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Tips to search the literature Concepts Patrice X. CHALON, Msc Knowledge manager, Centre fédéral d'expertise des soins de santé (KCE) 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
Approach Identify your problem Define a structured question Find the best evidence How valid is the study? What are the results? How should I apply the results to patient care? Source: Guyatt G, Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users' guides to the medical literature : a manual for evidence-based clinical practice. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2008. 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
1. IDENTIFY YOUR PROBLEM Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3914729343/ 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
Example 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon

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2. DEFINE A  STRUCTURED QUESTION Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3915514014 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
Frameworks for structured questions Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/nguyendai/502168391 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon PICO SPICE ECLISPSE Patient Setting Expectations Intervention Perspective Client group Comparison Intervention Location Outcome Comparison Impact Evaluation Professionals Involved Service Evaluation
Example Source : Horsmans Y, Thiry N, le Polain M, Adler M, Colle I, Delwaide J, Michielsen P, Orlent H, Van Damme  P, Hulstaert F. Rapport coût-efficacité du traitement antiviral de l’hépatite B chronique en Belgique. Partie 1: Examen de la littérature et résultats d’une étude nationale. Health Technology Assessment (HTA). Bruxelles: Centre fédéral d’expertise des soins de santé (KCE). 2010. KCE Reports 127B.  D/2010/10.2738/23. 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
Example (cont.) Patient CHB Chronic hepatitis B Hepatitis B, Chronic … Intervention Interferon-based therapy NA Nucleotide analogue Nucleoside analogue … 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon

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TRUNCATION 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Variants Economical vs Economics Economic* 0-n Singular vs Plural Stent vs Stents Stent? 0-1 EN-us vs EN-uk Hematology vs Haematology H?ematology 0-1 Prefixes Pre natal vs prenatal vs pre-natal Pre?natal 0-1
NEAR breast cancer screening 44 / in all fields = 3971 results breast cancer screening 44 /  in Title  = 1 result ADJn breast and cancer / in title = 85786 results “ Comments on p53 protein expression, cell proliferation and steroid hormone receptors in ductal and lobular in situ carcinomas of the  breast . Rudas et al., Eur. J.  Cancer   1997, 33, No. 1, 39-44 .” breast ADJ3 cancer / in title = 84638 results “ Oral contraceptive use and  breast  or ovarian  cancer   risk in BRCA1/2 carriers: a meta-analysis.” breast ADJ2 cancer / in title = 81315 results “ Use of   breast cancer  screening and treatment services by Australian women aged 25-44 years following Kylie Minogue's breast cancer diagnosis .” BOOLEANS 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
BOOLEANS (cont.) OR AND 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
BOOLEANS (cont.) NOT Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/groume/4612564926/ 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon

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BMJ Best Practice and BMJ Clinical Evidence are point-of-care decision support tools that combine the latest research evidence, guidelines, and expert opinion on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. They can be accessed through the La Trobe University Library databases. Users can browse topics or search for terms to find condition management information. Search results are organized by content type and relevance. Accounts can be created to save searches, bookmark pages, and access the resources mobilely. Help is available through various library guides and chat.

Example (cont.) (CHB  OR  (Hepatitis B  ADJ2  Chronic * ))  AND   (NA  OR  (Nuclo ? ide  ADJ2  analogue)  OR  (Interferon  ADJ3  therap * ) ) 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
3. FIND THE BEST EVIDENCE Image souyrce : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3915514724 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
Evidence pyramid Based on: http://smlweb.aub.edu.lb/Tutorial.aspx?file=Tutorials/principles.html and  http://nyu.libguides.com/content.php?pid=27011&sid=234199#systematic 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Non filtered information Filtered information
Type of Source of Evidence Source. CEBAM 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon

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Sensitive vs Specific search Sensitive For a sensitive search  you need to think of all the possible ways an author or an indexer might describe each of your key words  in phrases. You might find it useful to check with a medical thesaurus or a list of subject heading such as MESH (Medical Subject Headings).  The more alternative terms you use the more results you will get  from the search. Specific For a specific search you want to use only terms that relate directly to your question, so  you would use only one (or at the most two) way to describe each search term .  You may need to check with the MESH as with the databases own thesaurus to ensure that the terms you are using are the terms the indexer would use. In a specific search,  you would apply  more Limits. Limits   are search terms such as language, age of article, journal title, article type or limits on the populations such as age, gender, ethnic group etc. You can   limit articles NOT to find certain terms ,  for example you could search for stress but NOT stress fractures. The more limits you apply to a search the fewer results you will get from that search. 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source : NHS FIFE LIBRARY SERVICES: Guide to Literature Searching. Available from: http://www.nhsfifelibraries.scot.nhs.uk/publications/litsearching.doc
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Content of a record So = Jo, Dp, Vo, Is, Pg   Eur J Nucl Med, 2000, 27 (1): 91-7 Au  Mijnhout GS, Hooft L, van Tulder MW, Deville WL, Teule GJ and Hoekstra OS  Ti How to perform a comprehensive search for FDG-PET literature .  Ab In this study, a comprehensive, unbiassed search strategy for identifying literature on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in Medline, Embase and Current Contents was developed, … Kw, SH. Abstracting and Indexing ; Databases, Bibliographic ; Fludeoxyglucose F 18/ diagnostic use ; Fluorine Radioisotopes/ diagnostic use; Human ; Medline ; Periodicals ; Radiopharmaceuticals/ diagnostic use ; Research ; Subject Headings ; Tomography, Emission-Computed Others  : Ad, ISSN, La, URL, References,… Manual  / Automatic ? Traduced title ? Accurate ? Keywords or  Subject Headings ? Source: MedLine Particle ! Manual  / Automatic ? 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
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Taxonomy PHYLUM AND SUBPHYLUM - Chordata, Vertebrata CLASS AND SUBCLASS  -  Aves,  Neornithes ORDER AND SUBORDER  -  Falconiformes,  Falcones FAMILY AND SUBFAMILY - Accipitridae, Buteoninae GENUS AND SUBGENUS  -  Haliaeetus,  -   SPECIES AND SSP -  leucocephalis,  leucocephalis SCIENTIFIC NAME -  Haliaeetus leucocephalis leucocephalis Source : http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/macsis/lists/M040093.htm 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon

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Thesaurus : definition Alphabetical  list of selected words used to classify documentation 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source: Dictionary French Larousse. Available from http://www.larousse.com/en/dictionaries/french/thesaurus
Thesaurus : flavors Alphabetical list => Scope note Hierarchical list => Contexts => Explosion Permuted index => mapping 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
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MedLine Indexing They are working for you! Image source : http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/images/A17410  2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
Indexing process Read carefully and understand the title. Read the introduction, looking for the purpose of the article. Scan the body of the article, focus on the Materials & Methods section and the Results section. Note section headings, paragraph headings; italics, boldface; charts, plates, tables, illustrations; laboratory methods, case reports, etc. Select for indexing only those subjects actually discussed as opposed to those subjects merely mentioned. Read the summary or conclusions of the author to determine whether the stated purpose was achieved.  Do not index implications or suggested future applications. Do not index conclusive statements not supported by the text . Scan the abstract for items missed, verifying that the text supports indexing these concepts. Scan the author's own indexing or the keywords supplied by the publisher to see whether the concepts chosen are actually discussed in the text. Scan the bibliographic references supplied by the author for clues and further corroboration . Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH ® ) in MEDLINE ® /PubMed available from  http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
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Major topics Asterisks on MeSH headings and subheadings (e.g., Wound Healing/radiation effects*) designate that they are the major topics of the article, usually obtained from the title and/or statement of purpose Non-major (non-asterisked) headings and subheadings are usually additional topics substantively discussed within the article, terms added to qualify a major topic (…). The only indexed MEDLINE citations without an asterisked heading are some biographies in which the subject’s name may be considered the only major point. (…) Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH ® ) in MEDLINE ® /PubMed available from  http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov/bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
Coordination Using a subheading to describe a specific aspect of a MeSH heading “ Blood analysis of Carbon Monoxyde ” Carbon Monoxyde / Blood Using two MeSH headings  " Treatment of HIV infections with HIV protease inhibitors "  HIV Infections/drug therapy HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use Indexing a "pre-coordinated" MeSH heading which combines two concepts into one      Pneumonia, Staphylococcal   Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH ® ) in MEDLINE ® /PubMed available from  http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
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SEARCH INTERFACES PubMed, CRD, Cochrane Library, OVIDSP, Embase.com, CSA, …. 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
Search interface characteristics Truncation Booleans Thesaurus options Related references… Query in natural language Simple search vs advanced Search filters… 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
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About Hedges “ To develop search strategies in MEDLINE we assembled a list of search terms and phrases in a subset of MEDLINE records  matched with a hand search  of the contents of 161 journal titles for the year 2000. The  sensitivity  for a given strategy is defined as the proportion of high quality articles that are retrieved;  specificity  is the proportion of low quality or off topic articles not retrieved;  precision  is the proportion of retrieved articles that are of high quality; and  accuracy  is the proportion of all articles that are correctly categorized by the search strategy.  49,028 articles were included in the analysis and 4,862 unique single-terms were tested.” 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source : http://hiru.mcmaster.ca/hiru/HIRU_Hedges_home.aspx

