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1
PRESENTED BY,
Ch. Allaylay Devi
PhD. (Hort.) 1st Year
Dept. of FSc.
Introduction
• Crop models offer a very promising way to estimate this reference level
and its variability in the field.
• In addition, crop models are able to account for several scenarios of
climate conditions prevailing between the nitrogen application considered
and harvest, frequency analysis of these variables allowing a better
decision to be derived.
• It can also account for nitrogen use efficiency.
• Running crop models in such a predictive mode is very appealing for
managing cultural practices as illustrated in this paper.
• the success of crop models for decision making relies on their
performances for yield and environmental budget simulations.
Baret, et al., 2007
Stress
• Stress is defined as the force per unit area acting upon a
material, inducing strain and leading to dimensional
change. More generally, it is used to describe the impact
of adverse forces, and this is how it is usually applied to
biological systems.
• Stress is defined as a phenomenon that limits crop
productivity or destroys biomass (Grime, 1979).
Crop modelling for stress situations
• Crop is defined as an “Aggregation of individual plant species grown in a
unit area for economic purpose”.
• Growth is defined as an “Irreversible increase in size and volume and is the
consequence of differentiation and distribution occurring in the plant”.
• Simulation is defined as “Reproducing the essence of a system without
reproducing the system itself ”. In simulation the essential characteristics of
the system are reproduced in a model, which is then studied in an
abbreviated time scale.
• A model is a schematic representation of the conception of a system or an
act of mimicry or a set of equations, which represents the behaviour of a
system. Its purpose is usually to aid in explaining, understanding or
improving performance of a system.
 The crop growth models are being developed to meet the
demands under the following situations in agricultural
meteorology :
1. When the farmers have the difficult task of managing their crops on
poor soils in harsh and risky climates.
2. When scientists and research managers need tools that can assist
them in taking an integrated approach to finding solutions in the
complex problem of weather, soil and crop management.
3. When policy makers and administrators need simple tools that can
assist them in policy management in agricultural meteorology.
Murthy, Hyderabad
 The models allow evaluation of one or more options that
are available with respect to one or more agronomic
management decisions like:
• Determine optimum planting date.
• Determine best choice of cultivars.
• Evaluate weather risk.
• Investment decisions.
Murthy, Hyderabad
Types of models
 Depending upon the purpose for which it is designed the models are
classified into different groups or types. Of them a few are :
a. Statistical models: These models express the relationship between yield or
yield components and weather parameters. In these models relationships are
measured in a system using statistical techniques .
Example: Step down regressions, correlation, etc.
b. Mechanistic models: These models explain not only the relationship
between weather parameters and yield, but also the mechanism of these
models (explains the relationship of influencing dependent variables). These
models are based on physical selection.
c. Deterministic models: These models estimate the exact value of the yield or
dependent variable. These models also have defined coefficients.
Murthy, Hyderabad
d. Stochastic models: A probability element is attached to each output.
For each set of inputs different outputs are given along with
probabilities. These models define yield or state of dependent variable
at a given rate.
e. Dynamic models: Time is included as a variable. Both dependent and
independent variables are having values which remain constant over a
given period of time.
f. Static: Time is not included as variables. Dependent and independent
variables having values remain constant over a given period of time.
g. Simulation models: Computer models, in general, are a mathematical
representation of a real world system. One of the main goals of crop
simulation models is to estimate agricultural production as a function of
weather and soil conditions as well as crop management. These models
use one or more sets of differential equations, and calculate both rate
and state variables over time, normally from planting until harvest
maturity or final harvest.
h. Descriptive model: A descriptive model defines the behaviour of a system in
a simple manner. The model reflects little or none of the mechanisms that are
the causes of phenomena. But, consists of one or more mathematical
equations. An example of such an equation is the one derived from
successively measured weights of a crop. The equation is helpful to determine
quickly the weight of the crop where no observation was made.
i. Explanatory model: This consists of quantitative description of the
mechanisms and processes that cause the behaviour of the system. To create
this model, a system is analyzed and its processes and mechanisms are
quantified separately. The model is built by integrating these descriptions for
the entire system. It contains descriptions of distinct processes such as leaf
area expansion, tiller production, etc. Crop growth is a consequence of these
processes.
Crop loss due to climatic extremes/deviations
• Crop loss due to rainfall/temperature stress
– Stress at different periods during crop season
– Stress at different crop development stages
– Stress of different intensities
– Stress at different locations
• Base weather
• Different years/seasons
• Soils
• Varieties
• Planting dates
• Fertilizers
• Irrigation
Cont..
A few successfully used models in agrometeorology
1. The de Wit school of models
• In the sixties, the first attempt to model photosynthetic rates of crop canopies
was made (de Wit, 1965).
