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Searching for articles 
in bibliographical databases 
Concepts and examples 
2014-10-03 Patrice X. Chalon, M.Sc. 1
What is this? 
2 
Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/glooze_photos/3693153103/
What is this? 
3 
Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/donutgirl/273061411/
Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/-cavin-/2209548445/ 
4 
What is this? 
4
Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/34878947@N04/4605875739 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeliseev/2283085538 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ericbegin/2462706533/ 
http://ellenblickman.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/books-computer.jpg / 
5 
1994 1999 2004 
5
Knowledge Management 
Knowledge 
6 
Explicit 
knowledge 
Implicit (tacit) 
knowledge 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/lac-bac/7797313986/ 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/janeladeimagens/170838066/ 
Record and distribute 
(Formalisation, structuration, 
diffusion) 
Develop and disseminate 
(Training, coaching, feedbacks..)
Sources 
7 
Image sources: 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/jcmejiaacera/11646975845/ 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/georgmayer/126254265/ 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/sloanpix/8205071402/ 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/raster/3380860520/
8 
Who are you? 
8
And example… 
THE CONCEPTS 
9 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/jakeandlindsay/5524669257/
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL 
DATABASES 
10 
Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/omcoc/6751047205/
Bibliographical indexes 
11 
Source: http://nlm.nih.gov/hmd/sowhatsnew/images/3a7-a.jpg
Content of a record 
So = Jo, Dp, Vo, Is, Pg 
Eur J Nucl Med, 2000, 27 (1): 91-7 
Au 
Mijnhout GS, Hooft L, van Tulder MW, Deville WL, Teule GJ and Hoekstra 
OS 
Ti 
How to perform a comprehensive search for FDG-PET literature. 
Ab 
In this study, a comprehensive, unbiassed search strategy for identifying 
literature on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography 
(FDG-PET) in Medline, Embase and Current Contents was developed, … 
Kw, SH. 
Abstracting and Indexing ; Databases, Bibliographic ; Fludeoxyglucose F 
18/ diagnostic use ; Fluorine Radioisotopes/ diagnostic use; Human ; 
Medline ; Periodicals ; Radiopharmaceuticals/ diagnostic use ; Research ; 
Subject Headings ; Tomography, Emission-Computed 
Others : Ad, ISSN, La, URL, References,… 
Accurate ? 
Particle ! 
Traduced 
title ? 
Manual / 
Automatic ? 
Keywords or 
Subject 
Headings ? 
Manual / Automatic ? 
Source: MedLine 
12 12
13 
Evolution of databases 
13
A world of datbases 
14
HOW TO SEARCH? 
15 
Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/omcoc/6751047205/
Search strategy quadrant 
pertinent 
Not 
pertinent 
Not 
identified SILENCE 
identified NOISE 
16 16
Sensitive vs Specific search 
Sensitive 
 For a sensitive search you 
need to think of all the 
possible ways an author or 
an indexer might describe 
each of your key words in 
phrases. You might find it 
useful to check with a 
medical thesaurus or a list of 
subject heading such as 
MESH (Medical Subject 
Headings). 
 The more alternative terms 
you use the more results 
you will get from the search. 
Specific 
 For a specific search you want to use only terms that 
relate directly to your question, so you would use 
only one (or at the most two) way to describe 
each search term. You may need to check with the 
MESH as with the databases own thesaurus to 
ensure that the terms you are using are the terms the 
indexer would use. 
 In a specific search, you would apply more Limits. 
Limits are search terms such as language, age of 
article, journal title, article type or limits on the 
populations such as age, gender, ethnic group etc. 
 You can limit articles NOT to find certain terms, 
for example you could search for stress but NOT 
stress fractures. 
 The more limits you apply to a search the fewer 
results you will get from that search. 
Source : NHS FIFE LIBRARY SERVICES: Guide to Literature Searching. Available from: http://www.nhsfifelibraries.scot.nhs.uk/publications/litsearching.doc 
17 
2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon 17
Documenting the search 
18
EBM… 
19
Source: Guyatt G, Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users' guides to the medical literature : a manual for evidence-based clinical practice. 2nd ed. 
