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EARTHQUAKE
Academic Lecture
On Tuesday, January 17th 1995, at 5.46
a.m. (local time), an earthquake of
magnitude 7.2 on the Richter Scale struck
the Kobe region of south-central Japan. This
region is the second most populated and
industrialized area after Tokyo, with a total
population of about 10 million people. The
ground shook for only about 20 seconds but
in that short time, over 5,000 people died,
over 300,000 people became homeless and
damage worth an estimated £100 billion
was caused to roads, houses, factories and
infrastructure (gas, electric, water,
sewerage, phone cables, etc).
Video 1
(Earthquake in Kobe)
DEFINITION
• An earthquake is what happens
when two blocks of the earth
suddenly slip past one another.
• The surface where they slip is
called the fault or fault plane.
DEFINITION
• The location below the earth’s
surface where the earthquake
starts is called the hypocenter,
and the location directly above it
on the surface of the earth is
called the epicenter.
illustration
The Three Shocks
•Foreshocks
•Mainshock
•Aftershocks
• Sometimes an earthquake has foreshocks.
These are smaller earthquakes that happen in
the same place as the larger earthquake that
follows.
• Scientists can’t tell that an earthquake is a
foreshock until the larger earthquake
happens.
• The largest, main earthquake is called the
mainshock.
• Mainshocks always have aftershocks that
follow. These are smaller earthquakes that
occur afterwards in the same place as the
mainshock.
• Depending on the size of the mainshock,
aftershocks can continue for weeks, months,
and even years after the mainshock!
• Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, also
called Canterbury earthquakes, series of
tremors that occurred within and near the
city of Christchurch, N.Z., and the Canterbury
Plains region from early September 2010 to
late February 2011. The severest of those
events were the earthquake (magnitude
from 7.0 to 7.1) that struck on Sept. 4, 2010,
and the large, destructive aftershock
(magnitude 6.3) that occurred on Feb. 22,
2011.
The source
of
Earthquakes
• tectonic plates,
• plate boundaries,
• faults
Type of Plate Boundaries
• plates spread apart
• caused by magma upwelling from
deep in the Earth
• usually found in the oceans along
with mid-ocean ridges
divergent
Convergent
Where an oceanic and a continental plate collide, the denser oceanic
plate will be forced under (subduction) the other.
The Kobe Earthquake
Why does the earth shake when there
is an earthquake?
Why the Earth Shakes Video
• While the edges of faults are stuck
together, and the rest of the block is
moving, the energy that would normally
cause the blocks to slide past one
another is being stored up.
• When the force of the moving blocks
finally overcomes the friction of the
jagged edges of the fault and it unsticks,
all that stored up energy is released.
• The energy radiates outward from the
fault in all directions in the form of
seismic waves like ripples on a pond.
• The seismic waves shake the earth as
they move through it, and when the
waves reach the earth’s surface, they
shake the ground and anything on it,
like our houses and us!
How are earthquakes recorded?
• Earthquakes are recorded by instruments called
seismographs.
• The recording they make is called a seismogram.
• video
How are earthquakes recorded?
• The seismograph has a base that sets firmly in
the ground, and a heavy weight that hangs free.
• When an earthquake causes the ground to shake,
the base of the seismograph shakes too, but the
hanging weight does not.
• Instead the spring or string that it is hanging from
absorbs all the movement. The difference in
position between the shaking part of the
seismograph and the motionless part is what is
recorded.
How do scientists measure the size of
earthquakes?
• The size of an earthquake depends on the size of the fault and
the amount of slip on the fault, but that’s not something
scientists can simply measure with a measuring tape since
faults are many kilometers deep beneath the earth’s surface.
• So how do they measure an earthquake? They use the
seismogram recordings made on the seismographs at the
surface of the earth to determine how large the earthquake
was.
• A short wiggly line that doesn’t wiggle very much means a
small earthquake, and a long wiggly line that wiggles a lot
means a large earthquake. The length of the wiggle depends
on the size of the fault, and the size of the wiggle depends on
the amount of slip.
Below is the seismogram from the Christchurch, New Zealand,
earthquake, as recorded by the seismograph at South Karori, New
Zealand, and retrieved using GEE.
The size of the earthquake is called its
magnitude. There is one magnitude
for each earthquake. Scientists also
talk about the intensity of shaking
from an earthquake, and this varies
depending on where you are during
the earthquake.
The Difference
Magnitude and Intensity
measure different characteristics
of earthquakes. Magnitude
measures the energy released at
the source of the earthquake.
Magnitude is determined from
measurements on seismographs.
Intensity measures the
strength of shaking produced
by the earthquake at a certain
location. Intensity is
determined from effects on
people, human structures,
and the natural environment.
The Pand S waves
• Seismograms come in handy for locating
earthquakes too, and being able to see the P
wave and the S wave is important.
• You learned how P & S waves each shake the
ground in different ways as they travel
through it.
• P waves are also faster than S waves, and this
fact is what allows us to tell where an
earthquake was.
• Limitation:
However, they can’t tell in what direction
from the seismograph the earthquake was,
only how far away it was.
If they draw a circle on a map around the
station where the radius of the circle is the
determined distance to the earthquake, they
know the earthquake lies somewhere on the
circle.
• Scientists then use a method called
triangulation to determine exactly where the
earthquake was.
