLIFE TOURISM All facets of a tightly linked, multi‐faceted socio‐ecological system (SES)
  18. 18. Compounded by: • Rising human population • Lifestyle change • Changing climate ‘Wicked’ problems in the Banas Interconnected factors (STEEP): • Social • Technological • Environmental • Economic • Political
  19. 19.  Stewardship = resource exploitation + regeneration  Trends in the Banas catchment  Community‐based regeneration in Rajasthan  Upscaling co‐benefits in the Banas catchment …and beyond What we’ll cover today…
  20. 20. Community‐based catchment restoration Alwar District, North Rajasthan Everard, M. (2015). Community‐based groundwater and ecosystem  restoration in semi‐arid north Rajasthan (1): socio‐economic progress  and lessons for groundwater‐dependent areas. Ecosystem Services,  16, pp.125–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.10.011. Learning from 4,500 years of water wisdom • Geographically and culturally attuned
  21. 21. Gopalpura
  22. 22. Chabutra Wala
  23. 23. Golakabass
  24. 24. Tilda
  25. 25. Rudmal Meena, headman, Harmeerpur village
  26. 26. Jabar Sagar
  27. 27. Jabar Sagar
  28. 28. Mandalwass
  29. 29. Tilda
  30. 30. Mandalwass, lower impoundment
  31. 31. Tilda
  32. 32. Golakabass
  33. 33. Tilda
  34. 34.  Stewardship = resource exploitation + regeneration  Trends in the Banas catchment  Community‐based regeneration in Rajasthan  Upscaling co‐benefits in the Banas catchment …and beyond What we’ll cover today…
  35. 35. Kumbhalgarh Fort Rajsamand Ranakpur Bhilwara Bisalpur Dam 25.923878oN, 75.455738oE Tonk Sawai Madhopur 50 kmAjmer Current water management in the upper catchment: • Mechanised over‐exploitation of groundwater is currently degrading water/river  flows and quality, creating vulnerabilities for local people and ecosystems Urban appropriation of water from the Bisalpur Dam: • Declining quantity and quality of water entering the dam from upstream  creates vulnerabilities for the dam’s urban and irrigation beneficiaries Downstream reaches of the catchment: • Starvation of flows downstream creates  vulnerabilities for ecosystems and communities Rajasthan state A degenerative socio‐ecological cycle
  36. 36. Kumbhalgarh Fort Rajsamand Ranakpur Bhilwara Bisalpur Dam 25.923878oN, 75.455738oE Tonk Sawai Madhopur 50 kmAjmer Potential future water management in the upper catchment: • Refocusing management on groundwater recharge during  monsoon run‐off could rebuild catchment resources,  benefitting multiple constituencies down the river Reinvestment in ecosystem processes by beneficiaries from the Bisalpur Dam: • Recharge and regeneration of water resources in the Banas upstream could  secure benefits enjoyed by the dam’s urban and irrigation beneficiaries Downstream reaches of the catchment: • Upstream and local recharge, and implementation  of Environmental Flow releases from the dam, can  result reduce current vulnerabilities Rajasthan state Creating a regenerative socio‐ecological cycle Everard, M., Sharma, O.P., Vishwakarma, V.K., Khandal, D., Sahu, Y.K., Bhatnagar, R., Singh, J., Kumar, R., Nawab, A., Kumar, A., Kumar, V., Kashyap, A.,  Pandey, D.N. and Pinder, A. (2018). Assessing the feasibility of integrating ecosystem‐based with engineered water resource governance and management  for water security in semi‐arid landscapes: a case study in the Banas Catchment, Rajasthan, India. Science of the Total Environment, 612, pp.1249‐1265.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717322726.
  37. 37. STEEP: • Social: Rebuilding community collaboration, recognising all stakeholders are linked as equal co‐dependents • Technological: Technology usage balancing recharge with extraction, linking nature‐based and engineered • Environmental: Understanding natural recharge rates and other processes • Economic: Balancing benefits and costs, with economic measures to sustain the whole system • Political: Nested governance across scales, from local self‐benefit to catchment‐scale vision ‘Big picture’ solutions SUSTAINABLE HYBRIDISATION: • Infrastructure: • Natural processes, valuing fundamental ‘capital’ • Tradition wisdom (reinterpreted) • ‘Green’ technology • ‘Hard’ engineering • Simultaneously realising self‐benefit + catchment benefits
  38. 38. Background Everard, M., Sharma, O.P., Vishwakarma, V.K., Khandal, D., Sahu, Y.K., Bhatnagar, R., Singh, J., Kumar, R., Nawab, A.,  Kumar, A., Kumar, V., Kashyap, A., Pandey, D.N. and Pinder, A. (2018). Assessing the feasibility of integrating  ecosystem‐based with engineered water resource governance and management for water security in semi‐arid  landscapes: a case study in the Banas Catchment, Rajasthan, India. Science of the Total Environment, 612, pp.1249‐ 1265. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717322726.
  39. 39. Wise Water Solutions in Rajasthan Sharma, O.P. and Everard, M. (2018). Wise Water Solutions in Rajasthan.  WaterHarvest, Udaipur, India.
  40. 40. Regeneration of the Banas‐Bisalpur Socio‐ecological Complex Multi‐stakeholder workshop: 4th–6th December 2017 Kindly sponsored by Wetlands International- South Asia Office (India) Endorsed by Government of Rajasthan:  Mukya Mantri Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan (MJSA) Progressing the Banas programme
  41. 41. Building on political levers How to influence across policy sectors?
  42. 42. Everard, M., Sharma, O.P., Vishwakarma, V.K., Khandal, D., Sahu, Y.K., Bhatnagar, R., Singh, J.,  Kumar, R., Nawab, A., Kumar, A., Kumar, V., Kashyap, A., Pandey, D.N. and Pinder, A. (2018).  Assessing the feasibility of integrating ecosystem‐based with engineered water resource  governance and management for water security in semi‐arid landscapes: a case study in the  Banas Catchment, Rajasthan, India. Science of the Total Environment, 612, pp.1249‐1265.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717322726. Everard, M. (2015). Community‐based groundwater and ecosystem restoration in semi‐arid  north Rajasthan (1): socio‐economic progress and lessons for groundwater‐dependent areas.  Ecosystem Services, 16, pp.125–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.10.011. UN Water. (2018). World Water Development Report 2018: Nature‐based Solutions for Water.  UN Water. http://www.unwater.org/publications/world‐water‐development‐report‐2018/. Everard, M. (2013). The Hydropolitics of Dams: Engineering or Ecosystems? Zed Books, London. Sharma, O.P. and Everard, M. (2018). Wise Water Solutions in Rajasthan. WaterHarvest, Udaipur,  India. Further reading
  43. 43. Dr Mark Everard Associate Professor of Ecosystem Services, UWE Bristol Reversing the cycle: Water scarcity trends, interlinked vulnerabilities and potential solutions  in a complex dry land Indian catchment: the Banas system, Rajasthan

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