• The results obtained from this model were used among others, to estimate
potential food production for some areas of the world and to provide
indications for crop management and breeding (Wit, 1967; Linneman et al.,
1979).
• This was followed by the construction of an Elementary CROp growth
Simulator (ELCROS) by de Wit et al. (1970).
• This model included the static photosynthesis model and crop respiration was
taken as a fixed fraction per day of the biomass, plus an amount proportional to
the growth rate.
2. IBSNAT and DSSAT Models (International Benchmark Sites Network for
Agrotechnology Transfer and Decision Support System for Agro-Technology
Transfer)
• The goal is to obtain higher yields from the crops that they have been
growing for a long time. Also, while sustaining the yield levels they want
to :
1. Substantially improve the income.
2. Reduce soil degradation.
3. Reduce dependence on off-farm inputs.
4. Exploit local market opportunities.
3. ALOHA-Pineapple model
• Existing pineapple production models predict fruit development based on
heat-units (Fleisch and Bartholomew, 1987;Fournier et al., 2010).
• A more comprehensive model was developed, the ALOHA-Pineapple
model (Malezieux et al., 1994; Zhang,1992; Zhang et al., 1997) based on
the CERES-Maize model (Jonesand Kiniry, 1986), which simulates the
growth, development, and yield of the ‘Smooth Cayenne’ cultivar.
• However, this model was calibrated only in locations with low thermal
variability and did not test low input scenarios.
4. SIMPINA model
• The SIMPINA model which simulates, the development and growth of the
‘Queen Victoria’ pineapple cultivar under various climatic conditions and N
and water management practices on Reunion Island.
• The new model simulates water and nitrogen balances and estimates stress
coefficients that affect pineapple growth and development.
Crop models can be used to understand the effects of
climate change such as :
a) Consequences of elevated carbon-dioxide, and
b) Changes in temperature and rainfall on crop development,
growth and yield. Ultimately, the breeders can anticipate future
requirements based on the climate change.
Advantages
 In agro-meteorological research the crop models basically helps in:
• Testing scientific hypothesis.
• Highlight where information is missing.
• Organizing data.
• Integrating across disciplines.
• Assist in genetic improvement;
• Evaluate optimum genetic traits for specific environments.
• Evaluate cultivar stability under long term weather.
Applications of crop‐climate models in agriculture
• Real‐time
• Regional estimates of anticipated crop production
• Farm agro‐advisories
• Strategic Planning
• Climatic risk assessment for crop insurance
• Impact assessment of climate change
• Strategic planning for development
• Hybrid seed production
Aggrawal, IARI
• Climate smart agriculture for managing risks
• Weather smart
• Water smart
• Carbon smart
• Energy smart
• Nitrogen smart
• Knowledge smart
Cont..
Cropping system
Cropping System
• The term cropping system refers to the crops, crop sequences
and management techniques used on a particular agricultural
field over a period of years.
• Cropping system= Cropping pattern + Management Types of
cropping systems in horticultural crops
Types of cropping system
1. Mono-species orchards: Mono-species also referred as monoculture.
• In this, fruit trees of a single species are planted in the field.
• This system is common in modern horticulture, where trees are planted
densely, using dwarf or semi-dwarf trees with modified canopy to ensure
better light interception and distribution and ease of mechanization
2. Multi-storeyed cropping : Growing plants of different height in the same field
at the same time is termed as multi-storeyed cropping
Examples of some multistoried cropping
i. Coconut+ banana + pineapple ii. Coconut+ banana
iii. Coconut+ pasture iv. Mango+ pineapple
v. Mango+ papaya+ pineapple
vi. Coconut+ jackfruit+ coffee+ papaya+ pineapple
vii. Coconut+ papaya+ pineapple Multiple cropping
3. Intercropping:
• Intercropping, as one of the multiple cropping systems, has
been practiced by farmers for many years in various ways and
most areas, and has played a very important role in India.
• Intercropping with leguminous crops.
4 Mixed cropping:
• It refers to the practice of growing certain perennial crops in the alley spaces
of the main perennial crops.
• The main advantage is the effective utilization of available area and increase
in the net income of the farm per unit area.
Examples:
i. Coconut + Arecanut+ Nutmeg + Clove
ii. Clove + Nutmeg + Coconut
iii. Papaya + Grapes + Snakegourd
iv. Apple + Pears + cabbage + Potato
Crop water productivity (WP) or water use efficiency (WUE)
• Water-use efficiency (WUE) refers to the ratio of water used in plant
metabolism to water lost by the plant through transpiration.
