SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 59
Natural Hazards
Introduction to Natural Hazards
• What is a “Geohazard”?
  – Earth processes (involving the lithosphere,
    hydrosphere & atmosphere) that, upon interaction
    with human activity, cause loss of life and property

                                                Hazardous
    geo-                   human
                           process
                                                 condition
  process
                                                 or result

  – It is important to understand the human element
     • without it, there would be no hazard
     • because of it, the science of geohazards becomes more
       important every year
        – mitigation: reduction/prevention
Why is the human element so
                critical?
• The Earth’s population is increasing
     •   more people living in hazard-prone areas
     •   populations are becoming hyper-concentrated
     •   consumption of resources
     •   examples:
          – today there are 6 billion people on Earth ( ~ 50% live in cities)
          – by 2025, there will be ~8 billion people (~ 66% in cities)
          – of these cities, 40% are coastal
               » prone to severe storm and tsunami damage
          – and a large majority lie in areas subject to other geohazards
            (for example volcanoes and earthquakes)
•CANNOT stop the geologic processes
 •CANNOT stop the population growth/expansion




•Therefore, we must try to reduce (mitigate)
the hazards through:
     •scientific study
     •population education
     •changes in engineering/building practices
     •management plans and hazard response scenarios
Types of Natural Hazards
• Volcanoes, floods,
  earthquakes, tornadoes,
  tsunamis, etc.
  – can act adversely on human
    processes
  – can occur:
    • without warning (e.g. earthquakes)
    • with warnings (precursors) (e.g.
      satellite monitoring of cyclone tracks,
      or the presence of ground
      deformation at a volcano before an
      eruption)
• To help mitigate the hazard we need to know:
• Frequency vs. Magnitude
  – F: how often a given event occurs in a certain
    region
  – M: how powerful (amount of energy released) an
    event is
     • for example, high M hazards happen with low F, but are
       much more destructive
• Scope
  – S: area affected by a given hazard
     • local: landslides, floods, earthquakes, fire …
     • regional: tsunamis, volcanoes, larger earthquakes,
       cyclones …
     • global: large volcanoes, global warming, meteorite
       impacts …
Practical Exercise 1.

Impact of Environmental
       Disasters
Earthquakes
and Tsunamis
What is an Earthquake?
• Ground movement caused by the sudden
  release of seismic energy due to tectonic forces.

                           The focus of an
                           earthquake is the actual
                           location of the energy
                           released inside the
                           Earth’s crust.
                           The epicentre is the
                           point on the Earth’s
                           surface directly above the
                           focus.
Why do earthquakes occur?
• Seismic energy is usually caused by the brittle
  failure (fracturing) of rocks under stress.




                                         Figure showing
                                         the distribution of
                                         earthquakes
                                         around the globe


• This commonly occurs due to movement along
  tectonic plate boundaries
Earthquake Magnitude
Magnitude     Earthquake Effects                Approx. number
                                                  each year
  < 2.5       Usually not felt, but recorded         900,000
 2.5-5.4      Often felt, only minor damage          30,000
 5.5-6.0     Slight damage to buildings and            500
                     other structures
 6.1-6.9    May cause a lot of damage in very          100
                    populated areas
 7.0-7.9       Major earthquake. Serious               20
                       damage.
  > 8.0     Great earthquake. Can be totally    1 every 5-10 years
             destructive near the epicentre.
San Francisco - Great Earthquake
• Magnitude 7.7 - 8.3
Earthquake Hazards
• These are important hazards to understand:
  – the natural hazard that on average kills the highest
    number of people per year (> 1 million during the
    past century)
  – commonly strikes without warning
  – no time for evacuation
  – not a predictable trend to earthquake numbers,
    magnitude or location
     • 1000's of large earthquakes every year
     • ~ 20 are > M7.0 and these account for 90% of the energy
       released and 80% of all the fatalities
How do we mitigate the
hazard from earthquakes?
           • Reinforce buildings
           • Education
           • Disaster plan
Earthquakes and Tsunami’s
• An earthquake under the ocean has the
  potential to form a tsunami.
• The earthquake must vertically displace
  overlying water (extensional or
  compressional faults - not transform)



 Extension       Compression
                                  Transform
How does an earthquake form
        a tsunami?
2004 South Asian
Boxing Day event
• Biggest earthquake
  in 40 years!
• Magnitude 9.2
• 150 km off the west
  of Northern
  Sumatra
• Generated a
  disastrous tsunami
  in 12 countries
Second largest recorded earthquake
 • The earthquake occurred at a convergent
   tectonic plate boundary (subduction zone)
 • An estimated 1,600 km (994 miles) of faultline
   slipped about 15 m (50 ft)!
 • The earthquake released 20 x 1017 Joules of
   energy
   – Equivalent to:
      • 475,000,000 kg of TNT
      • 23,000 Hiroshima atomic bombs!
Tsunami



                                    Animations of
                                    the Boxing
                                    Day tsunami
                                    showing how
                                    the tsunami
                                    radiated from
                                    the entire
Above: Countries most effected by   length of the
the tsunami                         1,600 km (994
                                    miles) rupture.
A village
near the
coast of
Sumatra
lays in ruin
after the
tsunami.
How do we mitigate the
         hazard from tsunamis?
• Monitoring
  – process is very technology-
    intensive
     • high costs for many poorer
       countries
  – often no technology available to
    monitor local tsunamis
     • for example,
     • Papua New Guinea has no
       monitoring stations
        – reliant on the Pacific Tsunami
          Warning Center
     • tsunami in 1998 was not detected
How do we mitigate the
        hazard from tsunamis?
• Building restrictions in
  hazard prone areas
  – In Hawaii, Hilo harbor and
    downtown was destroyed
    by the tsunamis of 1946
    and 1960
  – The town is now rebuilt on
    higher ground and the
    devastated area is a park
How do we mitigate the
      hazard from tsunamis?




• Seawall construction
  – cause early wave breaking
  – prevent wave run up into urban areas
How do we mitigate the
       hazard from tsunamis?
• Education
  – warning systems
  – evacuation plans
  – general understanding
    of the hazards involved

       Punishment     Natural event
       From God           35%
          45%
                    Bomb 20%
                                      Population reaction:
                                      Papua New Guinea (1998)
Practical Exercise 2.

  Locating Earthquake
      Epicentres
Tropical Storms
Same Storm - Different Name
Tropical Cyclones
• Background:
  – Can be deadly!
     • For example, in 1991 a large
       cyclone in Bangladesh killed
       >138,000 people in just two
       days!
Tropical Cyclones
         • Most widespread
           destructive weather hazard
              – For example: Hurricane
                Floyd (1999)
                  • only a moderate level
                    hurricane
                  • caused US$5.6 billion in
                    damage in the Bahamas
                    and North Carolina (USA)
                    and 57 fatalities



       (Left) Three different cyclones spinning over
       the western Pacific Ocean on August 7, 2006.
How do cyclones form?




The above figure shows how cyclones form. The green arrows show
where warm air is rising. The red arrows indicate where cool air is sinking.
Cyclone Categories
Category    Wind Speed        Damage at         Storm Surge
              (mph)            Landfall            (feet)
   1           74-95           Minimal              4-5

   2           96-110         Moderate              6-8

   3          111-130         Extensive            9-12

   4          131-155          Extreme            13-18

   5           > 155        Catastrophic           19+

           The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Hurricane Katrina
• Hurricane Katrina
  was the most costly
  and most deadly
  hurricane in the
  history of the USA.
  – Category 5
• At least 1,836
  fatalities
• Damage estimated at
  US$ 81.2 billion
Hurricane Katrina
What damage is produced?
•   Storm Surge
    – water that is pushed toward the shore
      by the force of the cyclone winds.
What damage is produced?
• Wind
 – responsible for the
   loss of power and
   utilities
 – wind damage affects
   larger areas than
   surge
 – flying debris
 – tree loss
What damage is produced?