New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2008. 
20 
Evidenced- based approach 
1. Identify your problem 
2. Define a structured question 
3. Find the best evidence 
4. How valid is the study? 
5. What are the results? 
6. How should I apply the results to patient care? 
20
1. IDENTIFY YOUR PROBLEM 
Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3914729343/ 
21 21
Example 
22
2. DEFINE A 
STRUCTURED QUESTION 
Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3915514014 
23 23
Frameworks for structured questions 
PICO(s) SPICE ECLISPSE 
Patient / Population Setting Expectations 
Intervention Perspective Client group 
Comparison Intervention Location 
Outcome Comparison Impact 
Study design Evaluation Professionals 
Involved 
Service 
Evaluation 
Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/nguyendai/502168391 
24 24
Example 
25 
Hulstaert F, Neyt M, Gyselaers W. The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for trisomy 21 – health economic aspects. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) 
Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). 2014. KCE Reports 222. D/2014/10.273/36.
Example (cont.) 
26
Synonyms, derivatives… 
LIST YOUR TERMS! 
27 
Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3915514014
Example 
28 
Source: Lancet. 369(9560):474-81, 2007 Feb 10.
29 
Example (cont.) 
Population 
 Pregnant woman 
 Pregnant women 
 … 
Intervention 
 NIPT 
 Non-Invasive Prenatal 
Test 
 Noninvasive Prenatal 
Testing 
 Diagnostic anténatal 
non-invasif 
 … 
29
3. FIND THE BEST EVIDENCE 
Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3915514724 
30 30
Where to search? 
31
Database…S? 
« La recherche dans une seconde base permet de récolter de 8 à 40% de 
références supplémentaires généralement issues de périodiques possédant un 
facteur d’impact, même faible. » 
Source: Le traitement médicamenteux de l'insuffisance cardiaque par 3 grands groupes pharmacologiques : Evaluation de la complémentarité des outils 
bibliographiques du domaine biomédical de l’Université de Liège. Chalon P, 2002, Report. 
32 
1999-2001 Diurétiques Digitaliques Beta-bloquants 
Medline 619 287 666 
Chemical Abstracts 
Spécifiques (%) 
Journaux suppl 
(avec IF) 
780 
+161 (20.6) 
+ 35 (6) 
146 
+ 81 (22) 
+ 23 (3) 
170 
+ 103 (13.4) 
+ 19 (1) 
Current Contents 
Spécifiques (%) 
Journaux suppl 
(avec IF) 
472 
+ 99 (13.8) 
+ 15 (12) 
162 
+ 27 (8.6) 
+ 6 (3) 
717 
+ 445 (40.1) 
+ 13 (9) 
32
Database characteristics 
 Time coverage 
 Topics 
 Source 
 Content 
 Indexation 
 Abstracts 
2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon 33 33
TEXTWORD SEARCH 
34 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/robbie73/4289385819/
35 
SEARCH INTERFACES 
35
Search interface characteristics 
 Truncation 
 Booleans 
 Thesaurus options 
 Related references… 
 Query in natural language 
 Simple search vs advanced 
 Search filters… 
36 36
TRUNCATION 
Variants Economical vs 
Economics 
Economic* 0-n 
Singular vs Plural Test vs Tests Test? 0-1 
EN-us vs EN-uk Hematology vs 
Haematology 
H?ematology 0-1 
Prefixes Pre natal vs 
prenatal vs pre-natal 
Pre?natal 0-1 
37 37
BOOLEANS 
NEAR 
 non invasive prenatal 
test / in all fields = 7 
results 
 non invasive prenatal 
test / in Title = 1 result 
ADJn 
 (prenatal and test) /all 
fiels = 9689 
 (prenatal adj2 test) / all 
fields = 348 
 Prenatal test / all fields 
= 140 
2010-09-10 38
BOOLEANS (cont.) 
