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Test of English
as a Foreign
Language
(TOEFL)
• The TOEFL is taken by different
individuals particularly non-
native English speakers who
need to submit evidence of their
language proficiency when they
apply to study or work in
English medium institutions.
The Four Sections of the TOEFL test
Reading Listening
Speaking
Writing
TOEFL READING
Three categories of academic texts:
• EXPOSITION –an explanation of a topic
• ARGUMENTATION – an explanation of a topic
providing points of view and evidences to support
the idea
• HISTORICAL/BIOGRAPHICAL/EVENT NARRATIVE –
an account of a past event or a person’s life
narrated or written by another person
TOEFL READING
Question Types in the TOEFL
1. FACTUAL INFORMATION
- Tests your ability to find information in the passage. The information needed is
explicitly stated.
Tips:
• Eliminate choices that present information that is contradicted in the passage
• Do not select an answer just because it is mentioned in the passage. Your choice
should answer the specific question that was asked.
TOEFL READING
Archaeology delivers traces of dance from prehistoric times such as the 9,000 year
old Bhimbetka rock shelters paintings in India and Egyptian tomb paintings
depicting dancing figures from 3300 BC. One of the earliest structured uses of
dances may have been in the performance and in the telling of myths. Before the
production of written languages, dance was one of the methods of passing these
stories down from generation to generation. Another early use of dance may have
been as a precursor to ecstatic trance states in healing rituals. Dance is still used for
this purpose by many cultures from the Brazilian rain forest to the Kalahari
Desert. Some European tribes also used loud group singing and dancing in order to
prepare themselves for the dangerous combat with other tribes.
According to paragraph one, why was dance used to pass stories down between
generations?
A. Because it was more expressive than writing
B. Because writing had not been developed
C. It was a good way of depicting stories from myth
D. Dances could be shared between tribes
TOEFL READING
Question Types in the TOEFL
2. NEGATIVE FACTUAL INFORMATION
- Easily recognized in the question because the questions have the words “NOT”
or “EXCEPT” in capital letters
Tips:
• The correct answer either directly contradicts one or more statements in the
passage or is not mentioned in the passage at all.
• The three choices that are mentioned are found in the paragraphs
TOEFL READING
Which of the following is not listed as a
historic use of dance in paragraph 1?
A. The telling of myths
B. Healing rituals
C. As a prayer for good weather
D. To prepare for combat
TOEFL READING
Question Types in the TOEFL
3. INFERENCE QUESTIONS
- These questions usually include the words INFER, SUGGEST or IMPLY
Tips:
• Make sure that your answer does not contradict with the main idea of the
passage
• The correct answer must be inferable in the passage.
TOEFL READING
By the 18th century ballet had migrated from the royal court to the Paris Opera.
During this century the ballet spread through Europe and developed from a courtly
arrangement of moving images used as part of a larger spectacle, to a performance
art in its own right, the ballet d'action. This new form swept away much of the
artificiality of the court dance and strove towards the concept that art should
aspire to imitate nature. This ultimately resulted in costumes that allowed the
dancer much more freedom of movement than before and were conducive to a
fuller use of the expressive capacity of the body. It also opened the door to
pointework, for this acceptance of more naturalistic costuming allowed the
development of the heel-less shoe, which led to the dancer being able to make
more use of the rise onto demi-pointe.
In paragraph 3, what does the author imply about ballet costumes?
A. Costumes used in the 17th century often restricted the movements of
ballet dancers
B. Early ballet costumes were modeled after the appearances of animals in
nature
C. Dancers performed barefoot on stage
D. Early ballet costumes differed between European countries
TOEFL READING
Question Types in the TOEFL
4. RHETORICAL PURPOSE QUESTIONS
This type of question requires you to understand why the author of a passage has
included some piece of information.
Tips:
• This kind of question typically focus on the logical links between sentences and
paragraphs
TOEFL READING
A brief exception to the new ideas and designs used in the twentieth century
occurred in the 1960's, which saw the growth of postmodernism. Postmodernism
veered towards simplicity, the beauty of small things, the beauty of untrained
body, and unsophisticated movement. The famous 'No' manifesto rejecting all
costumes, stories and outer trappings in favor of raw and unpolished movement
was perhaps the extreme of this wave of thinking. Unfortunately lack of costumes,
stories and outer trappings do not make a good dance show, and by the end of the
1960s, sets, décor and shock value re-entered the vocabulary of modern
choreographers.“
Why does the author mention the "No" manifesto in paragraph 5?