• Flying debris
  – debris
    propelled at
    high speeds
How do we mitigate the
      hazard from a cyclone?
• Monitoring
  – early warning systems
• Infrastructure
  – cyclone walls
  – communal shelters
• Education and
  planning
Natural Hazards Summary




                     Graph
                     showing the
                     number of
                     deaths per
                     year due to
                     natural hazard
                     events
Damage            HAZARD
   Potential

Awareness- Effect
  on Elements

                    Society
                                               Quicker
                                               Recovery
                    Elements at Risk

     Action
     Plans          Huge Losses/
                                             Communities
                     Damages                 More
                                             Resilient

                    Reduced
                                       More Stable Society
                     Losses
Damage                HAZARD
 Potential



                     Elements at Risk


Natural Features                       Societal Elements
River/Stream Banks             People & Live-stock
Low-lying Areas                Huts & Semi-permanent Houses
Sea & Sea-coast                Weak Buildings
Slopes of hills                Agri. & Horticultural crops
                               Livelihood tools / Equipment
                               Unsecured personal assets
                               Public Infrastructure
CYCLONE
Damage
Potential


                               Poorer than
             Society             before


            Elements at Risk
                               Disruption of
                               Normal life &
            Huge Losses/        Development
             Damages           Suffers
Types of disasters
Major natural disasters:      Minor natural disasters:
                                    • Cold wave
        •     Flood
                                 • Thunderstorms
      •    Cyclone                • Heat waves
      •    Drought                 • Mud slides
    •     Earthquake                  • Storm
Major manmade disaster:      Minor manmade disaster:
   1. Setting of fires      • Road / train accidents, riots
      2. Epidemic               • Food poisoning
    3. Deforestation         • Industrial disaster/ crisis
4. Pollution due to prawn    • Environmental pollution
          cultivation
                                           
 5. Chemical pollution.                     
        6. Wars                             
                                            
Scale of Disaster
Is Dependent on :
•   Lead Time Available.
•   Intensity of Hazard.
•   Duration.
•   Spatial Extent.
•   Density of Population & Assets.
•   Time of Occurrence.
• Vulnerabilities existing in the
  Elements at Risk.
• Hazard X Vulnerability =
  Disaster
ELEMENTS AT RISK
• People
• Livestock
• Rural Housing Stock
• Houses Vulnerable
• Crops, Trees,Telephone, Electric
  poles
• Boats, Looms, Working Implements
• Personal Property
• Electricity, Water and Food Supplies
• Infrastructure Support
AIMS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT

• Reduce (Avoid, if possible) the
  potential losses from hazards.

• Assure prompt and appropriate
  assistance to victims when
  necessary.

• Achieve rapid and durable
  recovery.
PRE-DISASTER         DURING DISASTER




                            POST-
                            DISASTER
       DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
Stages of Disaster
                         Cyclone


  BEFORE                DURING              AFTER
  Jan - Apr              MAY               June- Oct

Well Before
Weeks-Months

          Just Before     Actual Time
          - Hours         Period



         Rescue    Relief     Rehabilitation   Reconstruction
Role Players in Disasters
•     People : Individuals, House -Holds,
    Volunteers
•    Gram Panchayat : Sarpanch, Panchayati
    Secretary, Panchayati Members
•    Village Elders : Caste/Community/Religious
     Leaders, Teachers, Doctors, Engineers,
     Retired Army & Police Personnel
•    Govt. Deptl. Officers : Agriculture, Medical,
     Engineers (Housing, Roads & Buildings,
     Irrigation) Revenue Department, Public
     Health, Police etc. NGOs
DEFINITIONS OF “VULNERABILITY”

• “The extent to which a community,
  structure, service or geographic
  area is likely to be damaged or
  disrupted by the impact of particular
  disaster hazard…”
• “Vulnerability is the propensity of
  things to be damaged by a hazard”.
DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
•      Disaster preparedness aims at
    minimizing the adverse effects of a hazard -

• Through effective precautionary actions

• Ensure timely, appropriate and efficient
  organisation and delivery of emergency
  response following the impact of a disaster.
PREPAREDNESS
• Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping to include
  Resources.
• Assess strengthening requirements and execute.
• Funding for preparedness must be arranged.
• Peoples’ cooperation through Political leaders,
  elders, Volunteers and NGOs
• Create lead time by interpreting Warnings
• Plan to include movement of resources with time
  frame.
• Aim to reduce the destructive potential of
  cyclones, timely & appropriate relief to victims
  and quick & durable recovery
Disaster Preparedness
           Framework
      COMPONENTS OF PREPAREDNESS

Vulnerability    Planning      Institutional
Assessment                     Framework
Information      Resource       Warning
   System          Base         Systems
 Response          Public      Rehearsals
Mechanisms       Education
                and Training
Disaster Response Activities
•   Warning
•   Evacuation/Mitigation
•   Search and Rescue
•   Assessment
•   Emergency Relief
•   Logistics and Supply
•   Communication and information Management
•   Survivor Response and coping
•   Security
•   EOC & coordination
•   Expedite rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Floods and Water Hazards
Elements at Risk       Main Mitigation
• Everything in the     Strategies.
  flood plain.         • Land use control
• Earthen or soluble   • Engineering of
  structures             strictures
• Buried services      • Elevation of structures
  and utilities        • Flood control
                         structures
• Food stores
                       • Reforestation projects
• Crops and              (watershed
  livestock              management)
Strong Winds
                            Main Mitigation
Elements at Risk
                             Strategies.
• Lightweight structures.
• Elevated utilities        • Structural
  (Power and                  engineering
  communication lines)        measures.
• Fishing boats and         • Planting of
  other maritime
  industries.
                              windbreaks.
Natural hazards and disaster,types,mitigation and management

More Related Content

What's hot

Introduction to natural hazard and disaster management
Introduction to natural hazard and disaster management Introduction to natural hazard and disaster management
Introduction to natural hazard and disaster management Jahangir Alam
 
Causes and Effects of Earthquakes
Causes and Effects of EarthquakesCauses and Effects of Earthquakes
Causes and Effects of Earthquakes3aza
 
Types and causes of earthquakes
Types and causes of earthquakesTypes and causes of earthquakes
Types and causes of earthquakesPraag Dogra
 
Earthquakes - It's Causes And Effects
Earthquakes - It's Causes And EffectsEarthquakes - It's Causes And Effects
Earthquakes - It's Causes And Effectsbhavya mohindru
 
EARTHQUAKE
EARTHQUAKEEARTHQUAKE
EARTHQUAKEsuchi4
 
Natural disasters and its managment
Natural disasters and its managmentNatural disasters and its managment
Natural disasters and its managmentVijay Hemmadi
 
Landslides with case studies Presentation by Anand Swaroop Jaichandran
Landslides with case studies Presentation by Anand Swaroop JaichandranLandslides with case studies Presentation by Anand Swaroop Jaichandran
Landslides with case studies Presentation by Anand Swaroop JaichandranAnand Swaroop Jaichandran
 
Introduction to Natural hazards
Introduction to Natural hazardsIntroduction to Natural hazards
Introduction to Natural hazardsSusie Nash
 
