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Intro to Design
   Thinking

         Social Entrepreneurship ASB
                 January 25th, 2010
                        Mike Krieger
Intro
a little about me
a little bit about you?
by the end of today...

- General design thinking framework
- Needfinding tips
- Whole-group activity
Design Thinking
What When How
a definition


- an approach to solving design problems
  by understanding users' needs and
  developing insights to solve those needs
- When taken to its fullest, as much a
  mindset as a process
and that mindset?

- Only through contact, observation &
  empathy with end-users can you hope to
  design solutions that fit into their
  environment
as opposed to?
- “We have this problem, let's jump in and
  get in a room and brainstorm solutions”
- “We have this technology, what can we use
  it for?”
- “Our competitors just launched X; how
  can we do X quickly?”
Design Thinking
What When How
when?


- Developing & deploying a solution to a
  problem presented in your organization,
  or on your own
or,


- Quickly come up to speed with a domain
  you’re unfamiliar with, or surprise yourself
  regarding a domain you already know
Design Thinking
What When How
the process


- different names for the steps, but same
  overall idea
in theory...   Understand



                Observe



               Synthesize



                 Ideate



               Prototype



                Iterate
practically...   Understand


                  Observe



                 Synthesize


                   Ideate



                 Prototype


                  Iterate
another way of visualizing

Understand    Observe   Synthesize   Ideate   Prototype         Iterate




                                               breadth   time
Understand



 Observe



Synthesize
             understand
  Ideate



Prototype


 Iterate
goal


- Gain basic knowledge so you know the right
  questions to ask
methods

- Web research (but go beyond Google)
- Brief interviews for background
- Reach out to friends who may be
  connected/have information on domain
at the end of this step


- More questions than answers
- Know what’s come before in this space,
  and what the main open questions are
Understand


 Observe



Synthesize
             observe
  Ideate



Prototype


 Iterate
goal


- Gain empathy with your target users by
  talking and observing them
just ask them?

- Watch what they do, not what they say.
- “If I had asked people what they wanted,
  they would have said faster horses.” (Henry
  Ford...maybe)
as a designer...


- you need to understand your audience
  even better than they understand
  themselves
but...


- the only way you’ll get there is to develop a
  deep empathy for their habits, beliefs,
  quirks, workarounds...
the key word
Why?
when interviewing...


- Keep asking “why” until it’s unbearably
  awkward
- Then ask it a one or two more times
example
A: I never leave the house without my phone
Q: Why’s that?
A: oh, I’m worried that I’ll miss something fun by being out of touch
Q: That’s interesting...why does that worry you so much?
A: Well, my group of friends never plans anything, it’s all very last
minute.
Q: Oh, why do you think you all don’t plan much?
A: I think it’s because it’s sort of uncool to be too on top of things...I
keep two separate Google Calendars, one has my real appointments
and the other one is mostly empty so it doesn’t look like I overplan
Q.....etc
what are we looking for?


- Surprises!
- Test: is this interesting enough to tell a
  stranger on the train about?
back to example
- “This person I talked to never leaves the house
  without a phone” (not very surprising. Stranger
  on train yawns and looks away)
- “This person I talked to actually keeps two
  separate Google Calendars, one for herself that’s
  full of appointments and the other for her friends
  to think she’s laid back and doesn’t plan
  much” (way more interesting)
“but this person is boring!”


- Even less outgoing folks can profoundly
  surprise you when you get them talking
  about what they’re interested in
what’s enough?

- When you interview a new participant and
  you can anticipate their answers, even when
  they’re talking about detailed parts of what
  they do
not always interviewing


- Observation is powerful!
things to observe


- Quirky workarounds
thereifixedit.com
things to observe


- Quirky workarounds
- Behaviors that people do over and over
  again throughout the day
coffee shop


http://vimeo.com/8628195
things to observe

- Quirky workarounds
- Behaviors that people do over and over
  again throughout the day
- Dynamics & interactions between people
William Whyte observes NYC


    http://vimeo.com/6821934
Understand



 Observe



Synthesize
             synthesize
  Ideate



Prototype


 Iterate
goal


- Come up with a point of view statement
  that will inform your prototyping
why?


