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CLAUSES
AND ITS TYPES
CLAUSES
The smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete
proposition. It contains a subject and a verb. There are two
kinds of clauses: independent and dependent.
INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
A group of words that can stand on its own as a sentence: it
has a subject, a verb, and is a complete thought.
Examples
They dance under the rain
Where is your sister?
DEPENDENT CLAUSES
A group of words that contains a subject and a verb, but it is not a
complete thought. Because it is not a complete thought, a dependent
clause cannot stand on its own as a sentence; it is dependent on being
attached to an independent clause to form a sentence.
Examples
Because I woke up late this morning… (what happened?)
When we arrived in class… (what occurred?)
If my neighbor does not pay his rent on time… (what will happen?)
DEPENDENT CLAUSES: TYPES
Dependent clauses can be divided in other type of clauses
such as:
Adverb clauses
Noun clauses
Relative clauses
Participle clauses
ADVERB CLAUSES
A clause that functions as an adverb. They tell why, where,
when or what happens in a sentence.
They are frequently movable within the sentence.
Example:
When the timer rings, we know the cake is done. OR
We know the cake is done when the timer rings.
ADVERB CLAUSES
TYPE QUESTION ANSWERED EXAMPLE
Place Where? Where there are computers, there is
Microsoft software.
Time When? After the fruit is harvest, it is sold at
the marker.
Cause Why? (what caused this?) I didn’t call her because I am shy.
Purpose What was the reason for doing this? She took a computer course so that
she could not get a better job.
Concession Why is this unexpected? Although Jay has a master degree, he
works as a store clerk.
Condition Under what conditions? If you save your money, you will be
able to go to college.
Adverb clauses are always introduced by a
subordinating conjunction
Kind of clause Common conjunction Function Example
TIME After, before, when, while are used to say when
something happens
Her father died when she was
young.
As, as soon as, since, until by referring to a period of
time or to another event.
By the time, once, as/so long
as, whenever
Every time, the first time, the
last time, the next time
CAUSE & EFFECT Because ›
now that ›
Since ›
indicate the reason.
Means ‘because now’
(present/future).
Used to mean ‘because’
I couldn't feel anger against
him because I liked him too
much.
Kind of clause Common conjunction Function Example
CONTRAST Even though › although,
though
Unexpected results. Even though I wasn't tired, I
went to bed.
DIRECT CONTRAST While,
whereas (formal written English)
are used to show direct
contracts, with no difference
of meaning.
Mary is riche, while John is
poor
CONDITION If (prest.tense)
unless, only if, Even if
are used to talk about a
possible situation and its
consequences.
If it rains tomorrow, I will take
my umbrella.
Whether or not› ›express the idea that neither
this condition nor that
condition matters.
I’m going to swimming
tomorrow whether or not it’s
cold.
In case,
in the event that›
Express the idea that
something probably won’t
happen.
In the even that you (should)
need to reach me, I’ll be at my
house.
NOUN CLAUSE
A noun clause is a dependent clause that works like a noun.
You can find it as a subject or object.
As a subject: What she wrote is interesting.
As an object: I read what she wrote.
Noun Clauses Beginning with Question Words
Questions
What do you do in class?
Where does he work?
What should I do?
Who are they?
What happened?
Noun Clauses
What we do in class is easy.
Where he works is a secret.
I don’t know what you should do.
Mary knows who they are.
She knows what happened.
Noun Clauses Beginning with…
WHETHER OR IF
•I wonder if it will rain tomorrow.
•I wonder if it will rain tomorrow or
not.
•I wonder whether or not Mary
went to work yesterday.
•Whether he invites her or not is
important.
THAT
That pollution affects the quality
of our lives is obvious. (Subject)
It is obvious that pollution
affects the quality of our lives.
(Object)
RELATIVE CLAUSES
A kind of dependent clause with subject and verb, but can´t
stand alone as a sentence. It is sometimes called an
“adjective clause” because it functions like an adjective—it
gives more information about a noun.
They always start with relative pronouns.
RELATIVE CLAUSES
RELATIVE CLAUSES: TYPES
RESTRICTIVE (DEFINING)
Gives information that defines
the noun—information that’s
necessary for complete
identification of the noun.
Ex: The girl whom you saw
yesterday is my sister.
A seaman is someone who works
on a ship.
NON RESTRICTIVE
Gives additional information on
something, but do not define it.
They are put in commas.
Ex: Mary, who is my girlfriend,
likes eating fast foot.
The Ferrari, which is in front of
my house, belongs to my dad.
NOTES
RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES
Object pronouns in defining relative
clauses can be dropped.
The boy who we met yesterday is very
nice.
The boy we met yesterday is very nice.
Defining relative clauses are often used
in definitions.
A lumberjack is a person who cuts
wood.
NON RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES
In non-defining relative clauses,
who/which may not be replaced
with that.
SHORTEN RELATIVE CLAUSES
Relative clauses with who, which, that as subject pronoun can be
replaced with a participle. This makes the sentence shorter and
easier to understand.
I told you about the woman who lives next door.
I told you about the woman living next door.
Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
Do you see the cat lying on the roof?
EXAMPLES
Spaghetti, which many of us enjoy, can be messy.
This is the book that everyone is talking about.
She wrote to the person whom she had met last month.
We didn’t bring the receipt, which was a big mistake.
I have a friend whose cat is annoying.
People who are clever can always find a way.
Grandma remembers a time when radio shows were popular.