Two types of water-use efficiency are referred to most frequently:
• Photosynthetic water-use efficiency (also called intrinsic or instantaneous
water-use efficiency), which is defined as the ratio of the rate of carbon
assimilation (photosynthesis) to the rate of transpiration, and
• Water-use efficiency of productivity (also called integrated water-use
efficiency), which is typically defined as the ratio of biomass produced to
the rate of transpiration.
• It is often considered an important determinant of yield under stress and
even as a component of crop drought resistance
Rainwater harvesting
• It is a technique used for collecting, storing and using rainwater for
landscape irrigation and other uses
Advantages of rain water harvesting
• Maximizes the productivity of water or enhancing the water use efficiency,
generally with adequate harvest quality;
• Allows economic planning and stable income due to a stabilization of the
harvest in comparison with rainfed cultivation;
• Decreases the risk of certain diseases linked to high humidity (e.g. Fungi)
in comparison with full irrigation;
• Reduces nutrient loss by leaching of the root zone, which results in better
groundwater quality and lower fertilizer needs as for cultivation under full
irrigation
• Improves control over the sowing date and length of the growing period
independent from the onset of the rainy season and therefore improves
agricultural planning
• Mango: Rain water harvesting through opening of circular trenches around
trees at a distance of 6 feet and width at 9 inches, as well as depth and
mulching the trenches with dry mango leaves, helps in retaining sufficient
moisture in the soil during flowering and fruiting and increase in yield.
• Banana: The soil moisture deficit stress in banana during vegetative stage
causes poor bunch formation, lower number and small sized fingers. The water
stress during flowering causes poor filling of fingers and unmarketable
bunches and reduced bunch weight and other growth parameters.
• Providing irrigation through drip helps in reducing the adverse effects of
water stress.
Skimming Well Technology
 Skimming well is any technique employed with an intention to extract
relatively freshwater from the upper zone of the fresh-saline aquifer.
 By this technology shallow fresh water floating over the saline water can be
utilised thereby preventing salt water intrusion into the inland fresh water
and keeping the saline fresh water interface into coastal aquifers far below
the critical levels.
 This technology can be adopted in Andhra Pradesh, coastal parts of Tamil
Nadu, Orissa and West Bengal states as high salt concentration in waters of
these coastal areas lead to:
• Reduced growth rate and size of plant,
• Stunted growth coupled with restricted lateral shoot development.
• Reduced leaves and fruit.
• Decreased fresh and dry weight of plant parts.
• Leaves become thicker than normal.
• Top growth suppresses more than the root growth.
• Losses in terms of yield are more in fruit crops as specific toxicity affect
more than osmotic effect.
• Need of Skimming Wells
• To get fresh water with any salts.
• To manage root zone salinity.
• To reduce energy requirement for low discharge.
• The land wastage and water evaporation is avoided and can be used for
productive purposes.
• This technology effectively facilitates the adoption of modern irrigation
systems like drips and sprinklers and helps in improving upon the water use
efficiency, improves soil health and crop yields
Stress
Biotic Abiotic
Stress ?
Stress is an external factor that exerts a
disadvantageous influence on the plant and is measured in
relation to plant survival, crop yield, growth (biomass
accumulation), which are related to overall growth.
Taiz and Zeiger, 200630
• The negative impact of
environmental factors on plant
growth and yield.
Abiotic Stress
• Biotic stress is stress that occurs
as a result of damage done to
plants by other living organisms
Biotic Stress
31
ABIOTIC STRESS
Any adverse factor acting on physiological processes/
biochemical activity of the plants is called as abiotic stress.
Air pollution
Mechanical damage
Cold stress
Light stress
High temperature stress
Drought
salt stress
32
Plants respond to stress in several different way
Vince and Zoltan, 2011
Environmental conditions that can cause stress
Water-logging & drought
High or low temperatures
Excessive soil salinity
Ozone
Low oxygen
Phytotoxic compounds
Inadequate mineral in the soil
Too much or too little light
34
• Unpredictable occurrence
• Some stresses are impossible to manage
• One stress may increase or decrease the level of
another stress
• Differential response of plant spp. to a given stress
• Effects generated by one abiotic stress may overlap
with some effects of another stress
Characteristics of abiotic stressess
35
• Stresses trigger a wide range of plant responses
• Altered gene expression
• Cellular metabolism
• Changes in growth rates and crop yields
PLANT RESPONSE TO STRESS
36
Stress resistance mechanisms
Avoidance
prevents
exposure to
stress
Tolerance
permit the
plant to
withstand
stress
Acclimatization
alter their
physiology
in response
to stress
37
• Earliness
• Reduced in clustering
• Leaf rolling, folding, shedding, leaf reflectance
• Hairiness
• Color of leaves
• Wax coating
• Root systems
38
Mechanism of resistance
• Supercooling
 In plants cooling of water below 0° C with out ice crystal
formation is called super cooling.
 or Cytoplasm cooling without ice formation.