Landslides
Landslides Landslides
Landslides Akhila S
 
Explain with example the structural and non structural mitigation programs ta...
Explain with example the structural and non structural mitigation programs ta...Explain with example the structural and non structural mitigation programs ta...
Explain with example the structural and non structural mitigation programs ta...Jahangir Alam
 
Earthquake causes and safety measurements
Earthquake causes and safety measurementsEarthquake causes and safety measurements
Earthquake causes and safety measurementsM Aamer Raza
 
Tsunami ppt.pptx
Tsunami ppt.pptxTsunami ppt.pptx
Tsunami ppt.pptxPrecision1
 

What's hot (20)

Introduction to natural hazard and disaster management
Introduction to natural hazard and disaster management Introduction to natural hazard and disaster management
Introduction to natural hazard and disaster management
 
Causes and Effects of Earthquakes
Causes and Effects of EarthquakesCauses and Effects of Earthquakes
Causes and Effects of Earthquakes
 
Landslide ppt
Landslide pptLandslide ppt
Landslide ppt
 
Types and causes of earthquakes
Types and causes of earthquakesTypes and causes of earthquakes
Types and causes of earthquakes
 
Natural hazards
Natural hazardsNatural hazards
Natural hazards
 
Earthquakes - It's Causes And Effects
Earthquakes - It's Causes And EffectsEarthquakes - It's Causes And Effects
Earthquakes - It's Causes And Effects
 
Vulnerability to Disasters
Vulnerability to DisastersVulnerability to Disasters
Vulnerability to Disasters
 
Landslide
LandslideLandslide
Landslide
 
EARTHQUAKE
EARTHQUAKEEARTHQUAKE
EARTHQUAKE
 
Earthquake
EarthquakeEarthquake
Earthquake
 
Natural disasters and its managment
Natural disasters and its managmentNatural disasters and its managment
Natural disasters and its managment
 
Landslide
LandslideLandslide
Landslide
 
Landslides with case studies Presentation by Anand Swaroop Jaichandran
Landslides with case studies Presentation by Anand Swaroop JaichandranLandslides with case studies Presentation by Anand Swaroop Jaichandran
Landslides with case studies Presentation by Anand Swaroop Jaichandran
 
Introduction to Natural hazards
Introduction to Natural hazardsIntroduction to Natural hazards
Introduction to Natural hazards
 
Landslides
Landslides Landslides
Landslides
 
CAUSES OF FLOOD
CAUSES OF FLOODCAUSES OF FLOOD
CAUSES OF FLOOD
 
Man made disasters
Man made disastersMan made disasters
Man made disasters
 
Explain with example the structural and non structural mitigation programs ta...
Explain with example the structural and non structural mitigation programs ta...Explain with example the structural and non structural mitigation programs ta...
Explain with example the structural and non structural mitigation programs ta...
 
Earthquake causes and safety measurements
Earthquake causes and safety measurementsEarthquake causes and safety measurements
Earthquake causes and safety measurements
 
Tsunami ppt.pptx
Tsunami ppt.pptxTsunami ppt.pptx
Tsunami ppt.pptx
 

Viewers also liked

Disaster management ppt
Disaster management pptDisaster management ppt
Disaster management pptkarthekiya
 
Earthquake mitigation plan and measures
Earthquake mitigation plan and measuresEarthquake mitigation plan and measures
Earthquake mitigation plan and measuresRizwan Samor
 
Hazards print_07192013
Hazards print_07192013Hazards print_07192013
Hazards print_07192013Sandy Justice
 
Chernobyl disaster
Chernobyl disasterChernobyl disaster
Chernobyl disasterSteven Heath
 
US drought vs. Ethiopian drought
US drought vs. Ethiopian droughtUS drought vs. Ethiopian drought
US drought vs. Ethiopian droughtTom McLean
 
Evaluating Vulnerability in the 2011 Japan Earthquake and the 2010 Haiti Eart...
Evaluating Vulnerability in the 2011 Japan Earthquake and the 2010 Haiti Eart...Evaluating Vulnerability in the 2011 Japan Earthquake and the 2010 Haiti Eart...
Evaluating Vulnerability in the 2011 Japan Earthquake and the 2010 Haiti Eart...Tom McLean
 
Hurricane Katrina vs Cyclone Nargis
Hurricane Katrina vs Cyclone NargisHurricane Katrina vs Cyclone Nargis
Hurricane Katrina vs Cyclone NargisTom McLean
 
Haiti earthquake - Adjustments and Responses (Correct Ver)
Haiti earthquake - Adjustments and Responses (Correct Ver) Haiti earthquake - Adjustments and Responses (Correct Ver)
Haiti earthquake - Adjustments and Responses (Correct Ver) Tom McLean
 
Hurricane Katrina Adjustments & Responses
Hurricane Katrina Adjustments & ResponsesHurricane Katrina Adjustments & Responses
Hurricane Katrina Adjustments & ResponsesTom McLean
 
coping with hazards
coping with hazardscoping with hazards
coping with hazardsJames Foster
 
Disaster management ppt
Disaster management pptDisaster management ppt
Disaster management pptAniket Pingale
 

Viewers also liked (16)

Disaster management ppt
Disaster management pptDisaster management ppt
Disaster management ppt
 
Earthquake mitigation plan and measures
Earthquake mitigation plan and measuresEarthquake mitigation plan and measures
Earthquake mitigation plan and measures
 
Hazards print_07192013
Hazards print_07192013Hazards print_07192013
Hazards print_07192013
 
World at Risk
World at RiskWorld at Risk
World at Risk
 
El Nino & La Nina
El Nino & La NinaEl Nino & La Nina
El Nino & La Nina
 
Chernobyl disaster
Chernobyl disasterChernobyl disaster
Chernobyl disaster
 
Vulnerability
VulnerabilityVulnerability
Vulnerability
 
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane KatrinaHurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
 
US drought vs. Ethiopian drought
US drought vs. Ethiopian droughtUS drought vs. Ethiopian drought
US drought vs. Ethiopian drought
 
Evaluating Vulnerability in the 2011 Japan Earthquake and the 2010 Haiti Eart...
Evaluating Vulnerability in the 2011 Japan Earthquake and the 2010 Haiti Eart...Evaluating Vulnerability in the 2011 Japan Earthquake and the 2010 Haiti Eart...
Evaluating Vulnerability in the 2011 Japan Earthquake and the 2010 Haiti Eart...
 
Hurricane Katrina vs Cyclone Nargis
Hurricane Katrina vs Cyclone NargisHurricane Katrina vs Cyclone Nargis
Hurricane Katrina vs Cyclone Nargis
 
Haiti earthquake - Adjustments and Responses (Correct Ver)
Haiti earthquake - Adjustments and Responses (Correct Ver) Haiti earthquake - Adjustments and Responses (Correct Ver)
Haiti earthquake - Adjustments and Responses (Correct Ver)
 
Hurricane Katrina Adjustments & Responses
Hurricane Katrina Adjustments & ResponsesHurricane Katrina Adjustments & Responses
Hurricane Katrina Adjustments & Responses
 
coping with hazards
coping with hazardscoping with hazards
coping with hazards
 
Floods
FloodsFloods
Floods
 
Disaster management ppt
Disaster management pptDisaster management ppt
Disaster management ppt
 

Similar to Natural hazards and disaster,types,mitigation and management

Global Hazards
Global HazardsGlobal Hazards
Global HazardsMyno Uddin
 
Natural disaster
Natural disasterNatural disaster
Natural disasterWaqar Ahmad
 
Natural disaster
Natural disasterNatural disaster
Natural disasterWaqar Ahmad
 
Earthquake in Environmental geology
Earthquake in Environmental geologyEarthquake in Environmental geology
Earthquake in Environmental geologyThomas Chinnappan
 
