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Excretion
Brianna & Keonna
Overview
 The balance of water in the body
  depends on the rate of exchange of
  solute between internal body fluids
  and the external environment.
 Excretory Systems are key to
  homeostasis because the dispose of
  metabolic wastes, and control body
  fluid composition.
Nitrogenous Wastes
 Animals excrete nitrogenous wastes
  as ammonia, urea or uric acid
 Animals that excrete ammonia need
  access to lots of water because
  ammonia can only be tolerated in low
  concentrations
 Urea combines ammonia with carbon
  dioxide, and it has a very low toxicity
    ◦ Excreted by vertebrate
      mammals, turtles, amphibians, sharks, etc
      .
 Insects, birds, snails, and many
  reptiles uric acid which is essentially
  non toxic.
 Its non toxicity makes it
  hydrophobic, thus it can be excreted
  without much water loss.
 Requires more ATP to the synthesize
  from ammonia.
Excretory Processes
   Most animals produce fluid waste
    known as Urine
    ◦ Body fluid (i.e. Blood) comes in contact
      with a selectively permeable membrane of
      the transport epithelium
    ◦ Filtration is driven by hydrostatic
      pressure (blood pressure)
      Water, small salts, sugars, nitrogenous
       wastes, and amino acids are removed from
       body fluids to create filtrate
 Filtrate is converted into fluid waste
  when reabsorption places useful
  materials from the filtrate back into the
  blood stream by active tranport.
 Selective Secretion pumps
  nonessential solutes and wastes into
  the filtrate by active transport.
Excretory Systems
   Excretory systems vary widely among
    animal groups
    ◦ Flatworms that lack a coelom or body
      cavity have protonephridia which form
      network of dead end tubules connected to
      external openings
    ◦ Annelids (ex: earthworms) have
      metanephridia, excretory organs that
      open internally to the coelom
 Insects and terrestrial anthropods
  have Malpighian tubules which
  extend from dead end tips to the
  digestive tract
 Kidneys are present in vertebrates
  and chordates
    ◦ Consist of highly organized tubules
      associated with a network of capillaries
    ◦ Ducts and other structures carry urine
      from the tubules and out of the body
Structure of Mammalian Excretory
System
 The average kidney is about 10 cm
  long
 Blood is supplied to the kidney
  through the renal artery and drained
  by the renal vein
    ◦ take up less than 1% of the body’s mass
      but receive ¼ of the blood that leaves the
      heart
 Urine exits the kidney through two
  ducts called ureters
 Ureters drain into the urinary
  bladder
 Urine is expelled through a tube called
  the urethra
 The sphincter muscles regulate
  urination near urethra and bladder

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Excretion

  • 2. Overview  The balance of water in the body depends on the rate of exchange of solute between internal body fluids and the external environment.  Excretory Systems are key to homeostasis because the dispose of metabolic wastes, and control body fluid composition.
  • 3. Nitrogenous Wastes  Animals excrete nitrogenous wastes as ammonia, urea or uric acid  Animals that excrete ammonia need access to lots of water because ammonia can only be tolerated in low concentrations  Urea combines ammonia with carbon dioxide, and it has a very low toxicity ◦ Excreted by vertebrate mammals, turtles, amphibians, sharks, etc .
  • 4.  Insects, birds, snails, and many reptiles uric acid which is essentially non toxic.  Its non toxicity makes it hydrophobic, thus it can be excreted without much water loss.  Requires more ATP to the synthesize from ammonia.
  • 5. Excretory Processes  Most animals produce fluid waste known as Urine ◦ Body fluid (i.e. Blood) comes in contact with a selectively permeable membrane of the transport epithelium ◦ Filtration is driven by hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure)  Water, small salts, sugars, nitrogenous wastes, and amino acids are removed from body fluids to create filtrate
  • 6.  Filtrate is converted into fluid waste when reabsorption places useful materials from the filtrate back into the blood stream by active tranport.  Selective Secretion pumps nonessential solutes and wastes into the filtrate by active transport.
  • 7. Excretory Systems  Excretory systems vary widely among animal groups ◦ Flatworms that lack a coelom or body cavity have protonephridia which form network of dead end tubules connected to external openings ◦ Annelids (ex: earthworms) have metanephridia, excretory organs that open internally to the coelom
  • 8.  Insects and terrestrial anthropods have Malpighian tubules which extend from dead end tips to the digestive tract  Kidneys are present in vertebrates and chordates ◦ Consist of highly organized tubules associated with a network of capillaries ◦ Ducts and other structures carry urine from the tubules and out of the body
  • 9. Structure of Mammalian Excretory System  The average kidney is about 10 cm long  Blood is supplied to the kidney through the renal artery and drained by the renal vein ◦ take up less than 1% of the body’s mass but receive ¼ of the blood that leaves the heart
  • 10.  Urine exits the kidney through two ducts called ureters  Ureters drain into the urinary bladder  Urine is expelled through a tube called the urethra  The sphincter muscles regulate urination near urethra and bladder