ADJn 
 (prenatal and test) = 9689 
 (prenatal adj2 test) = 348 
 Prenatal test = 140 
2010-09-10 39
BOOLEANS (cont.) 
40 
Patient AND 
Inter 
vention 
Design 
Comparator 
OR
BOOLEANS (cont) 
Breast NeoplamsNOTBreast Neoplasms, male 
41 
Breast 
Neoplasms 
Breast 
Neoplasms, 
Male 
Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/fs999/3508277416
Example (cont.) 
(pregnant wom?n OR 
pregnancy) 
AND 
(NIPT OR (non invasive ADJ2 
prenatal ADJ2 test*)) 
42 42
Example (Cont.) 
43
THESAURUS SEARCH 
Image source : http://www.zazzle.be/dinosaure_de_thesaurus_tapis_souris-144708844640520683 
44 44
Remember me? 
45
Taxonomy 
 PHYLUM AND SUBPHYLUM - Chordata, Vertebrata 
 CLASS AND SUBCLASS - Aves, Neornithes 
 ORDER AND SUBORDER - Falconiformes, Falcones 
 FAMILY AND SUBFAMILY - Accipitridae, Buteoninae 
 GENUS AND SUBGENUS - Haliaeetus, 
- SPECIES AND SSP - leucocephalis, 
leucocephalis 
 SCIENTIFIC NAME - Haliaeetus leucocephalis leucocephalis 
Source : http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/macsis/lists/M040093.htm 
46 46
Thesaurus : definition 
 Alphabetical list of selected words 
used to classify documentation 
Source: Dictionary French Larousse. Available from http://www.larousse.com/en/dictionaries/french/thesaurus 
47 
47
Thesaurus: relationships 
48 
Source: http://www.cndp.fr/thesaurus-motbis/
Thesaurus : evaluation 
Advantages 
 Quick results 
Less noise 
 Updated regularly 
Disadvantages 
 All concepts are not 
covered 
 New terms need 
some time to be 
correctly used 
49 49
They are working for you! 
MEDLINE INDEXING 
50 
Source: http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/images/A017410
Indexing process 
1. Read carefully and understand the title. 
2. Read the introduction, looking for the purpose of the article. 
3. Scan the body of the article, focus on the Materials & Methods section and the Results section. 
4. Note section headings, paragraph headings; italics, boldface; charts, plates, tables, illustrations; laboratory methods, 
case reports, etc. 
5. Select for indexing only those subjects actually 
discussed as opposed to those subjects merely 
mentioned. 
6. Read the summary or conclusions of the author to determine whether the stated purpose was achieved. Do not 
index implications or suggested future applications. Do not index 
conclusive statements not supported by the text. 
7. Scan the abstract for items missed, verifying that the text supports indexing these concepts. 
8. Scan the author's own indexing or the keywords supplied by the publisher to see whether the concepts chosen are 
actually discussed in the text. 
9. Scan the bibliographic references supplied by the author for clues and further corroboration. 
Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH®) in MEDLINE®/PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 
51 51
Finding terms 
 Indexers use the hierarchy to find the most 
specific MeSH heading (rather than each of the broader 
subjects in which a searcher may be interested) 
 Indexers use more than one heading if a 
single heading does not cover the concept 
 If an exact heading does not exist, indexers 
use the MeSH Browser and the hierarchy to 
find the most specific heading available. 
Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH®) in MEDLINE®/PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov/bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 
52 52
Example 
53
Major topics 
 Asterisks on MeSH headings and subheadings (e.g., 
Wound Healing/radiation effects*) designate that they are 
the major topics of the article, usually obtained from the 
title and/or statement of purpose 
 Non-major (non-asterisked) headings and subheadings 
are usually additional topics substantively discussed 
within the article, terms added to qualify a major topic 
(…). 
 The only indexed MEDLINE citations without an 
asterisked heading are some biographies in which the 
subject’s name may be considered the only major point. 