- You can't design for everyone, and you
  can't fix every need you identified
- Instead, tightly focus on one
arriving a point of view


- POV statements can be thought of as:
  user + need + insight
example


- from Neema Moraveji, Education PhD
  student at Stanford
users


- Children in classrooms in developing
  nations
need


- Often only a few computers for the whole
  classrooms, so students can’t all use one
  computer
insight


- By sharing one screen and allowing for
  multiple mice on that computer, all can
  play together
similarly...


- OLPC project
users


- Children in classrooms in developing
  nations
need


- Often only a few computers for the whole
  classrooms, so students can’t all use one
  computer
insight


- By reducing the cost of producing
  computers, we can increase access to them
impact

- your point of view should have an
  enormous impact on what you ultimately
  design
- but later discoveries might lead you to
  come back and revise your POV
Project H Design


- Non-profit group that uses design
  thinking to effect change
furniture for rural schools
furniture for rural schools

- user: students at rural schools in Mexico
- need: working furniture for students
- insight: there was a lot of old, broken
  furniture stored that could be re-used in
  new pieces
Unit T
Unit T
- users: children at children’s hospital in
  Mexico City
- need: to keep their belongings with them
  when they are transferred to the transplant
  unit; to have their parents with them while
  they wait
- insight: a folding cot, sterilizable
  containers, and a drawing surface can
  improve this waiting period
Understand



 Observe



Synthesize
             ideate
  Ideate



Prototype


 Iterate
goal


- based on your point of view, generate as
  many ideas as possible
activities

- Set yourself a time limit, and try to
  generate a minimum number of ideas (100
  ideas in 60 minutes)
- Come together as a team after activity, &
  brainstorm together
Understand



 Observe



Synthesize
             prototype
  Ideate



Prototype


 Iterate
goal


- Make your ideas real & learn from peoples’
  reactions to your prototype
on prototypes

- Two most important things:
  - Rapid
  - Focused
rapid & focused

- Every prototype should answer a question
- Examples
  - What does it feel like to hold this object?
  - What should the flow of screens be in an
    interactive prototype?
benefits of lo-fi


- Users look at a lo-fi prototype and see
  potential; they look at a hi-fi prototype
  and see problems
getting user feedback
- try to find proxy users if our ideal audience
  isn’t available
- introduce your prototype and any
  background on the current design problem
- come up with 2-3 tasks that you’d like them
  to perform with your prototype
i like, i wish


- One way of structuring feedback: ask users
  2 things they liked about the prototype,
  and 1 thing they wish it did differently
Understand



 Observe



Synthesize
             iterate
  Ideate



Prototype


 Iterate
goal

- take insights gained from prototyping and
  revisit your assumptions; sometimes you
  might go all the way back to the Understand
  phase
design thinking &
entrepreneurship
@ meebo

- at the time, 45 person company
- idea: guerilla design thinking
- introducing design process at startup
summary
- users: teenagers in Mountain View, Kansas
  City, and NYC
- goal: understand teenagers’
  communication & mobile phone usage
- method: 30 user interviews & observations
  across 3 cities
how to communicate findings?