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The document provides tips for searching the literature to answer clinical questions. It recommends identifying the problem, defining a structured question, and finding the best evidence. It discusses using databases like CRD, which contains reviews from DARE, NHS EED and HTA. The search process involves searching for the patient/pathology concept first using MeSH terms, then searching for the therapy concept. Combining concepts with Boolean operators can help find the most relevant evidence.

crd htadatabse nhseed dare
Literature searching
Literature searchingLiterature searching
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This document provides an overview of strategies for searching the medical literature, including developing a PICO question, using Boolean operators and truncation, searching databases like PubMed and Google Scholar, and accessing full text articles. Key tips include searching MeSH terms in PubMed to identify the most relevant subject headings, using limits to narrow search results to specific types of articles and populations, and taking advantage of library services to access full texts.

Workshop on Systematic Searching (Oslo)
Workshop on Systematic Searching (Oslo)Workshop on Systematic Searching (Oslo)
Workshop on Systematic Searching (Oslo)

Afternoon session: Workshop on systematic searching - Defining a search strategy, database selection,tips and tricks - Setting up your systematic review 'toolbox' - How do you support your workflow? Documenting the search process, deduplication, prisma statement. http://www.ub.uio.no/english/about/news-and-events/events/2014/systematic-reviews-seminar.html

COMPLEMENTARY SOURCES Last but not least 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/redjar/113026147
Full text database (open access!, Google scholar,…) OAI repositories (REPEC,…) Clinical trials registers Conference proceedings “ Hand searching” (Reference lists, core journals, contacts) 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
JOURNAL EVALUATION Impact factors etc…. 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/infomofo/4494714180/
Impact factor discussed “ The term “impact factor” has gradually evolved, especially in Europe, to describe both journal and author impact. This ambiguity often causes problems. It is one thing to use impact factors to compare journals and quite another to use them to compare authors.” “ A journal’s impact factor is based on two elements: the numerator, which is the number of cites in the current year to any items published in the journal in the previous 2 years; and the denominator, the number of substantive articles (source items) published in the same 2 years.” 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source: Eugene Garfield. The Agony and the Ecstasy—The History and Meaning of the Journal Impact Factor. International Congress on Peer Review And Biomedical Publication Chicago,  September 16, 2005

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This presentation was funded by CDC and PEPFAR through the SUCCEED project at Stellenbosch University. The presentation was delivered by Ms Lynn Hendricks from the Centre for Evidence Based Health Care in July 2017

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Module 2: Evidence-Based Dental Public Health
Module 2: Evidence-Based Dental Public HealthModule 2: Evidence-Based Dental Public Health
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The updated version of this tutorial is available here: http://www.slideshare.net/uthsclib/module-2-evidencebased-dental-public-health-1724938 Module 2 of the Oral Health Tutorial, a production of UT HSC Libraries. This module focuses on evidence-based dental health. View this tutorial to learn how to define evidence-based dental public health, learn effective retrieval strategy, be able to critique the literature and apply it to public health dental practice. This tutorial is copyright Lara Sapp and Julie Gaines. Uploaded with permission.

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This document discusses how healthcare professionals use PICOT questions to efficiently find relevant information to answer clinical questions. It provides an example of a PICOT question asking if hand hygiene using soap and water or hand sanitizers is more effective in reducing hospital-acquired infections in geriatric patients over three months. The author describes searching two databases, limiting results to five years, and using search terms related to the question. Boolean operators were added to change the search significantly by decreasing and increasing relevant article amounts. Strategies to increase search rigor and effectiveness include using Boolean operators, limiting year ranges, searching multiple databases, and getting librarian assistance.

