SlideShare a Scribd company logo
BIOPESTICIDES
ANJANA PRASAD
BIOPESTICIDES
• Includes naturally occurring substances that
control pest (biochemical pesticides),
microorganisms that control pests (microbial
pesticides) and pesticidal substances
produced by plants containing added genetic
material (plant incorporated protectants or
PIPs)
CLASSES OF BIOPESTICIDES
1. BIOCHEMICAL PESTICIDES
• Naturally occurring substances that control
pests by non-toxic mechanisms
• Includes substances that interfere with
mating, such as insect sex pheromones, as
well as various scented plant extracts that
attract insect pests to traps
CLASSES OF BIOPESTICIDES
2. MICROBIAL BIOPESTICIDES
• Consist of a microorganism (e.g., a bacterium,
fungus, virus or protozoan) as the active ingredient.
• Active ingredient is relatively specific for its target
pest
• Eg: some Bt ingredients control moth larvae found
on plants, other Bt ingredients are specific for
larvae of flies and mosquitoes.
CLASSES OF BIOPESTICIDES
3. PLANT – INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPs)
• Pesticidal substances that plants produce from
genetic material that has been added to the plant.
• Eg: scientists can take the gene for the Bt
pesticidal protein and introduce the gene into the
plant's own genetic material. Then the plant,
instead of the Bt bacterium, manufactures the
substance that destroys the pest.
NEEDS FOR BIOPESTICIDES
• Proper pest management is important factor
for healthy and high yielding crop to fulfill the
food demand for increasing population.
• Chemical pesticides have accelerated land, air
and water contamination.
• They have been the main cause of insect
resistance as well as adverse impacts on
natural enemies and humans.
ADVANTAGES OF BIOPESTICIDES
 Less toxic than conventional pesticides.
 Effect only the target pest and closely related organisms
whereas conventional pesticides are broad spectrum
pesticides.
 Effective in very small quantities and often decompose
quickly, resulting in lower exposures and largely avoiding
pollution problems caused by conventional pesticides.
 When used as a component of Integrated Pest Management
programs, biopesticides can greatly reduce the use of
conventional pesticides while crop yields remain high.
MICROBIAL BIOPESTICIDES
• Constitute the largest group of broad- spectrum
biopesticides which are pest specific.
• There are atleast 3000 naturally occurring insect-
specific microorganisms, 100 of which are
insecticidal.
1. Bacterial biopesticides
2. Viral biopesticides
3. Fungal biopesticides
4. Protozoan biopesticides
BACTERIAL BIOPESTICIDES
• Mainly 4 categories:
1.Crystalliferous spore formers ( Bacillus thuringiensis)
2.Obligate pathogens (Bacillus papiliae)
3.Potential pathogens (Serratia marcesens)
4.Facultative pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa)
Out of these four, 1 and 2 are important
biopesticides.
Bacillus thuringiensis
• GP, spore forming, facultative bacterium with
nearly 100 subspecies and varieties divided
into 70 serotypes.
• Specific, safe and effective tool for insect
control.
• Insecticidal property resides in Cry family of
crystalline proteins that are produced in the
parasporal crystals and are encoded by the cry
genes
Bacillus thuringiensis –CRY proteins
• Cry proteins are globular molecules with 3
structural domain connected by single linkers.
• This 3 domain family is characterised by protoxins
of two different lengths, one being longer with C
– terminal extension necessary for toxicity.
• This extension also has a characteristic role in
crystal formation within the bacterium.
• Cry proteins are responsible for feeding cessation
and death of the insect.
Bacillus thuringiensis- mechanism
• Cry protoxins are ingested and then solubilised,
releasing a protease resistant biologically active
endotoxin, before it is being digested by protease
of the gut to remove amino acids from its C and N
terminal ends.
• The C terminal domain of the active toxin binds
to the specific receptors on brush border
membranes of the midgut.
• It is followed by the insertion of the hydrophobic
region of the toxin into the cell membrane.
Bacillus thuringiensis- mechanism
• This creates a disruption in the osmotic balance
because of the formation of transmembrane
pores.
• Ultimately cell lysis occurs in the gut wall
leading to leakage of gut contents.
• This induces starvation and lethal septicaemia
of the target pest.
Bt subspecies and targets
Bacillus thuringiensis
subspecies
Targets
B. thuringiensis tenebrionis Colorado potato beetle and elm
leaf beetle larvae
B. thuringiensis kurstaki Variety of caterpillars
B. thuringiensis isralensis Mosquito, blackfly and fungus
gnat larvae
B. thuringiensis aizawai Wax moth larvae and various
caterpillars especially diamond
back moth caterpillar
Bacillus sphaericus
• GP, strict aerobic bacterium, which produces
round spores in a swollen club like terminal or
subterminal sporangium.