A. To explain the cause of minimalistic dance performances in 1960s dance
B. To show the effect that new ideas had on dance performances in the 1960s
C. To illustrate the extreme ideas that some dancers and choreographers had
in the 1960s
D. To explain why dance performances after the 1960s once again used sets,
decor and shock value
TOEFL READING
Question Types in the TOEFL
5. VOCABULARY
You are asked to pick the meaning of an unfamiliar word based on its use in the
passage. If you are familiar with the word the question will be fairly easy. If not,
you should look for clues by examining the surrounding sentences.
Tips:
• The meaning of a particular word depends on how it is used in the passage.
• Reread and substitute your choice in the passage. Check if it makes sense in the
context of the whole passage.
TOEFL READING
The 20th century was indeed a period of breaking away from everything that ballet
stood for. It was a time of unprecedented creative growth, for dancers and
choreographers. It was also a time of shock, surprise and broadening of minds for
the public, in terms of their definitions of what dance was. It was a revolution in the
truest sense.
The word "unprecedented" is paragraph 2 is most similar in meaning to:
A. unique
B. popular
C. demanding
D. difficult
TOEFL READING
Question Types in the TOEFL
6. REFERENCE QUESTIONS
- Looks similar with vocabulary questions.
- Questions of this type ask you to identify what a given pronoun refers to.
Tips:
• Make sure that your answer has the same number (singular and plural) and case
(first, second, or third person)
• Substitute your choice in the sentence.
TOEFL READING
The 20th century was indeed a period of breaking away from everything that ballet
stood for. It was a time of unprecedented creative growth, for dancers and
choreographers. It was also a time of shock, surprise and broadening of minds for
the public, in terms of their definitions of what dance was. It was a revolution in the
truest sense.
What does the first "it" refer to in the passage?
A. ballet
B. The 20th century
C. definitions of dance
D. the new dance style
TOEFL READING
Question Types in the TOEFL
7. SENTENCE SIMPLIFICATION
Questions of this type give you a rather long sentence from the passage and ask
you to choose a sentence that simplifies it. The simplified sentence must contain all
of the essential information of the original, and must not contradict it.
TOEFL READING
By the 1980s dance had come full circle and modern dance (or, by this time,
'contemporary dance') was clearly still a highly technical and political vehicle for
many practitioners. Existing alongside classical ballet, the two art-forms were by
now living peacefully next door to one another with little of the rivalry and
antipathy of previous eras. The present time sees us still in the very competitive
artistic atmosphere where choreographers compete to produce the most
shocking work, however, there are still glimpses of beauty to be had, and much
incredible dancing in an age where dance technique has progressed further in
expertise, strength and flexibility than ever before in history.
TOEFL READING
Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted
sentence?
A. Currently, dance is a very competitive artistic field and although
choreographers attempt to produce the most shocking possible work much beauty
can be found and the technical abilities of dancers have increased.
B. Dance is not as shocking as it was in the past, but it remains a competative
race between choreographers who work with dancers who are more technically
adept than ever before.
C. Current dance is a competition between choreographers to produce the
most shocking possible work, although some beauty can still be found.
D. Current dancers are stronger and more flexible than ever before
choreographers are striving to produce works that are more shocking than ever
before.
TOEFL READING
Question Types in the TOEFL
8. INSERT TEXT QUESTIONS
Questions of this type ask you to insert a given sentence into a paragraph from the
passage. You must choose from one of four possible spots for the sentence. To
solve the question look for words in the surrounding sentences that serve as
connectors.
Tips:
• Place and replace the sentence as many times as you want.
• Look for transition words
TOEFL READING
Since the Ballets Russes began revolutionizing ballet in the early 20th century,
there have been continued attempts to break the mold of classical
ballet.* Currently the artistic scope of ballet technique is more all-encompassing
than ever.* This also has influenced ballet's accompanying music, stagings and
multimedia. Modern choreographers have embraced techniques that classical
choreographers would not have considered acceptable to the art form.* The
boundaries that classify a work of classical ballet are constantly being stretched,
muddied and blurred until perhaps all that remains today are traces of technique
idioms such as 'turnout'.*
Look at the four stars (*) that indicate where the following sentence might fit.
"These efforts have changed the art of ballet in very significant ways."
Where would the sentence fit best?
A. The first star
B. The second star
C. The third star
D. The fourth star
TOEFL READING
Question Types in the TOEFL
9. PROSE SUMMARY QUESTIONS
You will be asked to pick three statements from 6 answer choices that best express
the most important ideas in the passage.
