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The Colony
Academic Lecture
Definition
• In Zoology, a colony is a group of
organisms of one species that live
and interact closely with each
other.
• Colonies are social insects usually
include castes with different
responsibilities.
The animals
• Ants, honeybees and bumblebees,
and wasps are called social insects
because they live in highly organized
societies.
Bryozoans
What are they?
• Bryozoans are colonial animals.
Individuals (called zooids) are
connected in colonies. Colonies
grow by budding new individuals at
the edges. Individual bryozoans are
microscopic. But their colonies can
be quite large.
What are they?
• Many colonies look like hard crusts
or fuzzy mats attached to object s
in the water, giving them the
common names of sea mats or
moss animals. Other bushy
branching colonies look more like
seaweeds.
Where to find?
• Bryozoans live in almost every kind
of benthic (sea floor) habitat
• In the ocean, from the shore to the
greatest depths.
• On sandy beaches, it would be
most likely found living on shells,
mermaids’ purses (skate egg cases)
or the molted shells of horseshoe
crabs.
• They are very common on floating
plastic trash and on ships’ hulls,
hitching a free ride for hundreds or
thousands of miles.
• They are also found in fresh water
where their colonies are attached
to the underside of rocks as well as
submerged wood and the leaves of
pondweeds.
The Process
• Other zooids are specialized for
reproduction and may have brood
chambers called ovicells in which
embryos develop into larvae.
• The larvae swim away from the
parent colony and finds a new surface
(like a bit of shell or a rock) to which
they attach.
• There they metamorphose into
the first individual of a new
colony which begins to feeds and
bud additional zooids.
Ants
• Ants are social insects, living in large colonies.
The colony is typically divided into the
following castes, or classes: queens
(reproductive females), males, and workers
(non-reproductive females). Although there
are great variations in social structure among
ant colonies, certain basic features are
common to most species.
The Queen
• Some colonies have one queen; other colonies
have several. The queens are fed and
otherwise tended by the workers.
The Male Ant
• The males’ only function is to mate with the
queens. Males live only for the mating season.
They do not work and they die shortly after
mating with the young queens.
The Worker Ant
• The workers carry out such tasks as enlarging
and protecting the nest, tending queens and
young, and foraging.
The Worker Ant
• There may be only one kind of worker, or
there may be several kinds, with body
structures specialized for different types of
work. The activity of workers is coordinated
mostly through pheromones and body
contact.
The Bees
• A bee colony lives in a hive. It is
totally dark inside the hive. Bees
are almost deaf, so touch is the
sense they rely on for
communication. The humming
sound we hear is the sound of
their wings beating.
Bees’ Social Caste
• A newly hatched queen begins her
life in a duel to the death with any
other queens present in the colony,
and must destroy potential rivals
that have not yet hatched. Once she
accomplishes this, she takes her
virgin mating flight.
The Queen Bee
• Throughout her life, she lays eggs
and secretes a pheromone that
keeps all other females in the colony
sterile. The queen is the largest bee
in the colony.
The Drone
• The drone’s anatomical structure
proves its limited role in the colony.
Drones lack stingers, so they cannot
help defend the hive. Without
structures for collecting pollen or
nectar, they cannot contribute to
the feeding the community.
The Drone
• Upon mating, its only reason for
existence, the drone dies. In the fall,
worker bees prevent drones from
entering the hive, effectively
starving them to death.
The Workers
• Female worker bees accomplish every chore
unrelated to reproduction. In their first days,
workers tend to the queen. For the
remainder of their short lives, workers keep
busy – thus the expression “busy bees” They
build the comb in which honey is stored and
eggs are laid.
The colony2
The colony2

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The colony2

  • 2. Definition • In Zoology, a colony is a group of organisms of one species that live and interact closely with each other. • Colonies are social insects usually include castes with different responsibilities.
  • 3. The animals • Ants, honeybees and bumblebees, and wasps are called social insects because they live in highly organized societies.
  • 5. What are they? • Bryozoans are colonial animals. Individuals (called zooids) are connected in colonies. Colonies grow by budding new individuals at the edges. Individual bryozoans are microscopic. But their colonies can be quite large.
  • 6.
  • 7. What are they? • Many colonies look like hard crusts or fuzzy mats attached to object s in the water, giving them the common names of sea mats or moss animals. Other bushy branching colonies look more like seaweeds.
  • 8.
  • 10. • Bryozoans live in almost every kind of benthic (sea floor) habitat • In the ocean, from the shore to the greatest depths. • On sandy beaches, it would be most likely found living on shells, mermaids’ purses (skate egg cases) or the molted shells of horseshoe crabs.
  • 11. • They are very common on floating plastic trash and on ships’ hulls, hitching a free ride for hundreds or thousands of miles. • They are also found in fresh water where their colonies are attached to the underside of rocks as well as submerged wood and the leaves of pondweeds.
  • 13.
  • 14. • Other zooids are specialized for reproduction and may have brood chambers called ovicells in which embryos develop into larvae.
  • 15. • The larvae swim away from the parent colony and finds a new surface (like a bit of shell or a rock) to which they attach.
  • 16. • There they metamorphose into the first individual of a new colony which begins to feeds and bud additional zooids.
  • 17. Ants
  • 18. • Ants are social insects, living in large colonies. The colony is typically divided into the following castes, or classes: queens (reproductive females), males, and workers (non-reproductive females). Although there are great variations in social structure among ant colonies, certain basic features are common to most species.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. The Queen • Some colonies have one queen; other colonies have several. The queens are fed and otherwise tended by the workers.
  • 22.
  • 23. The Male Ant • The males’ only function is to mate with the queens. Males live only for the mating season. They do not work and they die shortly after mating with the young queens.
  • 24. The Worker Ant • The workers carry out such tasks as enlarging and protecting the nest, tending queens and young, and foraging.
  • 25. The Worker Ant • There may be only one kind of worker, or there may be several kinds, with body structures specialized for different types of work. The activity of workers is coordinated mostly through pheromones and body contact.
  • 26.
  • 28. • A bee colony lives in a hive. It is totally dark inside the hive. Bees are almost deaf, so touch is the sense they rely on for communication. The humming sound we hear is the sound of their wings beating.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 32. • A newly hatched queen begins her life in a duel to the death with any other queens present in the colony, and must destroy potential rivals that have not yet hatched. Once she accomplishes this, she takes her virgin mating flight. The Queen Bee
  • 33. • Throughout her life, she lays eggs and secretes a pheromone that keeps all other females in the colony sterile. The queen is the largest bee in the colony.
  • 34. The Drone • The drone’s anatomical structure proves its limited role in the colony. Drones lack stingers, so they cannot help defend the hive. Without structures for collecting pollen or nectar, they cannot contribute to the feeding the community.
  • 35. The Drone • Upon mating, its only reason for existence, the drone dies. In the fall, worker bees prevent drones from entering the hive, effectively starving them to death.
  • 36. The Workers • Female worker bees accomplish every chore unrelated to reproduction. In their first days, workers tend to the queen. For the remainder of their short lives, workers keep busy – thus the expression “busy bees” They build the comb in which honey is stored and eggs are laid.