• It is called triangulation because a triangle has
three sides, and it takes three seismographs
to locate an earthquake. If you draw a circle
on a map around three different
seismographs where the radius of each is the
distance from that station to the earthquake,
the intersection of those three circles is the
epicenter!
Earthquake

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Earthquake

  • 2. On Tuesday, January 17th 1995, at 5.46 a.m. (local time), an earthquake of magnitude 7.2 on the Richter Scale struck the Kobe region of south-central Japan. This region is the second most populated and industrialized area after Tokyo, with a total population of about 10 million people. The ground shook for only about 20 seconds but in that short time, over 5,000 people died, over 300,000 people became homeless and damage worth an estimated £100 billion was caused to roads, houses, factories and infrastructure (gas, electric, water, sewerage, phone cables, etc).
  • 4. DEFINITION • An earthquake is what happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. • The surface where they slip is called the fault or fault plane.
  • 5. DEFINITION • The location below the earth’s surface where the earthquake starts is called the hypocenter, and the location directly above it on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter.
  • 8. • Sometimes an earthquake has foreshocks. These are smaller earthquakes that happen in the same place as the larger earthquake that follows. • Scientists can’t tell that an earthquake is a foreshock until the larger earthquake happens.
  • 9. • The largest, main earthquake is called the mainshock. • Mainshocks always have aftershocks that follow. These are smaller earthquakes that occur afterwards in the same place as the mainshock. • Depending on the size of the mainshock, aftershocks can continue for weeks, months, and even years after the mainshock!
  • 10. • Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, also called Canterbury earthquakes, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, N.Z., and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late February 2011. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to 7.1) that struck on Sept. 4, 2010, and the large, destructive aftershock (magnitude 6.3) that occurred on Feb. 22, 2011.
  • 12. • tectonic plates, • plate boundaries, • faults
  • 13.
  • 14. Type of Plate Boundaries
  • 15. • plates spread apart • caused by magma upwelling from deep in the Earth • usually found in the oceans along with mid-ocean ridges divergent
  • 16. Convergent Where an oceanic and a continental plate collide, the denser oceanic plate will be forced under (subduction) the other.
  • 18. Why does the earth shake when there is an earthquake?
  • 19. Why the Earth Shakes Video
  • 20. • While the edges of faults are stuck together, and the rest of the block is moving, the energy that would normally cause the blocks to slide past one another is being stored up. • When the force of the moving blocks finally overcomes the friction of the jagged edges of the fault and it unsticks, all that stored up energy is released.
  • 21. • The energy radiates outward from the fault in all directions in the form of seismic waves like ripples on a pond. • The seismic waves shake the earth as they move through it, and when the waves reach the earth’s surface, they shake the ground and anything on it, like our houses and us!
  • 22. How are earthquakes recorded? • Earthquakes are recorded by instruments called seismographs. • The recording they make is called a seismogram. • video
  • 23. How are earthquakes recorded? • The seismograph has a base that sets firmly in the ground, and a heavy weight that hangs free. • When an earthquake causes the ground to shake, the base of the seismograph shakes too, but the hanging weight does not. • Instead the spring or string that it is hanging from absorbs all the movement. The difference in position between the shaking part of the seismograph and the motionless part is what is recorded.
  • 24. How do scientists measure the size of earthquakes? • The size of an earthquake depends on the size of the fault and the amount of slip on the fault, but that’s not something scientists can simply measure with a measuring tape since faults are many kilometers deep beneath the earth’s surface. • So how do they measure an earthquake? They use the seismogram recordings made on the seismographs at the surface of the earth to determine how large the earthquake was. • A short wiggly line that doesn’t wiggle very much means a small earthquake, and a long wiggly line that wiggles a lot means a large earthquake. The length of the wiggle depends on the size of the fault, and the size of the wiggle depends on the amount of slip.
  • 25. Below is the seismogram from the Christchurch, New Zealand, earthquake, as recorded by the seismograph at South Karori, New Zealand, and retrieved using GEE.
  • 26.
  • 27. The size of the earthquake is called its magnitude. There is one magnitude for each earthquake. Scientists also talk about the intensity of shaking from an earthquake, and this varies depending on where you are during the earthquake.
  • 29. Magnitude and Intensity measure different characteristics of earthquakes. Magnitude measures the energy released at the source of the earthquake. Magnitude is determined from measurements on seismographs.
  • 30. Intensity measures the strength of shaking produced by the earthquake at a certain location. Intensity is determined from effects on people, human structures, and the natural environment.
  • 31. The Pand S waves
  • 32. • Seismograms come in handy for locating earthquakes too, and being able to see the P wave and the S wave is important. • You learned how P & S waves each shake the ground in different ways as they travel through it. • P waves are also faster than S waves, and this fact is what allows us to tell where an earthquake was.
  • 33. • Limitation: However, they can’t tell in what direction from the seismograph the earthquake was, only how far away it was. If they draw a circle on a map around the station where the radius of the circle is the determined distance to the earthquake, they know the earthquake lies somewhere on the circle.
  • 34. • Scientists then use a method called triangulation to determine exactly where the earthquake was. • It is called triangulation because a triangle has three sides, and it takes three seismographs to locate an earthquake. If you draw a circle on a map around three different seismographs where the radius of each is the distance from that station to the earthquake, the intersection of those three circles is the epicenter!