PPT on 10th disaster management
PPT on 10th disaster managementPPT on 10th disaster management
PPT on 10th disaster managementAniruddha Kawade
 
Natural disasters
Natural  disastersNatural  disasters
Natural disastersTeju Kotti
 
Natural-Hazard-and-Disaster-Preparedness.ppt
Natural-Hazard-and-Disaster-Preparedness.pptNatural-Hazard-and-Disaster-Preparedness.ppt
Natural-Hazard-and-Disaster-Preparedness.pptMadenbeto
 
Study of earthquake hazards or disaster
Study of earthquake hazards or disaster Study of earthquake hazards or disaster
Study of earthquake hazards or disaster Jahangir Alam
 
Climatic changes el nino and la nina
Climatic changes  el nino and la ninaClimatic changes  el nino and la nina
Climatic changes el nino and la ninaBalkrishanacharora
 
Disastermanagement 131013064848-phpapp01
Disastermanagement 131013064848-phpapp01Disastermanagement 131013064848-phpapp01
Disastermanagement 131013064848-phpapp01Ghaleb Kandil
 
Disaster management an awareness i by p.n.rao20 may13
Disaster management an awareness  i  by p.n.rao20 may13Disaster management an awareness  i  by p.n.rao20 may13
Disaster management an awareness i by p.n.rao20 may13Subramanyam Rao
 
naturaldisasters2-121125072902-phpapp01.pptx
naturaldisasters2-121125072902-phpapp01.pptxnaturaldisasters2-121125072902-phpapp01.pptx
naturaldisasters2-121125072902-phpapp01.pptxssuser99388e
 
Unit 4 Pre Release
Unit 4 Pre ReleaseUnit 4 Pre Release
Unit 4 Pre Releasetotal
 
EARTHQUAKES FOR CAMBRIDGE A LEVEL
EARTHQUAKES FOR CAMBRIDGE A LEVELEARTHQUAKES FOR CAMBRIDGE A LEVEL
EARTHQUAKES FOR CAMBRIDGE A LEVELYonas Gemeda
 
DISASTER MANAGEMENT ppt.pptx
DISASTER MANAGEMENT ppt.pptxDISASTER MANAGEMENT ppt.pptx
DISASTER MANAGEMENT ppt.pptxVirus12185
 

Similar to Natural hazards and disaster,types,mitigation and management (20)

Disaster Management
Disaster ManagementDisaster Management
Disaster Management
 
Global Hazards
Global HazardsGlobal Hazards
Global Hazards
 
Natural disaster
Natural disasterNatural disaster
Natural disaster
 
Natural disaster
Natural disasterNatural disaster
Natural disaster
 
MODULE 2 CET 202 ENGINEERING GEOLOGY.pdf
MODULE 2 CET 202 ENGINEERING GEOLOGY.pdfMODULE 2 CET 202 ENGINEERING GEOLOGY.pdf
MODULE 2 CET 202 ENGINEERING GEOLOGY.pdf
 
Earthquake in Environmental geology
Earthquake in Environmental geologyEarthquake in Environmental geology
Earthquake in Environmental geology
 
PPT on 10th disaster management
PPT on 10th disaster managementPPT on 10th disaster management
PPT on 10th disaster management
 
Natural disasters
Natural  disastersNatural  disasters
Natural disasters
 
Natural-Hazard-and-Disaster-Preparedness.ppt
Natural-Hazard-and-Disaster-Preparedness.pptNatural-Hazard-and-Disaster-Preparedness.ppt
Natural-Hazard-and-Disaster-Preparedness.ppt
 
Study of earthquake hazards or disaster
Study of earthquake hazards or disaster Study of earthquake hazards or disaster
Study of earthquake hazards or disaster
 
Climatic changes el nino and la nina
Climatic changes  el nino and la ninaClimatic changes  el nino and la nina
Climatic changes el nino and la nina
 
Disastermanagement 131013064848-phpapp01
Disastermanagement 131013064848-phpapp01Disastermanagement 131013064848-phpapp01
Disastermanagement 131013064848-phpapp01
 
Disaster management an awareness i by p.n.rao20 may13
Disaster management an awareness  i  by p.n.rao20 may13Disaster management an awareness  i  by p.n.rao20 may13
Disaster management an awareness i by p.n.rao20 may13
 
naturaldisasters2-121125072902-phpapp01.pptx
naturaldisasters2-121125072902-phpapp01.pptxnaturaldisasters2-121125072902-phpapp01.pptx
naturaldisasters2-121125072902-phpapp01.pptx
 
Unit 4 Pre Release
Unit 4 Pre ReleaseUnit 4 Pre Release
Unit 4 Pre Release
 
EARTHQUAKES FOR CAMBRIDGE A LEVEL
EARTHQUAKES FOR CAMBRIDGE A LEVELEARTHQUAKES FOR CAMBRIDGE A LEVEL
EARTHQUAKES FOR CAMBRIDGE A LEVEL
 
DISASTER MANAGEMENT ppt.pptx
DISASTER MANAGEMENT ppt.pptxDISASTER MANAGEMENT ppt.pptx
DISASTER MANAGEMENT ppt.pptx
 
Natural disaster
Natural disasterNatural disaster
Natural disaster
 
Disaster mangement
Disaster mangementDisaster mangement
Disaster mangement
 
Natural disasters
Natural disastersNatural disasters
Natural disasters
 

Recently uploaded

The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFVivekanand Anglo Vedic Academy
 
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17Celine George
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽中 央社
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....Ritu480198
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文中 央社
 
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxHow to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxCeline George
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................MirzaAbrarBaig5
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesAmanpreetKaur157993
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhleson0603
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code ExamplesPeter Brusilovsky
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSean M. Fox
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxLimon Prince
 

Recently uploaded (20)

The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
 
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
 
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
How to Send Pro Forma Invoice to Your Customers in Odoo 17
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
 
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxHow to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
 
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
How To Create Editable Tree View in Odoo 17
 
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
 
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading RoomSternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
Sternal Fractures & Dislocations - EMGuidewire Radiology Reading Room
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
 