 It is possible because internal ice –nucleators are absent
 By increasing solute concentration which will increase
freezing point.
 By removing water from cells.
39
• Anti freeze proteins (AFP)
 Declines rate of ice crystal growth
 Lowers the efficiency of ice nucleation sites
 Lowers temp. at which ice forms
• Osmoprotectants
 Osmolytes- quarternary amines, amino acids, sugar
alcohols
 Balances the osmotic potential of externally increased
osmotic pressure
Tolerance Mechanism
40
Tolerance Mechanism
• Cell wall/membrane porosity : water should remain in apoplast.
• Increase in unsaturated fatty acid in membrane
• Short stature : plant absorbs ground radiation
• Low leaf area and higher leaf thickness
• Higher root to shoot percent
• Dormancy
41
Mechanism to cope with high temperate stress
Reduce in cell size
Closure of stomata
Increased stomata
and trichome density
Greater xylem
vessels
Accumulation of
osmolytes
Increased
retention of water
Better stomatal
regulation
Enhanced
photosynthesis
Increased antioxidant
production
Decrease ROS
generation
Less oxidative
damage
Maintain chloroplast
membrane density
Improved high temperate stress
tolerance
42
Plant tolerance (adaptation) to stress
 Reactions and adaptations to drought stress
i. Growth forms and morphological adaptations
ii. Phenological behaviour
iii. Physiological adaptations
- Photosynthesis
- Transpiration and leaf conductance
- Water potential
 Reactions and adaptations to flood stress
Indices to characterize temperature stress
• Mean temperature deviation
• Cumulative temperature deviation
• Canopy temperatures
• Plant water stress
• Thermal images of canopies
• NDVI
Yield loss due to adverse weather
• High temperature
• Frost
• Fog
• Deficit/Excessive/un‐seasonal rainfall
Simulation model
 Planning
Characterization of risk profile of different regions and crops for
designing policies
 Monitoring
Assessment of loss and its forewarning
 Settlement
Quick settlement of disputed claims: reconstructing past
Crop Growth Simulation Models
 Understand/ predict behaviour of crops on the basis of quantitative
understanding of processes from experiments in field and controlled
environments
 Integrate spatial and temporal variability in soil, weather, crop, pests and
management factors
 Not location specific: can be used in any site with minimum soil, plant and
weather data
 Testable via field experimentation
Assessing the stress through remote sensing
• Remote sensing techniques offer a unique solution for mapping stress and
monitoring its time-course. (Baret, et al., 2007)
• The case of nitrogen fertilization is used here as a paradigm
• It is used for nitrogen stress evaluation by comparison with a reference
unstressed situation which is, however, not easy to get in practice.
• The combination of remote sensing observations with crop models provides
an elegant solution for stress quantification through assimilation
approaches
Fig: 1. Scheme illustrating how to use of a crop model for the
management of nitrogen applications.
Fig: 2. Scheme showing the inputs and outputs required in the forward
and inverse problems to estimate canopy state variables (in this
case LAI and Cab).
Fig:3. Scheme illustrating the assimilation achieved using the GLUE method.
 Biophysical crop simulation models are normally forced with precipitation data recorded
with either gauges or ground-based radar.
• However, ground-based recording networks are not available at spatial and temporal
scales needed to drive the models at many critical places on earth. An alternative would
be to employ satellite-based observations of either precipitation or soil moisture.
• The Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model, was used to deduce root zone
soil moisture for an area of North Alabama, USA.
• The soil moisture estimates were used in turn to force the state-of-the-art Decision
Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop simulation model.
• The results indicate that the model forced with the ALEXI moisture estimates produced
yield simulations that compared favorably with observed yields and with the rainfed
model.
• This signal was of sufficient strength to produce adequate simulations of recorded yields
over a 10 year period.
Mishra, et al., 2013
Conclusion
• Various kinds of models are in use for assessing and predicting crop growth and yield.
• Crop growth model is a very effective tool for predicting possible impacts of climatic
change on crop growth and yield.
• Crop growth models are useful for solving various practical problems in agriculture.
• Proper established of cropping system will increased the water used efficiency of the
particular crops
• With the launch and continuous availability of multi-spectral (visible, near-infrared)
sensors on polar orbiting earth observation satellites (Landsat, SPOT, IRS, etc.) remote
sensing (RS) data has become an important tool for yield modeling.
 The crop plants have evolved certain resistance mechanism against various stresses :
 we should identify those mechanisms and traits
 and introgress them into commercial cultivars
Crop modeling and stress

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Crop modeling and stress

  • 1. 1 PRESENTED BY, Ch. Allaylay Devi PhD. (Hort.) 1st Year Dept. of FSc.