Subject list : Library science 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source : http://www.scimagojr.com/
Journal evaluation Impact factor  Journal Citation Index,  Scimago,  Eigenfactor Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI) .... Inclusion in bibliographical databases Article evaluation! 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
Open Access "By 'open access' to this literature, we mean its  free availability on the public internet , permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose,  without financial, legal, or technical barriers   other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited." 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source: http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/boaifaq.htm#openaccess
Thank you! Acknowledgments : Micheline Gobert, CEBAM;  Nancy Thiry, Catherine Garreyn, KCE Copyrights :  This work is released under Creative Commons License 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon

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This document discusses controlled vocabularies in medicine and health. It defines controlled vocabularies as structured lists of terms used to describe and index medical resources that improve search, description, communication and research. Examples of health vocabularies include MeSH, SNOMED CT, and LOINC. Controlled vocabularies help increase precision in searching by describing relationships between concepts through hierarchies, equivalence and associations. Resources and browsers are provided to access and use standard health vocabularies.

 
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Workshop Systematic Reviews Werkgroep Sociaal Wetenschappelijke Informatie
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This document summarizes a workshop on systematic searching in Oslo presented by Janneke Staaks. The workshop covered formulating a search question using PICO(S) criteria, systematically searching databases, using inclusion/exclusion criteria, critically appraising results, and analyzing data. Specific search techniques like using subject headings, keywords, wildcards, and adjacency operators were demonstrated. Developing a search strategy around a sample question on the effects of anti-epileptic drugs in pregnancy was discussed. Reporting search results and ensuring reproducibility were also addressed.

Research Methods: Searches & Systematic Reviews
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Slide deck for the Dent 610 graduate level course on research methods, 2018 version; collaboratively developed by Mark MacEachern, Patricia F. Anderson, and Tyler Nix.

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Searching the Biomedical Literature : concepts