Natural hazards and disaster,types,mitigation and management

  • 1.
  • 3. Introduction to Natural Hazards • What is a “Geohazard”? – Earth processes (involving the lithosphere, hydrosphere & atmosphere) that, upon interaction with human activity, cause loss of life and property Hazardous geo- human process condition process or result – It is important to understand the human element • without it, there would be no hazard • because of it, the science of geohazards becomes more important every year – mitigation: reduction/prevention
  • 4. Why is the human element so critical? • The Earth’s population is increasing • more people living in hazard-prone areas • populations are becoming hyper-concentrated • consumption of resources • examples: – today there are 6 billion people on Earth ( ~ 50% live in cities) – by 2025, there will be ~8 billion people (~ 66% in cities) – of these cities, 40% are coastal » prone to severe storm and tsunami damage – and a large majority lie in areas subject to other geohazards (for example volcanoes and earthquakes)
  • 5.
  • 6. •CANNOT stop the geologic processes •CANNOT stop the population growth/expansion •Therefore, we must try to reduce (mitigate) the hazards through: •scientific study •population education •changes in engineering/building practices •management plans and hazard response scenarios
  • 7. Types of Natural Hazards • Volcanoes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, tsunamis, etc. – can act adversely on human processes – can occur: • without warning (e.g. earthquakes) • with warnings (precursors) (e.g. satellite monitoring of cyclone tracks, or the presence of ground deformation at a volcano before an eruption)
  • 8. • To help mitigate the hazard we need to know: • Frequency vs. Magnitude – F: how often a given event occurs in a certain region – M: how powerful (amount of energy released) an event is • for example, high M hazards happen with low F, but are much more destructive • Scope – S: area affected by a given hazard • local: landslides, floods, earthquakes, fire … • regional: tsunamis, volcanoes, larger earthquakes, cyclones … • global: large volcanoes, global warming, meteorite impacts …
  • 9. Practical Exercise 1. Impact of Environmental Disasters
  • 11. What is an Earthquake? • Ground movement caused by the sudden release of seismic energy due to tectonic forces. The focus of an earthquake is the actual location of the energy released inside the Earth’s crust. The epicentre is the point on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus.
  • 12. Why do earthquakes occur? • Seismic energy is usually caused by the brittle failure (fracturing) of rocks under stress. Figure showing the distribution of earthquakes around the globe • This commonly occurs due to movement along tectonic plate boundaries
  • 13. Earthquake Magnitude Magnitude Earthquake Effects Approx. number each year < 2.5 Usually not felt, but recorded 900,000 2.5-5.4 Often felt, only minor damage 30,000 5.5-6.0 Slight damage to buildings and 500 other structures 6.1-6.9 May cause a lot of damage in very 100 populated areas 7.0-7.9 Major earthquake. Serious 20 damage. > 8.0 Great earthquake. Can be totally 1 every 5-10 years destructive near the epicentre.
  • 14. San Francisco - Great Earthquake • Magnitude 7.7 - 8.3
  • 15. Earthquake Hazards • These are important hazards to understand: – the natural hazard that on average kills the highest number of people per year (> 1 million during the past century) – commonly strikes without warning – no time for evacuation – not a predictable trend to earthquake numbers, magnitude or location • 1000's of large earthquakes every year • ~ 20 are > M7.0 and these account for 90% of the energy released and 80% of all the fatalities
  • 16.
  • 17. How do we mitigate the hazard from earthquakes? • Reinforce buildings • Education • Disaster plan
  • 18. Earthquakes and Tsunami’s • An earthquake under the ocean has the potential to form a tsunami. • The earthquake must vertically displace overlying water (extensional or compressional faults - not transform) Extension Compression Transform
  • 19. How does an earthquake form a tsunami?
  • 20. 2004 South Asian Boxing Day event • Biggest earthquake in 40 years! • Magnitude 9.2 • 150 km off the west of Northern Sumatra • Generated a disastrous tsunami in 12 countries
  • 21. Second largest recorded earthquake • The earthquake occurred at a convergent tectonic plate boundary (subduction zone) • An estimated 1,600 km (994 miles) of faultline slipped about 15 m (50 ft)! • The earthquake released 20 x 1017 Joules of energy – Equivalent to: • 475,000,000 kg of TNT • 23,000 Hiroshima atomic bombs!
  • 22. Tsunami Animations of the Boxing Day tsunami showing how the tsunami radiated from the entire Above: Countries most effected by length of the the tsunami 1,600 km (994 miles) rupture.
  • 23. A village near the coast of Sumatra lays in ruin after the tsunami.
  • 24. How do we mitigate the hazard from tsunamis? • Monitoring – process is very technology- intensive • high costs for many poorer countries – often no technology available to monitor local tsunamis • for example, • Papua New Guinea has no monitoring stations – reliant on the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center • tsunami in 1998 was not detected
  • 25. How do we mitigate the hazard from tsunamis? • Building restrictions in hazard prone areas – In Hawaii, Hilo harbor and downtown was destroyed by the tsunamis of 1946 and 1960 – The town is now rebuilt on higher ground and the devastated area is a park
  • 26. How do we mitigate the hazard from tsunamis? • Seawall construction – cause early wave breaking – prevent wave run up into urban areas
  • 27. How do we mitigate the hazard from tsunamis? • Education – warning systems – evacuation plans – general understanding of the hazards involved Punishment Natural event From God 35% 45% Bomb 20% Population reaction: Papua New Guinea (1998)
  • 28. Practical Exercise 2. Locating Earthquake Epicentres
  • 30. Same Storm - Different Name
  • 31. Tropical Cyclones • Background: – Can be deadly! • For example, in 1991 a large cyclone in Bangladesh killed >138,000 people in just two days!
  • 32. Tropical Cyclones • Most widespread destructive weather hazard – For example: Hurricane Floyd (1999) • only a moderate level hurricane • caused US$5.6 billion in damage in the Bahamas and North Carolina (USA) and 57 fatalities (Left) Three different cyclones spinning over the western Pacific Ocean on August 7, 2006.
  • 33. How do cyclones form? The above figure shows how cyclones form. The green arrows show where warm air is rising. The red arrows indicate where cool air is sinking.
  • 34. Cyclone Categories Category Wind Speed Damage at Storm Surge (mph) Landfall (feet) 1 74-95 Minimal 4-5 2 96-110 Moderate 6-8 3 111-130 Extensive 9-12 4 131-155 Extreme 13-18 5 > 155 Catastrophic 19+ The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
  • 35. Hurricane Katrina • Hurricane Katrina was the most costly and most deadly hurricane in the history of the USA. – Category 5 • At least 1,836 fatalities • Damage estimated at US$ 81.2 billion
  • 37. What damage is produced? • Storm Surge – water that is pushed toward the shore by the force of the cyclone winds.
  • 38. What damage is produced? • Wind – responsible for the loss of power and utilities – wind damage affects larger areas than surge – flying debris – tree loss
  • 39. What damage is produced? • Flying debris – debris propelled at high speeds
  • 40. How do we mitigate the hazard from a cyclone? • Monitoring – early warning systems • Infrastructure – cyclone walls – communal shelters • Education and planning
  • 41. Natural Hazards Summary Graph showing the number of deaths per year due to natural hazard events
  • 42. Damage HAZARD Potential Awareness- Effect on Elements Society Quicker Recovery Elements at Risk Action Plans Huge Losses/ Communities Damages More Resilient Reduced More Stable Society Losses
  • 43. Damage HAZARD Potential Elements at Risk Natural Features Societal Elements River/Stream Banks People & Live-stock Low-lying Areas Huts & Semi-permanent Houses Sea & Sea-coast Weak Buildings Slopes of hills Agri. & Horticultural crops Livelihood tools / Equipment Unsecured personal assets Public Infrastructure
  • 44. CYCLONE Damage Potential Poorer than Society before Elements at Risk Disruption of Normal life & Huge Losses/ Development Damages Suffers
  • 45. Types of disasters Major natural disasters: Minor natural disasters: • Cold wave •   Flood • Thunderstorms • Cyclone • Heat waves • Drought • Mud slides • Earthquake • Storm Major manmade disaster: Minor manmade disaster: 1. Setting of fires • Road / train accidents, riots 2. Epidemic • Food poisoning 3. Deforestation • Industrial disaster/ crisis 4. Pollution due to prawn • Environmental pollution cultivation   5. Chemical pollution.   6. Wars      
  • 46. Scale of Disaster Is Dependent on : • Lead Time Available. • Intensity of Hazard. • Duration. • Spatial Extent. • Density of Population & Assets. • Time of Occurrence. • Vulnerabilities existing in the Elements at Risk. • Hazard X Vulnerability = Disaster
  • 47. ELEMENTS AT RISK • People • Livestock • Rural Housing Stock • Houses Vulnerable • Crops, Trees,Telephone, Electric poles • Boats, Looms, Working Implements • Personal Property • Electricity, Water and Food Supplies • Infrastructure Support
  • 48. AIMS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT • Reduce (Avoid, if possible) the potential losses from hazards. • Assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims when necessary. • Achieve rapid and durable recovery.
  • 49. PRE-DISASTER DURING DISASTER POST- DISASTER DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
  • 50. Stages of Disaster Cyclone BEFORE DURING AFTER Jan - Apr MAY June- Oct Well Before Weeks-Months Just Before Actual Time - Hours Period Rescue Relief Rehabilitation Reconstruction
  • 51. Role Players in Disasters • People : Individuals, House -Holds, Volunteers • Gram Panchayat : Sarpanch, Panchayati Secretary, Panchayati Members • Village Elders : Caste/Community/Religious Leaders, Teachers, Doctors, Engineers, Retired Army & Police Personnel • Govt. Deptl. Officers : Agriculture, Medical, Engineers (Housing, Roads & Buildings, Irrigation) Revenue Department, Public Health, Police etc. NGOs
  • 52. DEFINITIONS OF “VULNERABILITY” • “The extent to which a community, structure, service or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of particular disaster hazard…” • “Vulnerability is the propensity of things to be damaged by a hazard”.
  • 53. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS • Disaster preparedness aims at minimizing the adverse effects of a hazard - • Through effective precautionary actions • Ensure timely, appropriate and efficient organisation and delivery of emergency response following the impact of a disaster.
  • 54. PREPAREDNESS • Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping to include Resources. • Assess strengthening requirements and execute. • Funding for preparedness must be arranged. • Peoples’ cooperation through Political leaders, elders, Volunteers and NGOs • Create lead time by interpreting Warnings • Plan to include movement of resources with time frame. • Aim to reduce the destructive potential of cyclones, timely & appropriate relief to victims and quick & durable recovery
  • 55. Disaster Preparedness Framework COMPONENTS OF PREPAREDNESS Vulnerability Planning Institutional Assessment Framework Information Resource Warning System Base Systems Response Public Rehearsals Mechanisms Education and Training
  • 56. Disaster Response Activities • Warning • Evacuation/Mitigation • Search and Rescue • Assessment • Emergency Relief • Logistics and Supply • Communication and information Management • Survivor Response and coping • Security • EOC & coordination • Expedite rehabilitation and reconstruction.
  • 57. Floods and Water Hazards Elements at Risk Main Mitigation • Everything in the Strategies. flood plain. • Land use control • Earthen or soluble • Engineering of structures strictures • Buried services • Elevation of structures and utilities • Flood control structures • Food stores • Reforestation projects • Crops and (watershed livestock management)
  • 58. Strong Winds Main Mitigation Elements at Risk Strategies. • Lightweight structures. • Elevated utilities • Structural (Power and engineering communication lines) measures. • Fishing boats and • Planting of other maritime industries. windbreaks.