  • 2. Introduction • Crop models offer a very promising way to estimate this reference level and its variability in the field. • In addition, crop models are able to account for several scenarios of climate conditions prevailing between the nitrogen application considered and harvest, frequency analysis of these variables allowing a better decision to be derived. • It can also account for nitrogen use efficiency. • Running crop models in such a predictive mode is very appealing for managing cultural practices as illustrated in this paper. • the success of crop models for decision making relies on their performances for yield and environmental budget simulations. Baret, et al., 2007
  • 3. Stress • Stress is defined as the force per unit area acting upon a material, inducing strain and leading to dimensional change. More generally, it is used to describe the impact of adverse forces, and this is how it is usually applied to biological systems. • Stress is defined as a phenomenon that limits crop productivity or destroys biomass (Grime, 1979).
  • 4. Crop modelling for stress situations • Crop is defined as an “Aggregation of individual plant species grown in a unit area for economic purpose”. • Growth is defined as an “Irreversible increase in size and volume and is the consequence of differentiation and distribution occurring in the plant”. • Simulation is defined as “Reproducing the essence of a system without reproducing the system itself ”. In simulation the essential characteristics of the system are reproduced in a model, which is then studied in an abbreviated time scale. • A model is a schematic representation of the conception of a system or an act of mimicry or a set of equations, which represents the behaviour of a system. Its purpose is usually to aid in explaining, understanding or improving performance of a system.
  • 5.  The crop growth models are being developed to meet the demands under the following situations in agricultural meteorology : 1. When the farmers have the difficult task of managing their crops on poor soils in harsh and risky climates. 2. When scientists and research managers need tools that can assist them in taking an integrated approach to finding solutions in the complex problem of weather, soil and crop management. 3. When policy makers and administrators need simple tools that can assist them in policy management in agricultural meteorology. Murthy, Hyderabad
  • 6.  The models allow evaluation of one or more options that are available with respect to one or more agronomic management decisions like: • Determine optimum planting date. • Determine best choice of cultivars. • Evaluate weather risk. • Investment decisions. Murthy, Hyderabad
  • 7. Types of models  Depending upon the purpose for which it is designed the models are classified into different groups or types. Of them a few are : a. Statistical models: These models express the relationship between yield or yield components and weather parameters. In these models relationships are measured in a system using statistical techniques . Example: Step down regressions, correlation, etc. b. Mechanistic models: These models explain not only the relationship between weather parameters and yield, but also the mechanism of these models (explains the relationship of influencing dependent variables). These models are based on physical selection. c. Deterministic models: These models estimate the exact value of the yield or dependent variable. These models also have defined coefficients. Murthy, Hyderabad
  • 8. d. Stochastic models: A probability element is attached to each output. For each set of inputs different outputs are given along with probabilities. These models define yield or state of dependent variable at a given rate. e. Dynamic models: Time is included as a variable. Both dependent and independent variables are having values which remain constant over a given period of time. f. Static: Time is not included as variables. Dependent and independent variables having values remain constant over a given period of time. g. Simulation models: Computer models, in general, are a mathematical representation of a real world system. One of the main goals of crop simulation models is to estimate agricultural production as a function of weather and soil conditions as well as crop management. These models use one or more sets of differential equations, and calculate both rate and state variables over time, normally from planting until harvest maturity or final harvest.
  • 9. h. Descriptive model: A descriptive model defines the behaviour of a system in a simple manner. The model reflects little or none of the mechanisms that are the causes of phenomena. But, consists of one or more mathematical equations. An example of such an equation is the one derived from successively measured weights of a crop. The equation is helpful to determine quickly the weight of the crop where no observation was made. i. Explanatory model: This consists of quantitative description of the mechanisms and processes that cause the behaviour of the system. To create this model, a system is analyzed and its processes and mechanisms are quantified separately. The model is built by integrating these descriptions for the entire system. It contains descriptions of distinct processes such as leaf area expansion, tiller production, etc. Crop growth is a consequence of these processes.
  • 10. Crop loss due to climatic extremes/deviations • Crop loss due to rainfall/temperature stress – Stress at different periods during crop season – Stress at different crop development stages – Stress of different intensities – Stress at different locations
  • 11. • Base weather • Different years/seasons • Soils • Varieties • Planting dates • Fertilizers • Irrigation Cont..