(…) 
Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH®) in MEDLINE®/PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov/bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 
54 54
Coordination 
 Using a subheading to describe a specific aspect of a MeSH 
heading 
“Blood analysis of Carbon Monoxyde” 
Carbon Monoxyde / Blood 
 Using two MeSH headings 
"Treatment of HIV infections with HIV protease inhibitors" 
HIV Infections/drug therapy 
HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use 
 Indexing a "pre-coordinated" MeSH heading which combines 
two concepts into one 
Pneumonia, Staphylococcal 
Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH®) in MEDLINE®/PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 
55 55
Example 
56 
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68019694
Rule of three 
 More than 3 major concepts: If more than 3 related topics are 
each presented as a major topic of the article, the more 
general MeSH heading under which they are all 
treed is usually designated as the major topic. The 
specific headings are usually indexed, but not as major topics. 
 More than 3 non-major concepts: If more than 3 related 
concepts are discussed in an article but are not a major topic, 
the more general MeSH heading under which they 
are all treed is usually indexed. The specific headings 
usually are not indexed. 
Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH®) in MEDLINE®/PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 
57 57
Example 
58 
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68006521
COMBINING OPTIONS 
59
Example 
60 
Hulstaert F, Neyt M, Gyselaers W. The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for trisomy 21 – health economic aspects. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) 
Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). 2014. KCE Reports 222. D/2014/10.273/36.
Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Kitchen_Funnel.jpg/1026px- 
Kitchen_Funnel.jpg 
Limiting results 
61 61
When? 
62 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/damaradeaella/2822846819
How 
 Thesaurus advanced features 
 Special queries 
 Publication type 
 Language 
 … 
63
Thesaurus adv. feat. 
Focus 
 Pregnant Women/ = 
5671 
 *Pregnant Women/ = 
2765 
Sub-headings 
 Breast Neoplasms = 
221.295 
 Breast Neoplasms/di 
[Diagnosis] = 26.937 
64 
Explosion 
 Breast Neoplasms = 
221.295 
 Exp Breast Neoplasms 
= 223.494
Neyt M, Chalon PX. PharmacoEconomics. (2013 Nov 
8. [Epub ahead of print]) 
Special queries 
65 
2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon 65
Evidence pyramid 
66
Last but not least 
COMPLEMENTARY SOURCES 
Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/redjar/113026147 
67 
67
 Full text database (open access!, 
Google scholar,…) 
 OAI repositories (REPEC,…) 
 Clinical trials registers 
 Conference proceedings 
 “Hand searching” (Reference lists, 
core journals, contacts) 
 Networks… 
2010-09-10 68
SuRe info 
69 
http://www.sure-info.org 
http://vortal.htai.org/?q=node/336
Thank you! 
70 
Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/omcoc/6751047205/
Exercise 
71 
KCE Reports vol. 217 
KCE Reports vol. 189

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CIES 2014 - Searching for articles in bibliographical databases - Concepts and examples

  • 1. Searching for articles in bibliographical databases Concepts and examples 2014-10-03 Patrice X. Chalon, M.Sc. 1
  • 2. What is this? 2 Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/glooze_photos/3693153103/
  • 3. What is this? 3 Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/donutgirl/273061411/
  • 5. Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/34878947@N04/4605875739 http://www.flickr.com/photos/yeliseev/2283085538 http://www.flickr.com/photos/ericbegin/2462706533/ http://ellenblickman.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/books-computer.jpg / 5 1994 1999 2004 5
  • 6. Knowledge Management Knowledge 6 Explicit knowledge Implicit (tacit) knowledge http://www.flickr.com/photos/lac-bac/7797313986/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/janeladeimagens/170838066/ Record and distribute (Formalisation, structuration, diffusion) Develop and disseminate (Training, coaching, feedbacks..)