Editor's Notes

  1. Firstly, we need to know what a “Geohazard” is: It is an Earth process that upon interaction with human activity causes loss of life and (or) property. By “Earth process” we mean a natural event that occurs within the lithosphere/crust, hydrosphere (e.g. weather system) or atmosphere. Why is it important that we study Geohazards? Because they are a hazard to the human population and (or) infrastructure If human lives were not threatened or endangered then the process would not be classed as a “hazard” and it would not be so vital that we understand the processes involved. The hazard assessment branch of science, that provides a wide range of jobs, has become very popular over the last few years. With wild weather seemly becoming more common globally the race is on to find ways to reduce the impact of hazardous events on the human population.
  2. Why is the human element so critical, or, why is it becoming more important to understand these events? The Earth’s population is increasing and therefore, as existing cities etc become full and people search for new space to live in, more and more enter into areas that are prone to hazards. For example, today around 50% of the 6 billion inhabitants on Earth live in cities. Current trends suggest that by 2025 there will be 8 billion people on Earth and 66% of them will be living in cities. Of all the cities, 40% of them lie on the coast and therefore are prone to severe storm and tsunami damage. There are many other examples: the sides of volcanoes have very fertile soils, so farmers plant their crops or graze their livestock closer and closer to the volcanic vent in order to increase their revenue People build houses further up into mountains in areas where landslides occur.
  3. Before and After photographs from Phuket, Thailand, of the 2004 Boxing Day (26th of December) tsunami.
  4. We need to remember that we can not stop the geologic process (you can’t stop a volcano from erupting, or a cyclone from forming), we also can not stop the population from growing. We can only attempt to reduce the hazard to life and property. To combat the increasing risk we need more studies to attempt to understand and help forecast future events. We need to be able to monitor the hazardous systems (e.g. volcano monitoring, meteorological/weather monitoring) and to be able to quickly communicate the information from the scientists to the general population. All of this helps with the aim to MITIGATE (reduce) the effect of the natural hazards.
  5. There are many types of natural events that can impact human processes: Volcanoes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, tsunamis, (Presenter: Can the students think of any more examples?)… landslides, avalanches, forest fires…..? These events can occur either without warning, for example an earthquake. Or they may occur with warning, for example you can monitor with satellites when and where a cyclone will hit the coastline. Also, some volcanoes change their behaviour before an eruption, the sides of the volcano may swell and crack as hot molten rock is pushed up towards the surface. These warnings are called “precursors”. Precursors are what scientists look out for when trying to forecast a future event.
  6. To help forecast an event and mitigate (reduce) the hazards involved scientists need to know three things: The Frequency of the event, i.e. how often the event occurs (on a scale of every month, year, 10 years, 1000 years etc.) The Magnitude of the event, i.e. how powerful the event is. This often relates to how destructive the event is. There is an important link between frequency and magnitude: for example, an event with a high F and low M may not be as devastating and a hazard with low F but high M. The Scope of an event describes the area the hazard effects. Will the hazard or damage be contained only locally (e.g. landslides, fires, floods and earthquakes), or on a larger regional scale (e.g. tsunami’s, explosive volcanoes, large-scale earthquakes, cyclones). The largest, most catastrophic events may even effect the entire globe (e.g. large volcanoes, global warming, meteorite impacts)… Knowing these three factors for each natural hazard event will help the population to plan for future events.
  7. See Natural Hazards exercise 1.
  8. The next parts of the lecture will provide details and give examples of a number of specific natural hazards. We will first look at earthquakes and and tsunamis generated by earthquakes.
  9. An earthquake is a sudden release of stored energy in the Earth’s crust. For example, this can be caused by sudden movement/slipping along a fault plane or the cracking of rock stressed by tectonic forces. This movement sends out seismic waves that travel through the crust potentially causing damage at the surface by a shaking or displacement of the ground . - Terminology: The focus of an earthquake is the actual location of the energy released inside the Earth ’ s crust. The epicentre is the point on the Earth ’ s surface directly above the focus.
  10. The conditions required to put rocks under the amount of stress needed to fracture them mainly occurs around the boundaries of tectonic plates. As plates push together or slide past each other they stick due to friction and then suddenly break and earthquakes are produced. This figure shows the distribution of earthquakes around the globe. You will notice that they are not randomly distributed, but form lines that snake around the globe. These lines follow the known boundaries of tectonic plates. (For an overview of plate tectonics see the Plate Tectonics lecture in this series)
  11. The Magnitude of an earthquake is conventionally reported using the Richter Scale. You may have noticed on the news the reporter saying “This earthquake was measured at 6.2” - they are referring to the Richter Scale. Magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes will be difficult to notice at the surface, whereas Magnitude 7 and above earthquakes will cause serious damage over a wide area. Presenter: Quickly go through an overview of the scale. Note the Frequency (Approx. number each year), small magnitude earthquakes are a lot more common than the devastating high magnitude earthquakes. However there are still 20 &gt; Magnitude 7 earthquakes every year!!
  12. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake that hit San Francisco and the coast of northern California on Wednesday, April 18, 1906. The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the earthquake is 7.8; however, other values have been proposed from 7.7 to as high as 8.3. The epicenter occurred offshore, about 2 miles (3 km) from the city. It ruptured along the San Andreas Fault for a total length of 296 miles (477 km). The earthquake and resulting fire is remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in the history of the USA. The death toll from the earthquake and resulting fire represents the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California&apos;s history. The economic impact has been compared with the more recent Hurricane Katrina disaster. Presenter: Refer to the photos to show the large scale of the damage.
  13. Earthquakes are important hazards to understand as they are responsible for the deaths of the highest number of people per event for any natural hazard. They commonly strike without warning, therefore people can not evacuate to safer areas. Also there is not a predictable trend to the number of earthquakes per year, when and where they occur (within earthquake prone regions around tectonic plate boundaries) is randomly distributed. For example there are 1000’s of earthquakes every year, but only around 20 of them are magnitude 7 or higher. These 20 events account for 90% of the energy released from all of the earthquakes put together and result in 80% of all the earthquake fatalities.
  14. Photographs showing examples of the destruction caused by earthquakes.