10. FILL IN A TABLE QUESTIONS
You need to complete a table based on the information in the passage.

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Toefl reading

  • 1. Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)
  • 2. • The TOEFL is taken by different individuals particularly non- native English speakers who need to submit evidence of their language proficiency when they apply to study or work in English medium institutions.
  • 3. The Four Sections of the TOEFL test Reading Listening Speaking Writing
  • 4. TOEFL READING Three categories of academic texts: • EXPOSITION –an explanation of a topic • ARGUMENTATION – an explanation of a topic providing points of view and evidences to support the idea • HISTORICAL/BIOGRAPHICAL/EVENT NARRATIVE – an account of a past event or a person’s life narrated or written by another person
  • 5. TOEFL READING Question Types in the TOEFL 1. FACTUAL INFORMATION - Tests your ability to find information in the passage. The information needed is explicitly stated. Tips: • Eliminate choices that present information that is contradicted in the passage • Do not select an answer just because it is mentioned in the passage. Your choice should answer the specific question that was asked.
  • 6. TOEFL READING Archaeology delivers traces of dance from prehistoric times such as the 9,000 year old Bhimbetka rock shelters paintings in India and Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures from 3300 BC. One of the earliest structured uses of dances may have been in the performance and in the telling of myths. Before the production of written languages, dance was one of the methods of passing these stories down from generation to generation. Another early use of dance may have been as a precursor to ecstatic trance states in healing rituals. Dance is still used for this purpose by many cultures from the Brazilian rain forest to the Kalahari Desert. Some European tribes also used loud group singing and dancing in order to prepare themselves for the dangerous combat with other tribes. According to paragraph one, why was dance used to pass stories down between generations? A. Because it was more expressive than writing B. Because writing had not been developed C. It was a good way of depicting stories from myth D. Dances could be shared between tribes
  • 7. TOEFL READING Question Types in the TOEFL 2. NEGATIVE FACTUAL INFORMATION - Easily recognized in the question because the questions have the words “NOT” or “EXCEPT” in capital letters Tips: • The correct answer either directly contradicts one or more statements in the passage or is not mentioned in the passage at all. • The three choices that are mentioned are found in the paragraphs
  • 8. TOEFL READING Which of the following is not listed as a historic use of dance in paragraph 1? A. The telling of myths B. Healing rituals C. As a prayer for good weather D. To prepare for combat
  • 9. TOEFL READING Question Types in the TOEFL 3. INFERENCE QUESTIONS - These questions usually include the words INFER, SUGGEST or IMPLY Tips: • Make sure that your answer does not contradict with the main idea of the passage • The correct answer must be inferable in the passage.
  • 10. TOEFL READING By the 18th century ballet had migrated from the royal court to the Paris Opera. During this century the ballet spread through Europe and developed from a courtly arrangement of moving images used as part of a larger spectacle, to a performance art in its own right, the ballet d'action. This new form swept away much of the artificiality of the court dance and strove towards the concept that art should aspire to imitate nature. This ultimately resulted in costumes that allowed the dancer much more freedom of movement than before and were conducive to a fuller use of the expressive capacity of the body. It also opened the door to pointework, for this acceptance of more naturalistic costuming allowed the development of the heel-less shoe, which led to the dancer being able to make more use of the rise onto demi-pointe. In paragraph 3, what does the author imply about ballet costumes? A. Costumes used in the 17th century often restricted the movements of ballet dancers B. Early ballet costumes were modeled after the appearances of animals in nature C. Dancers performed barefoot on stage D. Early ballet costumes differed between European countries
  • 11. TOEFL READING Question Types in the TOEFL 4. RHETORICAL PURPOSE QUESTIONS This type of question requires you to understand why the author of a passage has included some piece of information. Tips: • This kind of question typically focus on the logical links between sentences and paragraphs
  • 12. TOEFL READING A brief exception to the new ideas and designs used in the twentieth century occurred in the 1960's, which saw the growth of postmodernism. Postmodernism veered towards simplicity, the beauty of small things, the beauty of untrained body, and unsophisticated movement. The famous 'No' manifesto rejecting all costumes, stories and outer trappings in favor of raw and unpolished movement was perhaps the extreme of this wave of thinking. Unfortunately lack of costumes, stories and outer trappings do not make a good dance show, and by the end of the 1960s, sets, décor and shock value re-entered the vocabulary of modern choreographers.“ Why does the author mention the "No" manifesto in paragraph 5? A. To explain the cause of minimalistic dance performances in 1960s dance B. To show the effect that new ideas had on dance performances in the 1960s C. To illustrate the extreme ideas that some dancers and choreographers had in the 1960s D. To explain why dance performances after the 1960s once again used sets, decor and shock value
  • 13. TOEFL READING Question Types in the TOEFL 5. VOCABULARY You are asked to pick the meaning of an unfamiliar word based on its use in the passage. If you are familiar with the word the question will be fairly easy. If not, you should look for clues by examining the surrounding sentences. Tips: • The meaning of a particular word depends on how it is used in the passage. • Reread and substitute your choice in the passage. Check if it makes sense in the context of the whole passage.