Never go to a doctor whose office plants have died. - Erma Bombeck
REFERENCES
http://www.studyandexam.com/types-of-subordinate-clause.html
http://study.com/academy/lesson/types-of-clauses-noun-adverbial-
relative-clauses.html
http://englishwithiftikhar.blogspot.com/p/blog-page_2818.html
CLAUSES AND ITS TYPES

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CLAUSES AND ITS TYPES

  • 2. CLAUSES The smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition. It contains a subject and a verb. There are two kinds of clauses: independent and dependent.
  • 3. INDEPENDENT CLAUSES A group of words that can stand on its own as a sentence: it has a subject, a verb, and is a complete thought. Examples They dance under the rain Where is your sister?
  • 4. DEPENDENT CLAUSES A group of words that contains a subject and a verb, but it is not a complete thought. Because it is not a complete thought, a dependent clause cannot stand on its own as a sentence; it is dependent on being attached to an independent clause to form a sentence. Examples Because I woke up late this morning… (what happened?) When we arrived in class… (what occurred?) If my neighbor does not pay his rent on time… (what will happen?)
  • 5. DEPENDENT CLAUSES: TYPES Dependent clauses can be divided in other type of clauses such as: Adverb clauses Noun clauses Relative clauses Participle clauses
  • 6. ADVERB CLAUSES A clause that functions as an adverb. They tell why, where, when or what happens in a sentence. They are frequently movable within the sentence. Example: When the timer rings, we know the cake is done. OR We know the cake is done when the timer rings.
  • 7. ADVERB CLAUSES TYPE QUESTION ANSWERED EXAMPLE Place Where? Where there are computers, there is Microsoft software. Time When? After the fruit is harvest, it is sold at the marker. Cause Why? (what caused this?) I didn’t call her because I am shy. Purpose What was the reason for doing this? She took a computer course so that she could not get a better job. Concession Why is this unexpected? Although Jay has a master degree, he works as a store clerk. Condition Under what conditions? If you save your money, you will be able to go to college.
  • 8. Adverb clauses are always introduced by a subordinating conjunction Kind of clause Common conjunction Function Example TIME After, before, when, while are used to say when something happens Her father died when she was young. As, as soon as, since, until by referring to a period of time or to another event. By the time, once, as/so long as, whenever Every time, the first time, the last time, the next time CAUSE & EFFECT Because › now that › Since › indicate the reason. Means ‘because now’ (present/future). Used to mean ‘because’ I couldn't feel anger against him because I liked him too much.
  • 9. Kind of clause Common conjunction Function Example CONTRAST Even though › although, though Unexpected results. Even though I wasn't tired, I went to bed. DIRECT CONTRAST While, whereas (formal written English) are used to show direct contracts, with no difference of meaning. Mary is riche, while John is poor CONDITION If (prest.tense) unless, only if, Even if are used to talk about a possible situation and its consequences. If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella. Whether or not› ›express the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters. I’m going to swimming tomorrow whether or not it’s cold. In case, in the event that› Express the idea that something probably won’t happen. In the even that you (should) need to reach me, I’ll be at my house.
  • 10. NOUN CLAUSE A noun clause is a dependent clause that works like a noun. You can find it as a subject or object. As a subject: What she wrote is interesting. As an object: I read what she wrote.
  • 11. Noun Clauses Beginning with Question Words Questions What do you do in class? Where does he work? What should I do? Who are they? What happened? Noun Clauses What we do in class is easy. Where he works is a secret. I don’t know what you should do. Mary knows who they are. She knows what happened.
  • 12. Noun Clauses Beginning with… WHETHER OR IF •I wonder if it will rain tomorrow. •I wonder if it will rain tomorrow or not. •I wonder whether or not Mary went to work yesterday. •Whether he invites her or not is important. THAT That pollution affects the quality of our lives is obvious. (Subject) It is obvious that pollution affects the quality of our lives. (Object)
  • 13. RELATIVE CLAUSES A kind of dependent clause with subject and verb, but can´t stand alone as a sentence. It is sometimes called an “adjective clause” because it functions like an adjective—it gives more information about a noun. They always start with relative pronouns.
  • 15. RELATIVE CLAUSES: TYPES RESTRICTIVE (DEFINING) Gives information that defines the noun—information that’s necessary for complete identification of the noun. Ex: The girl whom you saw yesterday is my sister. A seaman is someone who works on a ship. NON RESTRICTIVE Gives additional information on something, but do not define it. They are put in commas. Ex: Mary, who is my girlfriend, likes eating fast foot. The Ferrari, which is in front of my house, belongs to my dad.
  • 16. NOTES RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. The boy who we met yesterday is very nice. The boy we met yesterday is very nice. Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions. A lumberjack is a person who cuts wood. NON RESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that.
  • 17. SHORTEN RELATIVE CLAUSES Relative clauses with who, which, that as subject pronoun can be replaced with a participle. This makes the sentence shorter and easier to understand. I told you about the woman who lives next door. I told you about the woman living next door. Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? Do you see the cat lying on the roof?
  • 18. EXAMPLES Spaghetti, which many of us enjoy, can be messy. This is the book that everyone is talking about. She wrote to the person whom she had met last month. We didn’t bring the receipt, which was a big mistake. I have a friend whose cat is annoying. People who are clever can always find a way. Grandma remembers a time when radio shows were popular. Never go to a doctor whose office plants have died. - Erma Bombeck