  • 12. A few successfully used models in agrometeorology 1. The de Wit school of models • In the sixties, the first attempt to model photosynthetic rates of crop canopies was made (de Wit, 1965). • The results obtained from this model were used among others, to estimate potential food production for some areas of the world and to provide indications for crop management and breeding (Wit, 1967; Linneman et al., 1979). • This was followed by the construction of an Elementary CROp growth Simulator (ELCROS) by de Wit et al. (1970). • This model included the static photosynthesis model and crop respiration was taken as a fixed fraction per day of the biomass, plus an amount proportional to the growth rate.
  • 13. 2. IBSNAT and DSSAT Models (International Benchmark Sites Network for Agrotechnology Transfer and Decision Support System for Agro-Technology Transfer) • The goal is to obtain higher yields from the crops that they have been growing for a long time. Also, while sustaining the yield levels they want to : 1. Substantially improve the income. 2. Reduce soil degradation. 3. Reduce dependence on off-farm inputs. 4. Exploit local market opportunities.
  • 14. 3. ALOHA-Pineapple model • Existing pineapple production models predict fruit development based on heat-units (Fleisch and Bartholomew, 1987;Fournier et al., 2010). • A more comprehensive model was developed, the ALOHA-Pineapple model (Malezieux et al., 1994; Zhang,1992; Zhang et al., 1997) based on the CERES-Maize model (Jonesand Kiniry, 1986), which simulates the growth, development, and yield of the ‘Smooth Cayenne’ cultivar. • However, this model was calibrated only in locations with low thermal variability and did not test low input scenarios. 4. SIMPINA model • The SIMPINA model which simulates, the development and growth of the ‘Queen Victoria’ pineapple cultivar under various climatic conditions and N and water management practices on Reunion Island. • The new model simulates water and nitrogen balances and estimates stress coefficients that affect pineapple growth and development.
  • 15. Crop models can be used to understand the effects of climate change such as : a) Consequences of elevated carbon-dioxide, and b) Changes in temperature and rainfall on crop development, growth and yield. Ultimately, the breeders can anticipate future requirements based on the climate change.
  • 16. Advantages  In agro-meteorological research the crop models basically helps in: • Testing scientific hypothesis. • Highlight where information is missing. • Organizing data. • Integrating across disciplines. • Assist in genetic improvement; • Evaluate optimum genetic traits for specific environments. • Evaluate cultivar stability under long term weather.
  • 17. Applications of crop‐climate models in agriculture • Real‐time • Regional estimates of anticipated crop production • Farm agro‐advisories • Strategic Planning • Climatic risk assessment for crop insurance • Impact assessment of climate change • Strategic planning for development • Hybrid seed production Aggrawal, IARI
  • 18. • Climate smart agriculture for managing risks • Weather smart • Water smart • Carbon smart • Energy smart • Nitrogen smart • Knowledge smart Cont..
  • 20. Cropping System • The term cropping system refers to the crops, crop sequences and management techniques used on a particular agricultural field over a period of years. • Cropping system= Cropping pattern + Management Types of cropping systems in horticultural crops
  • 21. Types of cropping system 1. Mono-species orchards: Mono-species also referred as monoculture. • In this, fruit trees of a single species are planted in the field. • This system is common in modern horticulture, where trees are planted densely, using dwarf or semi-dwarf trees with modified canopy to ensure better light interception and distribution and ease of mechanization
  • 22. 2. Multi-storeyed cropping : Growing plants of different height in the same field at the same time is termed as multi-storeyed cropping Examples of some multistoried cropping i. Coconut+ banana + pineapple ii. Coconut+ banana iii. Coconut+ pasture iv. Mango+ pineapple v. Mango+ papaya+ pineapple vi. Coconut+ jackfruit+ coffee+ papaya+ pineapple vii. Coconut+ papaya+ pineapple Multiple cropping
  • 23. 3. Intercropping: • Intercropping, as one of the multiple cropping systems, has been practiced by farmers for many years in various ways and most areas, and has played a very important role in India. • Intercropping with leguminous crops.