  15. We can not stop earthquakes from happening and we get no warning as to when they will occur….so how do we lessen the risk of earthquake activity? The simple answer is to be prepared: In earthquake prone regions the buildings can be reinforced and designed to prevent the likelihood of collapse during an earthquake. The population can be educated about what to do in the event of an earthquake and evacuation and rescue plans can be drawn up in advance to minimise chaos and panic if/when an earthquake occurs. For example, earthquake education is now part of the curriculum in schools in some states of the USA and in Japan.
  16. An earthquake that occurs under the ocean has the potential to form a tsunami. - Tsunami is a Japanese word with “tsu” meaning harbor and “ nami” meaning wave. Not every earthquake will form a tsunami, the movement must result in the VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT of water. That is: if a piece of the ocean floor moves either up or down (see the Extension and Compression fault examples) the ocean water will be rapidly displaced and this will form waves at the surface. If two pieces of crust slide past each other (see Transform fault example) there is no vertical movement of the crust or the overlying water and a tsunami will not form.
  17. This cartoon diagram summarises how an earthquake may form a tsunami. Shows normal conditions. Note the presence of a pre-existing crack or fault in the seafloor The earthquake! An earthquake causes a piece of the seafloor to be pushed up into the overlying ocean. This causes the water to also be displaced/pushed up. The displaced water forms tsunami wave that can travel thousands of kilometres before it reaches land. The wave will break when it does eventually reach the shore potentially causing flooding as the water level rises well above normal sea level. Mud, sand and a trail of debris (trees, building material etc) is left deposited on the sea shore after the wave has subsided.
  18. You most probably remember the 2004 South Asian Boxing Day tsunami event. This tsunami was caused by an earthquake off the coast of Sumatra that measured a magnitude of 9.2!! The biggest earthquake recorded in 40 years! Presenter: Can ask the students if they saw the aftermath of the tsunami on the television and what they remember of the images.
  19. The earthquake off the Sumatran coast was originally recorded as 9.0 but has been increased to 9.2. At this magnitude it is the second largest earthquake ever recorded. This earthquake was also reported to have the longest duration of faulting, lasting between 500 and 600 seconds (8.3 to 10 minutes). The earthquake was so large that it caused the entire planet to vibrate as much as half an inch, or over a centimetre!! It occurred at a convergent (Presenter: remember the diagram of the convergent fault) tectonic plate boundary, where an estimated 1,600 km of faultline slipped about 15 m (a LOT of rock moved!). The earthquake released 20 x 10 17 Joules of energy, which is like setting off 475 million kilograms of TNT or 23,000 atomic bombs!! NOTE: The largest earthquake ever recorded, which measured 9.5, was in Chile on May 22, 1960.
  20. The sudden vertical rise of the seabed during the earthquake displaced massive volumes of water, resulting in a tsunami that struck the coasts of 12 countries around the Indian Ocean. Because of the distances involved, the tsunami took anywhere from fifteen minutes to seven hours (for Somalia) to reach the various coastlines. The northern regions of the Indonesian island of Sumatra were hit very quickly, while Sri Lanka and the east coast of India were hit roughly 90 minutes to two hours later. These animations show how the tsunami wave radiated out from the 1,600 km rupture in the seafloor. The red and yellow areas are those of higher than usual water levels and blue are the areas of lower than normal water levels. Note how the wave dissipates with distance, therefore the countries close to the epicentre are hit by a significantly bigger wave than those further away.
  21. The tsunami caused widespread flooding and fatalities. Thousands of people died and many more were displaced from their homes. This photo shows an example of the devastation caused by the waves.
  22. So, we have seen that tsunami’s can be extremely devastating - but the question is, what can we do about them? Firstly, we can monitor for them: If there is an earthquake in the ocean, specialist monitoring stations like the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC - pictured top right) can monitor the ocean surface using satellites, radar and buoys in the water that measure current speed and waves. These systems will pick up the presence of a tsunami. If a tsunami does occur the PTWC can warn local authorities in the areas where the tsunami is likely to hit. Computer simulations, using the speed of the tsunami wave, can estimate the time of arrival for the tsunami. This technology is very expensive to run and maintain however, and many poorer countries have to rely on stations from other countries that are far away. For example a tsunami that hit Papua New Guinea in 1998 was undetected as it originated close to the island and was undetected by the PTWC which is located in Hawaii.
  23. Some areas, such as Hawaii, have building restrictions in hazard prone regions. For example, tsunamis hit the town of Hilo in 1946 and 1960 destroying the harbour and a large part of the town (top photo). Now this region of the city has a ban on the construction of new buildings there and the majority of the land has been turned into a park (bottom photo).
  24. Seawalls have been constructed on many beaches not only for protection against tsunami’s but also the hazards of large storm waves. Seawalls are designed to make waves break early (before the shoreline), therefore dissipating their energy before they reach the shore. Some walls are designed to build up the shoreline to prevent waves from over topping the shore and flowing into residential areas.
  25. Finally, to protect the population against tsunamis they need to be educated about the hazards involved and warning systems (sirens, emergency service teams) and evacuation plans (escape to higher ground) need to be established.
  26. See Natural Hazards Exercise 2.
  27. Same Storm - Different Names…depending on where you are in the world tropical storms have different names: In the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (eastern) they are called hurricanes . average of 10 named storms per season ~6 becoming hurricanes Over the western Pacific Ocean they are called typhoons. average of 16 named storms per season ~9 becoming typhoons The western Pacific ocean is a major source of tropical storms as the water is warmest and there are large distances between landmasses. Over the Indian Ocean the storms are called cyclones. “Cyclone” is the best overall phrase to use for high intensity rotating storms. Storms that form north of the equator spin counterclockwise. Storms south of the equator spin clockwise. This difference is because of Earth&apos;s rotation on its axis.
  28. Tropical cyclones are a MAJOR natural hazard that can cause large numbers of fatalities and extensive damage. For example the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone , “ Cyclone Gorky” , was among the deadliest tropical cyclones on record. On the night of the 29th of August the cyclone struck the southeastern coast of Bangladesh with winds of around 250 km/h (155 mph). The storm forced a 6 metre (20 foot) storm surge wave inland over a wide area, killing at least 138,000 people and leaving as many as 10 million homeless.
  29. Cyclones can devastate large areas, for example Hurricane Katrina (August 2005, USA) had gale force winds extending 120 miles (190 km) from the storm centre ( “ eye of the storm ” ) - remember cyclones are radial (circular) so that makes it approximately 240 miles (380 km) from one side to the other! In 1999 Hurricane Floyd caused 2.6-million coastal residents across the entire US state of Florida to evacuate their homes. The hurricane produced torrential rainfall that caused widespread flooding over a period of several weeks; nearly every river basin in the eastern part of the state exceeded 500-year flood levels. Hurricane Floyd was responsible for 57 fatalities and US$5.6 billion of damage.