  • 1. Tips to search the literature Concepts Patrice X. CHALON, Msc Knowledge manager, Centre fédéral d'expertise des soins de santé (KCE) 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 2. Approach Identify your problem Define a structured question Find the best evidence How valid is the study? What are the results? How should I apply the results to patient care? Source: Guyatt G, Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users' guides to the medical literature : a manual for evidence-based clinical practice. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2008. 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 3. 1. IDENTIFY YOUR PROBLEM Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3914729343/ 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 5. 2. DEFINE A STRUCTURED QUESTION Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3915514014 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 6. Frameworks for structured questions Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/nguyendai/502168391 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon PICO SPICE ECLISPSE Patient Setting Expectations Intervention Perspective Client group Comparison Intervention Location Outcome Comparison Impact Evaluation Professionals Involved Service Evaluation
  • 7. Example Source : Horsmans Y, Thiry N, le Polain M, Adler M, Colle I, Delwaide J, Michielsen P, Orlent H, Van Damme P, Hulstaert F. Rapport coût-efficacité du traitement antiviral de l’hépatite B chronique en Belgique. Partie 1: Examen de la littérature et résultats d’une étude nationale. Health Technology Assessment (HTA). Bruxelles: Centre fédéral d’expertise des soins de santé (KCE). 2010. KCE Reports 127B. D/2010/10.2738/23. 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 8. Example (cont.) Patient CHB Chronic hepatitis B Hepatitis B, Chronic … Intervention Interferon-based therapy NA Nucleotide analogue Nucleoside analogue … 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 9. TRUNCATION 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Variants Economical vs Economics Economic* 0-n Singular vs Plural Stent vs Stents Stent? 0-1 EN-us vs EN-uk Hematology vs Haematology H?ematology 0-1 Prefixes Pre natal vs prenatal vs pre-natal Pre?natal 0-1
  • 10. NEAR breast cancer screening 44 / in all fields = 3971 results breast cancer screening 44 / in Title = 1 result ADJn breast and cancer / in title = 85786 results “ Comments on p53 protein expression, cell proliferation and steroid hormone receptors in ductal and lobular in situ carcinomas of the breast . Rudas et al., Eur. J. Cancer 1997, 33, No. 1, 39-44 .” breast ADJ3 cancer / in title = 84638 results “ Oral contraceptive use and breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers: a meta-analysis.” breast ADJ2 cancer / in title = 81315 results “ Use of breast cancer screening and treatment services by Australian women aged 25-44 years following Kylie Minogue's breast cancer diagnosis .” BOOLEANS 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 11. BOOLEANS (cont.) OR AND 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 12. BOOLEANS (cont.) NOT Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/groume/4612564926/ 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 13. Example (cont.) (CHB OR (Hepatitis B ADJ2 Chronic * )) AND (NA OR (Nuclo ? ide ADJ2 analogue) OR (Interferon ADJ3 therap * ) ) 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 14. 3. FIND THE BEST EVIDENCE Image souyrce : http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3915514724 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 15. Evidence pyramid Based on: http://smlweb.aub.edu.lb/Tutorial.aspx?file=Tutorials/principles.html and http://nyu.libguides.com/content.php?pid=27011&sid=234199#systematic 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Non filtered information Filtered information
  • 16. Type of Source of Evidence Source. CEBAM 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 17. Search strategy quadrant 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon pertinent Not pertinent Not identified SILENCE identified NOISE
  • 18. Sensitive vs Specific search Sensitive For a sensitive search you need to think of all the possible ways an author or an indexer might describe each of your key words in phrases. You might find it useful to check with a medical thesaurus or a list of subject heading such as MESH (Medical Subject Headings). The more alternative terms you use the more results you will get from the search. Specific For a specific search you want to use only terms that relate directly to your question, so you would use only one (or at the most two) way to describe each search term . You may need to check with the MESH as with the databases own thesaurus to ensure that the terms you are using are the terms the indexer would use. In a specific search, you would apply more Limits. Limits are search terms such as language, age of article, journal title, article type or limits on the populations such as age, gender, ethnic group etc. You can limit articles NOT to find certain terms , for example you could search for stress but NOT stress fractures. The more limits you apply to a search the fewer results you will get from that search. 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source : NHS FIFE LIBRARY SERVICES: Guide to Literature Searching. Available from: http://www.nhsfifelibraries.scot.nhs.uk/publications/litsearching.doc
  • 19. Documentation of the search 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 20. Bibliographic indexes Index to articles Image source : http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/sowhatsnew/images/3a7-a.jpg 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 21. Content of a record So = Jo, Dp, Vo, Is, Pg Eur J Nucl Med, 2000, 27 (1): 91-7 Au Mijnhout GS, Hooft L, van Tulder MW, Deville WL, Teule GJ and Hoekstra OS Ti How to perform a comprehensive search for FDG-PET literature . Ab In this study, a comprehensive, unbiassed search strategy for identifying literature on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in Medline, Embase and Current Contents was developed, … Kw, SH. Abstracting and Indexing ; Databases, Bibliographic ; Fludeoxyglucose F 18/ diagnostic use ; Fluorine Radioisotopes/ diagnostic use; Human ; Medline ; Periodicals ; Radiopharmaceuticals/ diagnostic use ; Research ; Subject Headings ; Tomography, Emission-Computed Others : Ad, ISSN, La, URL, References,… Manual / Automatic ? Traduced title ? Accurate ? Keywords or Subject Headings ? Source: MedLine Particle ! Manual / Automatic ? 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 22. THESAURUS Image source : http://www.zazzle.be/dinosaure_de_thesaurus_tapis_souris-144708844640520683 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 23. What is this ? Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/ericbegin/4301731953 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 24. Taxonomy PHYLUM AND SUBPHYLUM - Chordata, Vertebrata CLASS AND SUBCLASS - Aves, Neornithes ORDER AND SUBORDER - Falconiformes, Falcones FAMILY AND SUBFAMILY - Accipitridae, Buteoninae GENUS AND SUBGENUS - Haliaeetus, - SPECIES AND SSP - leucocephalis, leucocephalis SCIENTIFIC NAME - Haliaeetus leucocephalis leucocephalis Source : http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/macsis/lists/M040093.htm 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 25. Thesaurus : definition Alphabetical list of selected words used to classify documentation 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source: Dictionary French Larousse. Available from http://www.larousse.com/en/dictionaries/french/thesaurus