  • 24. 4 Mixed cropping: • It refers to the practice of growing certain perennial crops in the alley spaces of the main perennial crops. • The main advantage is the effective utilization of available area and increase in the net income of the farm per unit area. Examples: i. Coconut + Arecanut+ Nutmeg + Clove ii. Clove + Nutmeg + Coconut iii. Papaya + Grapes + Snakegourd iv. Apple + Pears + cabbage + Potato
  • 25. Crop water productivity (WP) or water use efficiency (WUE) • Water-use efficiency (WUE) refers to the ratio of water used in plant metabolism to water lost by the plant through transpiration. Two types of water-use efficiency are referred to most frequently: • Photosynthetic water-use efficiency (also called intrinsic or instantaneous water-use efficiency), which is defined as the ratio of the rate of carbon assimilation (photosynthesis) to the rate of transpiration, and • Water-use efficiency of productivity (also called integrated water-use efficiency), which is typically defined as the ratio of biomass produced to the rate of transpiration. • It is often considered an important determinant of yield under stress and even as a component of crop drought resistance
  • 26. Rainwater harvesting • It is a technique used for collecting, storing and using rainwater for landscape irrigation and other uses Advantages of rain water harvesting • Maximizes the productivity of water or enhancing the water use efficiency, generally with adequate harvest quality; • Allows economic planning and stable income due to a stabilization of the harvest in comparison with rainfed cultivation; • Decreases the risk of certain diseases linked to high humidity (e.g. Fungi) in comparison with full irrigation; • Reduces nutrient loss by leaching of the root zone, which results in better groundwater quality and lower fertilizer needs as for cultivation under full irrigation • Improves control over the sowing date and length of the growing period independent from the onset of the rainy season and therefore improves agricultural planning
  • 27. • Mango: Rain water harvesting through opening of circular trenches around trees at a distance of 6 feet and width at 9 inches, as well as depth and mulching the trenches with dry mango leaves, helps in retaining sufficient moisture in the soil during flowering and fruiting and increase in yield. • Banana: The soil moisture deficit stress in banana during vegetative stage causes poor bunch formation, lower number and small sized fingers. The water stress during flowering causes poor filling of fingers and unmarketable bunches and reduced bunch weight and other growth parameters. • Providing irrigation through drip helps in reducing the adverse effects of water stress.
  • 28. Skimming Well Technology  Skimming well is any technique employed with an intention to extract relatively freshwater from the upper zone of the fresh-saline aquifer.  By this technology shallow fresh water floating over the saline water can be utilised thereby preventing salt water intrusion into the inland fresh water and keeping the saline fresh water interface into coastal aquifers far below the critical levels.  This technology can be adopted in Andhra Pradesh, coastal parts of Tamil Nadu, Orissa and West Bengal states as high salt concentration in waters of these coastal areas lead to: • Reduced growth rate and size of plant, • Stunted growth coupled with restricted lateral shoot development. • Reduced leaves and fruit.
  • 29. • Decreased fresh and dry weight of plant parts. • Leaves become thicker than normal. • Top growth suppresses more than the root growth. • Losses in terms of yield are more in fruit crops as specific toxicity affect more than osmotic effect. • Need of Skimming Wells • To get fresh water with any salts. • To manage root zone salinity. • To reduce energy requirement for low discharge. • The land wastage and water evaporation is avoided and can be used for productive purposes. • This technology effectively facilitates the adoption of modern irrigation systems like drips and sprinklers and helps in improving upon the water use efficiency, improves soil health and crop yields
  • 30. Stress Biotic Abiotic Stress ? Stress is an external factor that exerts a disadvantageous influence on the plant and is measured in relation to plant survival, crop yield, growth (biomass accumulation), which are related to overall growth. Taiz and Zeiger, 200630
  • 31. • The negative impact of environmental factors on plant growth and yield. Abiotic Stress • Biotic stress is stress that occurs as a result of damage done to plants by other living organisms Biotic Stress 31
  • 32. ABIOTIC STRESS Any adverse factor acting on physiological processes/ biochemical activity of the plants is called as abiotic stress. Air pollution Mechanical damage Cold stress Light stress High temperature stress Drought salt stress 32
  • 33. Plants respond to stress in several different way Vince and Zoltan, 2011
  • 34. Environmental conditions that can cause stress Water-logging & drought High or low temperatures Excessive soil salinity Ozone Low oxygen Phytotoxic compounds Inadequate mineral in the soil Too much or too little light 34
  • 35. • Unpredictable occurrence • Some stresses are impossible to manage • One stress may increase or decrease the level of another stress • Differential response of plant spp. to a given stress • Effects generated by one abiotic stress may overlap with some effects of another stress Characteristics of abiotic stressess 35
  • 36. • Stresses trigger a wide range of plant responses • Altered gene expression • Cellular metabolism • Changes in growth rates and crop yields PLANT RESPONSE TO STRESS 36
  • 37. Stress resistance mechanisms Avoidance prevents exposure to stress Tolerance permit the plant to withstand stress Acclimatization alter their physiology in response to stress 37