  • 7. Sources 7 Image sources: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jcmejiaacera/11646975845/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/georgmayer/126254265/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/sloanpix/8205071402/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/raster/3380860520/
  • 8. 8 Who are you? 8
  • 9. And example… THE CONCEPTS 9 http://www.flickr.com/photos/jakeandlindsay/5524669257/
  • 10. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATABASES 10 Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/omcoc/6751047205/
  • 11. Bibliographical indexes 11 Source: http://nlm.nih.gov/hmd/sowhatsnew/images/3a7-a.jpg
  • 12. Content of a record So = Jo, Dp, Vo, Is, Pg Eur J Nucl Med, 2000, 27 (1): 91-7 Au Mijnhout GS, Hooft L, van Tulder MW, Deville WL, Teule GJ and Hoekstra OS Ti How to perform a comprehensive search for FDG-PET literature. Ab In this study, a comprehensive, unbiassed search strategy for identifying literature on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in Medline, Embase and Current Contents was developed, … Kw, SH. Abstracting and Indexing ; Databases, Bibliographic ; Fludeoxyglucose F 18/ diagnostic use ; Fluorine Radioisotopes/ diagnostic use; Human ; Medline ; Periodicals ; Radiopharmaceuticals/ diagnostic use ; Research ; Subject Headings ; Tomography, Emission-Computed Others : Ad, ISSN, La, URL, References,… Accurate ? Particle ! Traduced title ? Manual / Automatic ? Keywords or Subject Headings ? Manual / Automatic ? Source: MedLine 12 12
  • 13. 13 Evolution of databases 13
  • 14. A world of datbases 14
  • 15. HOW TO SEARCH? 15 Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/omcoc/6751047205/
  • 16. Search strategy quadrant pertinent Not pertinent Not identified SILENCE identified NOISE 16 16
  • 17. Sensitive vs Specific search Sensitive  For a sensitive search you need to think of all the possible ways an author or an indexer might describe each of your key words in phrases. You might find it useful to check with a medical thesaurus or a list of subject heading such as MESH (Medical Subject Headings).  The more alternative terms you use the more results you will get from the search. Specific  For a specific search you want to use only terms that relate directly to your question, so you would use only one (or at the most two) way to describe each search term. You may need to check with the MESH as with the databases own thesaurus to ensure that the terms you are using are the terms the indexer would use.  In a specific search, you would apply more Limits. Limits are search terms such as language, age of article, journal title, article type or limits on the populations such as age, gender, ethnic group etc.  You can limit articles NOT to find certain terms, for example you could search for stress but NOT stress fractures.  The more limits you apply to a search the fewer results you will get from that search. Source : NHS FIFE LIBRARY SERVICES: Guide to Literature Searching. Available from: http://www.nhsfifelibraries.scot.nhs.uk/publications/litsearching.doc 17 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon 17
  • 20. Source: Guyatt G, Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users' guides to the medical literature : a manual for evidence-based clinical practice. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2008. 20 Evidenced- based approach 1. Identify your problem 2. Define a structured question 3. Find the best evidence 4. How valid is the study? 5. What are the results? 6. How should I apply the results to patient care? 20
  • 21. 1. IDENTIFY YOUR PROBLEM Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3914729343/ 21 21
  • 23. 2. DEFINE A STRUCTURED QUESTION Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3915514014 23 23
  • 24. Frameworks for structured questions PICO(s) SPICE ECLISPSE Patient / Population Setting Expectations Intervention Perspective Client group Comparison Intervention Location Outcome Comparison Impact Study design Evaluation Professionals Involved Service Evaluation Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/nguyendai/502168391 24 24
  • 25. Example 25 Hulstaert F, Neyt M, Gyselaers W. The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for trisomy 21 – health economic aspects. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). 2014. KCE Reports 222. D/2014/10.273/36.
  • 27. Synonyms, derivatives… LIST YOUR TERMS! 27 Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3915514014
  • 28. Example 28 Source: Lancet. 369(9560):474-81, 2007 Feb 10.