  • 26. Thesaurus : flavors Alphabetical list => Scope note Hierarchical list => Contexts => Explosion Permuted index => mapping 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 27. Thesaurus : relationaships Source : http://www.motbis.fr 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 28. Thesaurus : evaluation Advantages Quick results Less noise Updated regularly Disadvantages All concepts are not covered New terms need some time to be correctly used 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 29. MedLine Indexing They are working for you! Image source : http://ihm.nlm.nih.gov/images/A17410 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 30. Indexing process Read carefully and understand the title. Read the introduction, looking for the purpose of the article. Scan the body of the article, focus on the Materials & Methods section and the Results section. Note section headings, paragraph headings; italics, boldface; charts, plates, tables, illustrations; laboratory methods, case reports, etc. Select for indexing only those subjects actually discussed as opposed to those subjects merely mentioned. Read the summary or conclusions of the author to determine whether the stated purpose was achieved. Do not index implications or suggested future applications. Do not index conclusive statements not supported by the text . Scan the abstract for items missed, verifying that the text supports indexing these concepts. Scan the author's own indexing or the keywords supplied by the publisher to see whether the concepts chosen are actually discussed in the text. Scan the bibliographic references supplied by the author for clues and further corroboration . Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH ® ) in MEDLINE ® /PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 31. Finding terms Indexers use the hierarchy to find the most specific MeSH heading ( rather than each of the broader subjects in which a searcher may be interested) Indexers use more than one heading if a single heading does not cover the concept If an exact heading does not exist , indexers use the MeSH Browser and the hierarchy to find the most specific heading available . Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH ® ) in MEDLINE ® /PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov/bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 33. Major topics Asterisks on MeSH headings and subheadings (e.g., Wound Healing/radiation effects*) designate that they are the major topics of the article, usually obtained from the title and/or statement of purpose Non-major (non-asterisked) headings and subheadings are usually additional topics substantively discussed within the article, terms added to qualify a major topic (…). The only indexed MEDLINE citations without an asterisked heading are some biographies in which the subject’s name may be considered the only major point. (…) Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH ® ) in MEDLINE ® /PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov/bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 34. Coordination Using a subheading to describe a specific aspect of a MeSH heading “ Blood analysis of Carbon Monoxyde ” Carbon Monoxyde / Blood Using two MeSH headings " Treatment of HIV infections with HIV protease inhibitors " HIV Infections/drug therapy HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use Indexing a "pre-coordinated" MeSH heading which combines two concepts into one   Pneumonia, Staphylococcal   Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH ® ) in MEDLINE ® /PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 36. Rule of three More than 3 major concepts:   If more than 3 related topics are each presented as a major topic of the article, the more general MeSH heading under which they are all treed is usually designated as the major topic . The specific headings are usually indexed, but not as major topics. More than 3 non-major concepts:   If more than 3 related concepts are discussed in an article but are not a major topic , the more general MeSH heading under which they are all treed is usually indexed .   The specific headings usually are not indexed . Source : The basics of medical subject headings (MeSH ® ) in MEDLINE ® /PubMed available from http://www.Nlm.Nih.Gov /bsd/disted/mesh/index.Html 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 37. Example Source : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68006521 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 38. DATABASES FOR ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS Selection of 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/infomofo/4494714180/
  • 39. Database…S? 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon « L a recherche dans une seconde base permet de récolter de 8 à 40% de références supplémentaires généralement issues de périodiques possédant un facteur d’impact, même faible. » Source: L e traitement médicamenteux de l'insuffisance cardiaque par 3 grands groupes pharmacologiques : Evaluation de la complémentarité des outils bibliographiques du domaine biomédical de l’Université de Liège. Chalon P, 2002, Report. 1999-2001 Diurétiques Digitaliques Beta-bloquants Medline 619 287 666 Chemical Abstracts Spécifiques (%) Journaux suppl (avec IF) 780 +161 (20.6) + 35 (6) 146 + 81 (22) + 23 (3) 170 + 103 (13.4) + 19 (1) Current Contents Spécifiques (%) Journaux suppl (avec IF) 472 + 99 (13.8) + 15 (12) 162 + 27 (8.6) + 6 (3) 717 + 445 (40.1) + 13 (9)
  • 40. Database characteristics Time coverage Topics Source Content Indexation Abstracts 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 41. SEARCH INTERFACES PubMed, CRD, Cochrane Library, OVIDSP, Embase.com, CSA, …. 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 42. Search interface characteristics Truncation Booleans Thesaurus options Related references… Query in natural language Simple search vs advanced Search filters… 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 43. SPECIAL QUERIES Search filters, hedges, Clinical queries, … 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source : http://kce.docressources.info/opac/index.php?lvl=categ_see&id=1579
  • 44. About Hedges “ To develop search strategies in MEDLINE we assembled a list of search terms and phrases in a subset of MEDLINE records matched with a hand search of the contents of 161 journal titles for the year 2000. The sensitivity for a given strategy is defined as the proportion of high quality articles that are retrieved; specificity is the proportion of low quality or off topic articles not retrieved; precision is the proportion of retrieved articles that are of high quality; and accuracy is the proportion of all articles that are correctly categorized by the search strategy. 49,028 articles were included in the analysis and 4,862 unique single-terms were tested.” 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source : http://hiru.mcmaster.ca/hiru/HIRU_Hedges_home.aspx
  • 45. COMPLEMENTARY SOURCES Last but not least 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/redjar/113026147
  • 46. Full text database (open access!, Google scholar,…) OAI repositories (REPEC,…) Clinical trials registers Conference proceedings “ Hand searching” (Reference lists, core journals, contacts) 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 47. JOURNAL EVALUATION Impact factors etc…. 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Image source : http://www.flickr.com/photos/infomofo/4494714180/
  • 48. Impact factor discussed “ The term “impact factor” has gradually evolved, especially in Europe, to describe both journal and author impact. This ambiguity often causes problems. It is one thing to use impact factors to compare journals and quite another to use them to compare authors.” “ A journal’s impact factor is based on two elements: the numerator, which is the number of cites in the current year to any items published in the journal in the previous 2 years; and the denominator, the number of substantive articles (source items) published in the same 2 years.” 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source: Eugene Garfield. The Agony and the Ecstasy—The History and Meaning of the Journal Impact Factor. International Congress on Peer Review And Biomedical Publication Chicago, September 16, 2005
  • 49. Subject list : Library science 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source : http://www.scimagojr.com/
  • 50. Journal evaluation Impact factor Journal Citation Index, Scimago, Eigenfactor Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI) .... Inclusion in bibliographical databases Article evaluation! 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon
  • 51. Open Access "By 'open access' to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet , permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited." 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon Source: http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/boaifaq.htm#openaccess
  • 52. Thank you! Acknowledgments : Micheline Gobert, CEBAM; Nancy Thiry, Catherine Garreyn, KCE Copyrights : This work is released under Creative Commons License 2010-09-10 Patrice X. Chalon