- Created a 30-minute video with interview
  snippets organized by insight, showed it to
  whole organization
lessons learned

- When faced with tight schedule & limited
  resources, end up jumping around design
  process & finding insights wherever
  possible
- Communicating the process can be as
  important as communicating the results
Q’s?
learning more
classes, etc
- d.school bootcamp on design thinking
- CS147/CS247 on human-computer
  interaction
- ME377: History & Philosophy of Design
- ME classes on need-finding, good & bad
  products
- Objectified by Gary Hustwit
activity
outline
- pair up with the person you know least in
  the class
- for 5 minutes, describe your ideal wallet to
  your partner (and show them your current
  one); then, switch
- use supplies to rapidly prototype a wallet
  that meets your partner’s needs

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Intro to Design Thinking

  • 1. Intro to Design Thinking Social Entrepreneurship ASB January 25th, 2010 Mike Krieger
  • 4. a little bit about you?
  • 5. by the end of today... - General design thinking framework - Needfinding tips - Whole-group activity
  • 7. a definition - an approach to solving design problems by understanding users' needs and developing insights to solve those needs
  • 8. - When taken to its fullest, as much a mindset as a process
  • 9. and that mindset? - Only through contact, observation & empathy with end-users can you hope to design solutions that fit into their environment
  • 10. as opposed to? - “We have this problem, let's jump in and get in a room and brainstorm solutions” - “We have this technology, what can we use it for?” - “Our competitors just launched X; how can we do X quickly?”
  • 12. when? - Developing & deploying a solution to a problem presented in your organization, or on your own
  • 13. or, - Quickly come up to speed with a domain you’re unfamiliar with, or surprise yourself regarding a domain you already know
  • 15. the process - different names for the steps, but same overall idea
  • 16. in theory... Understand Observe Synthesize Ideate Prototype Iterate
  • 17. practically... Understand Observe Synthesize Ideate Prototype Iterate
  • 18. another way of visualizing Understand Observe Synthesize Ideate Prototype Iterate breadth time
  • 19. Understand Observe Synthesize understand Ideate Prototype Iterate
  • 20. goal - Gain basic knowledge so you know the right questions to ask
  • 21. methods - Web research (but go beyond Google) - Brief interviews for background - Reach out to friends who may be connected/have information on domain
  • 22. at the end of this step - More questions than answers - Know what’s come before in this space, and what the main open questions are
  • 23. Understand Observe Synthesize observe Ideate Prototype Iterate
  • 24. goal - Gain empathy with your target users by talking and observing them
  • 25. just ask them? - Watch what they do, not what they say. - “If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses.” (Henry Ford...maybe)
  • 26. as a designer... - you need to understand your audience even better than they understand themselves
  • 27. but... - the only way you’ll get there is to develop a deep empathy for their habits, beliefs, quirks, workarounds...
  • 29. Why?
  • 30. when interviewing... - Keep asking “why” until it’s unbearably awkward - Then ask it a one or two more times
  • 31. example A: I never leave the house without my phone Q: Why’s that? A: oh, I’m worried that I’ll miss something fun by being out of touch Q: That’s interesting...why does that worry you so much? A: Well, my group of friends never plans anything, it’s all very last minute. Q: Oh, why do you think you all don’t plan much? A: I think it’s because it’s sort of uncool to be too on top of things...I keep two separate Google Calendars, one has my real appointments and the other one is mostly empty so it doesn’t look like I overplan Q.....etc
  • 32. what are we looking for? - Surprises! - Test: is this interesting enough to tell a stranger on the train about?
  • 33. back to example - “This person I talked to never leaves the house without a phone” (not very surprising. Stranger on train yawns and looks away) - “This person I talked to actually keeps two separate Google Calendars, one for herself that’s full of appointments and the other for her friends to think she’s laid back and doesn’t plan much” (way more interesting)
  • 34. “but this person is boring!” - Even less outgoing folks can profoundly surprise you when you get them talking about what they’re interested in
  • 35. what’s enough? - When you interview a new participant and you can anticipate their answers, even when they’re talking about detailed parts of what they do
  • 36. not always interviewing - Observation is powerful!