  30. Tropical cyclones form only over warm ocean waters near the equator. To form a cyclone, warm, moist air over the ocean rises upward from near the surface. As this air moves up and away from the ocean surface, it leaves is less air near the surface. So basically as the warm air rises, it causes an area of lower air pressure below. Air from surrounding areas with higher air pressure pushes in to the low pressure area. Then this new “cool” air becomes warm and moist and rises, too. And the cycle continues… As the warmed, moist air rises and cools the water in the air forms clouds. The whole system of clouds and wind spins and grows, fed by the ocean’s heat and water evaporating from the ocean surface. As the storm system rotates faster and faster, an eye forms in the centre. It is very calm and clear in the eye, with very low air pressure. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye. When the winds in the rotating storm reach 39 mph (63 kmph), the storm is called a “tropical storm”. And when the wind speeds reach 74 mph (119 kmph), the storm is officially a “tropical cyclone” or hurricane.Tropical cyclones usually weaken when they hit land, because they are no longer being “fed” by the energy from the warm ocean waters. However, they often move far inland, dumping many centimetres of rain and causing lots of wind damage before they die out completely.
  31. Cyclones are divided into categories depending on the strength of the winds produced. There are many different classification scales but one you may be familiar with is the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. This scale is used to desribe storms in Hollywood movies, e.g. “Twister” and “The Day After Tomorrow”. The classifications (1-5) are intended primarily for use in measuring the potential damage and flooding (storm surge) a cyclone will cause upon landfall.
  32. The students probably would have seen on the news in 2005 the devastating effect that Hurricane Katrina had on the area of New Orleans and surrounds…. Hurricane Katrina was the costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes in the history of the USA. It was the sixth-strongest Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the third-strongest hurricane on record that made landfall in the United States. Katrina formed on the 23rd of August 2005 and caused devastation along much of the north-central Gulf Coast of the United States. The most severe loss of life and property damage occurred in New Orleans, which flooded as the previously emplaced flood defenses failed. The hurricane caused severe destruction across the entire coast of Mississippi and Alabama, as far as 100 miles (160 km) from the storm&apos;s centre. There were at least 1,836 fatalities recorded and damage estimates are over 81 billion US dollars! Top Image: A radar image of Hurricane Katrina making its landfall in Louisiana. Bottom Image: The storm track Hurricane Katrina followed. The colors indicate the category of the hurricane with light yellow as a category 1 storm (lowest) and red as category 5 (highest).
  33. Damage from Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Left photo: Flooded motorway and surrounding suburbs in New Orleans. Top right: Bridge damage caused by Katrina - each section of the road has collapsed. Bottom right: 16 foot (5 m) and higher waves pushed over 23 shrimp boats and the cargo ship named &quot;Caribbean Clipper&quot; (pictured with all of the cars on it) onto shore, along with over 6 fishing boats aground (4 shown). The captain of the 179 foot (55 m) cargo ship M/V Caribbean Clipper rode out Katrina on board the ship! The ship was returned to sea, six months later, using a large crane to unload the cargo and re-float the hull.
  34. We have seen that tropical storms can and do produce a lot of damage, but how is this damage produced? What are the dangers involved? Firstly, there is the “Storm Surge”: A storm surge is caused by strong winds pushing on the ocean&apos;s surface. The wind causes the water to pile up higher than the ordinary sea level. Storm surges are particularly damaging when they occur at the time of a high tide, which increases the risk of flooding. Storm surges are extremely destructive to property, can cause flooding and large amounts of erosion. Storm Surges account for 90% of all fatalities associated with cyclones. Presenter: When finished explaining click for photograph of flooding caused by Hurricane Wilma’s (USA) storm surge in October 2005.
  35. Destruction from strong winds will effect a wider region than that damaged by the storm surge. The wind can uproot trees, bring down powerlines, and damage properties. NOTE: The sheet of corrugated iron wrapped around the tree in the bottom photograph.
  36. Flying debris - enough said? Imagine being out in winds carrying building material fast enough to split a tree truck in two…..
  37. How to do mitigate the risk from a cyclone? Early warning systems are needed to give people time to make their home safe (e.g. board up windows and doors), or to evacuate to a designated shelter. This may come in the forms of alarms or sirens sounded throughout a town, or notification by radio, television and local enforcement services (police, fire brigade etc.). Meteorological stations around the globe can trace the track of a cyclone and predict when and where the storm will make landfall. So in may cases warnings can be made in advance of the disaster. In cyclone-prone regions infrastructure can be emplaced to decrease the damage caused by the cyclone For example, “cyclone walls” (top photograph) have been built along coastal areas to stop or lessen the impact of a storm surge. These can also be used as roads along which residents can evacuate. In low lying coastal regions communal storm shelters can be built. These act as an evacuation point for people living in the surrounding areas. For all of these measures to work the population need to be educated about the threat of the storms and what to do in case of an emergency.
  38. Natural Hazards such as earthquakes, tsunami’s, cyclones, volcanic eruption, avalanches and landslides, and more are a major cause of fatalities. This graph shows the the number of deaths per year due to natural hazards. Remember this is in addition to normal global fatalities due to age, famine, disease etc. Every year there are close to 10,000 fatalities caused by natural hazards. In the event of large-scale events (seen by the peaks on the graph) this number rises to ten’s of thousands! (Note the logarithmic scale used for the graph) Natural Hazards cannot be stopped, however measures can be taken to lessen the impact they have on the population. To do this we need to understand the processes involved for each type of event and work out individual emergency plans of action. Personal Student Stories/Discussion: Has anyone in the class experienced a natural hazard event? Earthquake? Tsunami? Tornado? Flood? Seen a volcano erupt? Or a landslide? What was it like? Were there plans emplaced? Was it calm or were people panicked? If the students were managing the disaster plan would they have done anything differently?
  39. If you look at the right half of the slide you will find that the damage potential in the hazard causes the damages to the society Life comes to a halt and the poorer sections of the society can never recover to the pre-disaster causes serious disruption to life of the society But with awareness and preparation through action plans the society suffers less damages and is thus a more stable society.to recover faster.
  40. If you look at the right half of the slide you will find that the damage potential in the hazard causes the damages to the society Life comes to a halt and the poorer sections of the society can never recover to the pre-disaster causes serious disruption to life of the society But with awareness and preparation through action plans the society suffers less damages and is thus a more stable society.to recover faster.
  41. If you look at the right half of the slide you will find that the damage potential in the hazard causes the damages to the society Life comes to a halt and the poorer sections of the society can never recover to the pre-disaster causes serious disruption to life of the society But with awareness and preparation through action plans the society suffers less damages and is thus a more stable society.to recover faster.