  • 29. 29 Example (cont.) Population  Pregnant woman  Pregnant women  … Intervention  NIPT  Non-Invasive Prenatal Test  Noninvasive Prenatal Testing  Diagnostic anténatal non-invasif  … 29
  • 30. 3. FIND THE BEST EVIDENCE Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3915514724 30 30
  • 32. Database…S? « La recherche dans une seconde base permet de récolter de 8 à 40% de références supplémentaires généralement issues de périodiques possédant un facteur d’impact, même faible. » Source: Le traitement médicamenteux de l'insuffisance cardiaque par 3 grands groupes pharmacologiques : Evaluation de la complémentarité des outils bibliographiques du domaine biomédical de l’Université de Liège. Chalon P, 2002, Report. 32 1999-2001 Diurétiques Digitaliques Beta-bloquants Medline 619 287 666 Chemical Abstracts Spécifiques (%) Journaux suppl (avec IF) 780 +161 (20.6) + 35 (6) 146 + 81 (22) + 23 (3) 170 + 103 (13.4) + 19 (1) Current Contents Spécifiques (%) Journaux suppl (avec IF) 472 + 99 (13.8) + 15 (12) 162 + 27 (8.6) + 6 (3) 717 + 445 (40.1) + 13 (9) 32
  • 33. Database characteristics  Time coverage  Topics  Source  Content  Indexation  Abstracts 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon 33 33
  • 34. TEXTWORD SEARCH 34 http://www.flickr.com/photos/robbie73/4289385819/
  • 36. Search interface characteristics  Truncation  Booleans  Thesaurus options  Related references…  Query in natural language  Simple search vs advanced  Search filters… 36 36
  • 37. TRUNCATION Variants Economical vs Economics Economic* 0-n Singular vs Plural Test vs Tests Test? 0-1 EN-us vs EN-uk Hematology vs Haematology H?ematology 0-1 Prefixes Pre natal vs prenatal vs pre-natal Pre?natal 0-1 37 37
  • 38. BOOLEANS NEAR  non invasive prenatal test / in all fields = 7 results  non invasive prenatal test / in Title = 1 result ADJn  (prenatal and test) /all fiels = 9689  (prenatal adj2 test) / all fields = 348  Prenatal test / all fields = 140 2010-09-10 38
  • 39. BOOLEANS (cont.) ADJn  (prenatal and test) = 9689  (prenatal adj2 test) = 348  Prenatal test = 140 2010-09-10 39
  • 40. BOOLEANS (cont.) 40 Patient AND Inter vention Design Comparator OR
  • 41. BOOLEANS (cont) Breast NeoplamsNOTBreast Neoplasms, male 41 Breast Neoplasms Breast Neoplasms, Male Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/fs999/3508277416
  • 42. Example (cont.) (pregnant wom?n OR pregnancy) AND (NIPT OR (non invasive ADJ2 prenatal ADJ2 test*)) 42 42
  • 44. THESAURUS SEARCH Image source : http://www.zazzle.be/dinosaure_de_thesaurus_tapis_souris-144708844640520683 44 44
  • 46. Taxonomy  PHYLUM AND SUBPHYLUM - Chordata, Vertebrata  CLASS AND SUBCLASS - Aves, Neornithes  ORDER AND SUBORDER - Falconiformes, Falcones  FAMILY AND SUBFAMILY - Accipitridae, Buteoninae  GENUS AND SUBGENUS - Haliaeetus, - SPECIES AND SSP - leucocephalis, leucocephalis  SCIENTIFIC NAME - Haliaeetus leucocephalis leucocephalis Source : http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/macsis/lists/M040093.htm 46 46
  • 47. Thesaurus : definition  Alphabetical list of selected words used to classify documentation Source: Dictionary French Larousse. Available from http://www.larousse.com/en/dictionaries/french/thesaurus 47 47
  • 48. Thesaurus: relationships 48 Source: http://www.cndp.fr/thesaurus-motbis/
  • 49. Thesaurus : evaluation Advantages  Quick results Less noise  Updated regularly Disadvantages  All concepts are not covered  New terms need some time to be correctly used 49 49
  • 50. They are working for you! MEDLINE INDEXING 50 Source: http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/images/A017410
  • 51. Indexing process 1. Read carefully and understand the title. 2. Read the introduction, looking for the purpose of the article. 3. Scan the body of the article, focus on the Materials & Methods section and the Results section. 4. Note section headings, paragraph headings; italics, boldface; charts, plates, tables, illustrations; laboratory methods, case reports, etc. 5. Select for indexing only those subjects actually discussed as opposed to those subjects merely mentioned. 6. Read the summary or conclusions of the author to determine whether the stated purpose was achieved. Do not index implications or suggested future applications. Do not index conclusive statements not supported by the text. 7. Scan the abstract for items missed, verifying that the text supports indexing these concepts. 8. Scan the author's own indexing or the keywords supplied by the publisher to see whether the concepts chosen are actually discussed in the text. 9. Scan the bibliographic references supplied by the author for clues and further corroboration. Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH®) in MEDLINE®/PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 51 51