  • 38. • Earliness • Reduced in clustering • Leaf rolling, folding, shedding, leaf reflectance • Hairiness • Color of leaves • Wax coating • Root systems 38
  • 39. Mechanism of resistance • Supercooling  In plants cooling of water below 0° C with out ice crystal formation is called super cooling.  or Cytoplasm cooling without ice formation.  It is possible because internal ice –nucleators are absent  By increasing solute concentration which will increase freezing point.  By removing water from cells. 39
  • 40. • Anti freeze proteins (AFP)  Declines rate of ice crystal growth  Lowers the efficiency of ice nucleation sites  Lowers temp. at which ice forms • Osmoprotectants  Osmolytes- quarternary amines, amino acids, sugar alcohols  Balances the osmotic potential of externally increased osmotic pressure Tolerance Mechanism 40
  • 41. Tolerance Mechanism • Cell wall/membrane porosity : water should remain in apoplast. • Increase in unsaturated fatty acid in membrane • Short stature : plant absorbs ground radiation • Low leaf area and higher leaf thickness • Higher root to shoot percent • Dormancy 41
  • 42. Mechanism to cope with high temperate stress Reduce in cell size Closure of stomata Increased stomata and trichome density Greater xylem vessels Accumulation of osmolytes Increased retention of water Better stomatal regulation Enhanced photosynthesis Increased antioxidant production Decrease ROS generation Less oxidative damage Maintain chloroplast membrane density Improved high temperate stress tolerance 42
  • 43. Plant tolerance (adaptation) to stress  Reactions and adaptations to drought stress i. Growth forms and morphological adaptations ii. Phenological behaviour iii. Physiological adaptations - Photosynthesis - Transpiration and leaf conductance - Water potential  Reactions and adaptations to flood stress
  • 44. Indices to characterize temperature stress • Mean temperature deviation • Cumulative temperature deviation • Canopy temperatures • Plant water stress • Thermal images of canopies • NDVI
  • 45. Yield loss due to adverse weather • High temperature • Frost • Fog • Deficit/Excessive/un‐seasonal rainfall
  • 46. Simulation model  Planning Characterization of risk profile of different regions and crops for designing policies  Monitoring Assessment of loss and its forewarning  Settlement Quick settlement of disputed claims: reconstructing past
  • 47. Crop Growth Simulation Models  Understand/ predict behaviour of crops on the basis of quantitative understanding of processes from experiments in field and controlled environments  Integrate spatial and temporal variability in soil, weather, crop, pests and management factors  Not location specific: can be used in any site with minimum soil, plant and weather data  Testable via field experimentation
  • 48. Assessing the stress through remote sensing • Remote sensing techniques offer a unique solution for mapping stress and monitoring its time-course. (Baret, et al., 2007) • The case of nitrogen fertilization is used here as a paradigm • It is used for nitrogen stress evaluation by comparison with a reference unstressed situation which is, however, not easy to get in practice. • The combination of remote sensing observations with crop models provides an elegant solution for stress quantification through assimilation approaches
  • 49. Fig: 1. Scheme illustrating how to use of a crop model for the management of nitrogen applications.
  • 50. Fig: 2. Scheme showing the inputs and outputs required in the forward and inverse problems to estimate canopy state variables (in this case LAI and Cab).
  • 51. Fig:3. Scheme illustrating the assimilation achieved using the GLUE method.
  • 52.  Biophysical crop simulation models are normally forced with precipitation data recorded with either gauges or ground-based radar. • However, ground-based recording networks are not available at spatial and temporal scales needed to drive the models at many critical places on earth. An alternative would be to employ satellite-based observations of either precipitation or soil moisture. • The Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model, was used to deduce root zone soil moisture for an area of North Alabama, USA. • The soil moisture estimates were used in turn to force the state-of-the-art Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop simulation model. • The results indicate that the model forced with the ALEXI moisture estimates produced yield simulations that compared favorably with observed yields and with the rainfed model. • This signal was of sufficient strength to produce adequate simulations of recorded yields over a 10 year period. Mishra, et al., 2013
  • 53. Conclusion • Various kinds of models are in use for assessing and predicting crop growth and yield. • Crop growth model is a very effective tool for predicting possible impacts of climatic change on crop growth and yield. • Crop growth models are useful for solving various practical problems in agriculture. • Proper established of cropping system will increased the water used efficiency of the particular crops • With the launch and continuous availability of multi-spectral (visible, near-infrared) sensors on polar orbiting earth observation satellites (Landsat, SPOT, IRS, etc.) remote sensing (RS) data has become an important tool for yield modeling.  The crop plants have evolved certain resistance mechanism against various stresses :  we should identify those mechanisms and traits  and introgress them into commercial cultivars

Editor's Notes

  1. Murthy, Hyderabad
  2. Murthy, Hyderabad
  3. Aggrawal, IARI
  4. Biotic stress influenced by living org. Abiotic stress influenced by enviornmental factors
  5. Water related stress i.e. Temperature stress i.e.
  6. Coming to characteristics of abiotic stresses Like drought, flooding Ozone stress, heat and cold stress Heat stress and drought Like salinity and drought
  7. unsaturated fatty acid in membrane : unsaturated fatty acids increases fluidity of membrane