Editor's Notes

  1. Nuclo?ide = nucleoside or nucleotide
  2. Physician NEAR relationship retrieves records that contain the words in the same field E.g. both words in the Title; in the abstract, and so on physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship within five words of each other in either direction . E.g. physician patient relationship , patient physician relationship , relationship of the physician to the patient , and so on. Source: http://www.ovid.com.vdicp.health.fgov.be:8080/site/help/documentation/ospb/en/syntax.htm#operators
  3. The OR operator lets you retrieve records that contain any of your search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves records that contain heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms. Results are all inclusive The AND operator lets you retrieve only those records that include all of your search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves only those records that contain both terms blood pressure and stroke together in the same record. Results exclude records that do not contain both terms.
  4. The NOT operator lets you retrieve records that contain your first term but exclude the second term. In this way, you can restrict the scope of your results. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but exclude the term health maintenance organizations. http://www.ovid.com.vdicp.health.fgov.be:8080/site/help/documentation/ospb/en/syntax.htm#operators 1 deoxyglucose.ti.ab.rw.sh 2 deoxy-glucose.ti.ab.rw.sh 3 fluorodeoxyglucose.ti.ab.rw.sh 4 18fluorodeoxyglucose.ti.ab.rw.sh 5 fluodeoxyglucose.ti.ab.rw.sh 6 fdg$.ti.ab.rw.sh 7 18fdg.ti.ab.rw.sh 8 f-18-dg.ti.ab.rw.sh 9 fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose.ti.ab.rw.sh 10 2fluoro-2deoxyglucose.ti.ab.rw.sh 11 fluoro-d-glucose.ti.ab.rw.sh 12 or/1-11
  5. Nuclo?ide = nucleoside or nucleotide
  6. Filtered resources appraise the quality of studies and often make recommendations for practice Unfiltered resources: Evidence is not always available via filtered resources. Searching the primary literature may be required. It is possible to use specific search strategies in MEDLINE and other databases to retrieve the best available evidence.
  7. Sources quaternaires : Clinical guidelines/réunions de consensus/standards Sources tertiaires : Revues systématiques/méta-analyses/publication EBM Sources secondaires : Outils de recherche dans la littérature Sources primaires : Revues publiant les études scientifiques
  8. Oiseau Rapace [EP oiseau de proie] Rapace Diurne [EP buse:rapace, faucon] Aigle Vautour Rapace Nocturne …
  9. Time coverage Since when Source How many journal indexed ; Which kind of indexation (full vs selection)? Topics Content Which publication type? Indexation Thesaurus? Abstracts Always?