  • 52. Finding terms  Indexers use the hierarchy to find the most specific MeSH heading (rather than each of the broader subjects in which a searcher may be interested)  Indexers use more than one heading if a single heading does not cover the concept  If an exact heading does not exist, indexers use the MeSH Browser and the hierarchy to find the most specific heading available. Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH®) in MEDLINE®/PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov/bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 52 52
  • 54. Major topics  Asterisks on MeSH headings and subheadings (e.g., Wound Healing/radiation effects*) designate that they are the major topics of the article, usually obtained from the title and/or statement of purpose  Non-major (non-asterisked) headings and subheadings are usually additional topics substantively discussed within the article, terms added to qualify a major topic (…).  The only indexed MEDLINE citations without an asterisked heading are some biographies in which the subject’s name may be considered the only major point. (…) Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH®) in MEDLINE®/PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov/bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 54 54
  • 55. Coordination  Using a subheading to describe a specific aspect of a MeSH heading “Blood analysis of Carbon Monoxyde” Carbon Monoxyde / Blood  Using two MeSH headings "Treatment of HIV infections with HIV protease inhibitors" HIV Infections/drug therapy HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use  Indexing a "pre-coordinated" MeSH heading which combines two concepts into one Pneumonia, Staphylococcal Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH®) in MEDLINE®/PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 55 55
  • 56. Example 56 Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68019694
  • 57. Rule of three  More than 3 major concepts: If more than 3 related topics are each presented as a major topic of the article, the more general MeSH heading under which they are all treed is usually designated as the major topic. The specific headings are usually indexed, but not as major topics.  More than 3 non-major concepts: If more than 3 related concepts are discussed in an article but are not a major topic, the more general MeSH heading under which they are all treed is usually indexed. The specific headings usually are not indexed. Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH®) in MEDLINE®/PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 57 57
  • 58. Example 58 Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68006521
  • 60. Example 60 Hulstaert F, Neyt M, Gyselaers W. The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for trisomy 21 – health economic aspects. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). 2014. KCE Reports 222. D/2014/10.273/36.
  • 63. How  Thesaurus advanced features  Special queries  Publication type  Language  … 63
  • 64. Thesaurus adv. feat. Focus  Pregnant Women/ = 5671  *Pregnant Women/ = 2765 Sub-headings  Breast Neoplasms = 221.295  Breast Neoplasms/di [Diagnosis] = 26.937 64 Explosion  Breast Neoplasms = 221.295  Exp Breast Neoplasms = 223.494
  • 65. Neyt M, Chalon PX. PharmacoEconomics. (2013 Nov 8. [Epub ahead of print]) Special queries 65 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon 65
  • 67. Last but not least COMPLEMENTARY SOURCES Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/redjar/113026147 67 67
  • 68.  Full text database (open access!, Google scholar,…)  OAI repositories (REPEC,…)  Clinical trials registers  Conference proceedings  “Hand searching” (Reference lists, core journals, contacts)  Networks… 2010-09-10 68
  • 69. SuRe info 69 http://www.sure-info.org http://vortal.htai.org/?q=node/336
  • 70. Thank you! 70 Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/omcoc/6751047205/
  • 71. Exercise 71 KCE Reports vol. 217 KCE Reports vol. 189