  • 14. TOEFL READING The 20th century was indeed a period of breaking away from everything that ballet stood for. It was a time of unprecedented creative growth, for dancers and choreographers. It was also a time of shock, surprise and broadening of minds for the public, in terms of their definitions of what dance was. It was a revolution in the truest sense. The word "unprecedented" is paragraph 2 is most similar in meaning to: A. unique B. popular C. demanding D. difficult
  • 15. TOEFL READING Question Types in the TOEFL 6. REFERENCE QUESTIONS - Looks similar with vocabulary questions. - Questions of this type ask you to identify what a given pronoun refers to. Tips: • Make sure that your answer has the same number (singular and plural) and case (first, second, or third person) • Substitute your choice in the sentence.
  • 16. TOEFL READING The 20th century was indeed a period of breaking away from everything that ballet stood for. It was a time of unprecedented creative growth, for dancers and choreographers. It was also a time of shock, surprise and broadening of minds for the public, in terms of their definitions of what dance was. It was a revolution in the truest sense. What does the first "it" refer to in the passage? A. ballet B. The 20th century C. definitions of dance D. the new dance style
  • 17. TOEFL READING Question Types in the TOEFL 7. SENTENCE SIMPLIFICATION Questions of this type give you a rather long sentence from the passage and ask you to choose a sentence that simplifies it. The simplified sentence must contain all of the essential information of the original, and must not contradict it.
  • 18. TOEFL READING By the 1980s dance had come full circle and modern dance (or, by this time, 'contemporary dance') was clearly still a highly technical and political vehicle for many practitioners. Existing alongside classical ballet, the two art-forms were by now living peacefully next door to one another with little of the rivalry and antipathy of previous eras. The present time sees us still in the very competitive artistic atmosphere where choreographers compete to produce the most shocking work, however, there are still glimpses of beauty to be had, and much incredible dancing in an age where dance technique has progressed further in expertise, strength and flexibility than ever before in history.
  • 19. TOEFL READING Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? A. Currently, dance is a very competitive artistic field and although choreographers attempt to produce the most shocking possible work much beauty can be found and the technical abilities of dancers have increased. B. Dance is not as shocking as it was in the past, but it remains a competative race between choreographers who work with dancers who are more technically adept than ever before. C. Current dance is a competition between choreographers to produce the most shocking possible work, although some beauty can still be found. D. Current dancers are stronger and more flexible than ever before choreographers are striving to produce works that are more shocking than ever before.
  • 20. TOEFL READING Question Types in the TOEFL 8. INSERT TEXT QUESTIONS Questions of this type ask you to insert a given sentence into a paragraph from the passage. You must choose from one of four possible spots for the sentence. To solve the question look for words in the surrounding sentences that serve as connectors. Tips: • Place and replace the sentence as many times as you want. • Look for transition words
  • 21. TOEFL READING Since the Ballets Russes began revolutionizing ballet in the early 20th century, there have been continued attempts to break the mold of classical ballet.* Currently the artistic scope of ballet technique is more all-encompassing than ever.* This also has influenced ballet's accompanying music, stagings and multimedia. Modern choreographers have embraced techniques that classical choreographers would not have considered acceptable to the art form.* The boundaries that classify a work of classical ballet are constantly being stretched, muddied and blurred until perhaps all that remains today are traces of technique idioms such as 'turnout'.* Look at the four stars (*) that indicate where the following sentence might fit. "These efforts have changed the art of ballet in very significant ways." Where would the sentence fit best? A. The first star B. The second star C. The third star D. The fourth star
  • 22. TOEFL READING Question Types in the TOEFL 9. PROSE SUMMARY QUESTIONS You will be asked to pick three statements from 6 answer choices that best express the most important ideas in the passage. 10. FILL IN A TABLE QUESTIONS You need to complete a table based on the information in the passage.