  • 37. things to observe - Quirky workarounds
  • 39. things to observe - Quirky workarounds - Behaviors that people do over and over again throughout the day
  • 41. things to observe - Quirky workarounds - Behaviors that people do over and over again throughout the day - Dynamics & interactions between people
  • 42. William Whyte observes NYC http://vimeo.com/6821934
  • 43. Understand Observe Synthesize synthesize Ideate Prototype Iterate
  • 44. goal - Come up with a point of view statement that will inform your prototyping
  • 45. why? - You can't design for everyone, and you can't fix every need you identified - Instead, tightly focus on one
  • 46. arriving a point of view - POV statements can be thought of as: user + need + insight
  • 47. example - from Neema Moraveji, Education PhD student at Stanford
  • 48. users - Children in classrooms in developing nations
  • 49. need - Often only a few computers for the whole classrooms, so students can’t all use one computer
  • 50. insight - By sharing one screen and allowing for multiple mice on that computer, all can play together
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 54. users - Children in classrooms in developing nations
  • 55. need - Often only a few computers for the whole classrooms, so students can’t all use one computer
  • 56. insight - By reducing the cost of producing computers, we can increase access to them
  • 57. impact - your point of view should have an enormous impact on what you ultimately design - but later discoveries might lead you to come back and revise your POV
  • 58. Project H Design - Non-profit group that uses design thinking to effect change
  • 60. furniture for rural schools - user: students at rural schools in Mexico - need: working furniture for students - insight: there was a lot of old, broken furniture stored that could be re-used in new pieces
  • 62. Unit T - users: children at children’s hospital in Mexico City - need: to keep their belongings with them when they are transferred to the transplant unit; to have their parents with them while they wait - insight: a folding cot, sterilizable containers, and a drawing surface can improve this waiting period
  • 63. Understand Observe Synthesize ideate Ideate Prototype Iterate
  • 64. goal - based on your point of view, generate as many ideas as possible
  • 65. activities - Set yourself a time limit, and try to generate a minimum number of ideas (100 ideas in 60 minutes) - Come together as a team after activity, & brainstorm together
  • 66. Understand Observe Synthesize prototype Ideate Prototype Iterate
  • 67. goal - Make your ideas real & learn from peoples’ reactions to your prototype
  • 68. on prototypes - Two most important things: - Rapid - Focused
  • 69. rapid & focused - Every prototype should answer a question - Examples - What does it feel like to hold this object? - What should the flow of screens be in an interactive prototype?
  • 70. benefits of lo-fi - Users look at a lo-fi prototype and see potential; they look at a hi-fi prototype and see problems
  • 71. getting user feedback - try to find proxy users if our ideal audience isn’t available - introduce your prototype and any background on the current design problem - come up with 2-3 tasks that you’d like them to perform with your prototype
  • 72. i like, i wish - One way of structuring feedback: ask users 2 things they liked about the prototype, and 1 thing they wish it did differently
  • 73. Understand Observe Synthesize iterate Ideate Prototype Iterate
  • 74. goal - take insights gained from prototyping and revisit your assumptions; sometimes you might go all the way back to the Understand phase
  • 76. @ meebo - at the time, 45 person company - idea: guerilla design thinking - introducing design process at startup
  • 77. summary - users: teenagers in Mountain View, Kansas City, and NYC - goal: understand teenagers’ communication & mobile phone usage - method: 30 user interviews & observations across 3 cities
  • 78. how to communicate findings? - Created a 30-minute video with interview snippets organized by insight, showed it to whole organization
  • 79. lessons learned - When faced with tight schedule & limited resources, end up jumping around design process & finding insights wherever possible - Communicating the process can be as important as communicating the results
  • 82. classes, etc - d.school bootcamp on design thinking - CS147/CS247 on human-computer interaction - ME377: History & Philosophy of Design - ME classes on need-finding, good & bad products - Objectified by Gary Hustwit
  • 84. outline - pair up with the person you know least in the class - for 5 minutes, describe your ideal wallet to your partner (and show them your current one); then, switch - use supplies to rapidly prototype a wallet that meets your partner’s needs