• Produces an intracellular protein toxin and a
parasporal crystalline toxin at the time of
sporulation.
• The mosquito – larvicidal binary toxin
produced by B. sphaericus is composed of Bin
A (51.4 kDa) and Bin B (41.9 kDa).
Bacillus sphaericus
• Bin proteins forms a crystal and in solution it
can exist as an oligomer containing 2 copies
each of Bin A and Bin B.
• Some toxin strains also produces 100 kDa
toxins encoded by mtx genes.
• Mainly used for mosquito control.
VIRAL BIOPESTICIDES
• The viruses used for pest control are:
DNA containing baculoviruses
(BVs)
Nucleopolyhedrosis viruses
(NPVs)
Granuloviruses (GVs) Acoviruses
Parvoviruses Polydnaviruses
Pox viruses RNA containing recoviruses
Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses Nodaviruses
Picorna like viruses Tetraviruses
VIRAL BIOPESTICIDES
• They are narrow spectrum.
• After application to plant surface, baculovirus
occlusion bodies (OBs) are rapidly inactivated by
solar UV radiation (280 – 320nm).
• Efficacy can be improved by the use of formulations
that include stilbene derived optical brighteners,
which increase susceptibility to NPV infection.
• UV inactivation can be controlled by creating
systems which filter UV radiation such as plastic
greenhouse structures.
MECHANISM
• Replication of virus occurs in the nuclei or
cytoplasm of the target cell
• The expression of viral proteins occurs in 3
phases:
Early phase ie, 0-6 hr post infection
Late phase ie, 6-24 hr post infection
Very late phase ie, upto 72 hr post infection
• It is at the late phase that the virions assemble as
the 29kDa occlusion body protein is synthesised.
MECHANISM
• Virions of NPVs are occluded within each
occlusion body to develop polyhedra whereas
the GV virion is occluded in a small occlusion
body to generate granules
• Infected nuclei can produce 100s of polyhedra
and 1000s of granules per cell.
• These can create enzootics, deplete the pest
populations and ultimately create significant
impact on the economic threshold of the pest.
VIRUSES AND THEIR TARGETS
VIRUSES TARGETS
Cydia pomonella GV Codling moth on fruit trees
Phthorimaea operculella GV Potato tuberworms
Virus based products Cabbage moth, corn earworms,
cotton leafworms, bollworms,
celery loopers, tobacco
budworms
FUNGAL BIOPESTICIDES
• Fungi specifically associated with insects (aphids,
thrips, mealy bugs, whiteflies, scale insects,
mosquitoes and mites) are known as
entomopathogenic fungi.
• Obligate or facultative, commensals or symbionts of
insects.
• Belong to 4 major groups:
 Laboulbeniales
 Pyrenomycetes
 Hyphomycetes
 Zygomycetes
FUNGAL BIOPESTICIDES
• Most widely used species include:
 Beauveria bassiana
Metarhizium anisopliae
Nomurea rileyi
Paecilomyces farinosus
Verticillium lecanii
• The fungi attack the host via integument or gut
epithelium and establish their conidia in the
joints and the integument.
FUNGAL BIOPESTICIDES
• B. bassania and M. anisiphliae causes muscardine
insect disease and after killing the host, cadavers
become mumified or covered by mycelial growth.
• Streptomycetes produce toxins.
• Most active toxins are actinomycin A, cyclohexamide
and novobiocin.
• Spinosyns are isolated from Saccharopolyspora
spinosa and are active against dipterans,
hymenopterans, etc. and less active against
coleopterans, aphids and nematodes.
PROTOZOAN BIOPESTICIDES
• Although they infect pests, induce chronic and
debilitating effects on targets, the use of protozoa
as biopesticide has not been very successful.
• Microsporan protozoans are used as possible
component of IPM.
• Microsporidia are ubiquitous, obligate
intracellular parasites.
Eg: Nosema and Vairimorpha have some potential
to attack lepidopteran and orthopteran insects.
Nosema pyrausta
• A microsporidian which infect European corn
borer, Ostrinia nubilalis.
• Spores eaten by corn borer larvae germinates in
the midgut and injects sporoplasm into midgut
cell.
• The sporoplasm reproduces and then forms more
spores, which can infect other tissues
• Spores in infected midgut cells are sloughed into
the gut lumen and are eliminated along with the
faeces to the plant.
Nosema pyrausta
• These spores remain viable and are consumed
during larval feeding so that infection is repeated
in midgut cells of new host. This is horizontal
transmission.
• Nosema can be passed by vertical transmission.
• As the infected female larva develops to an adult,
the ovarian tissue and developing oocytes
become infected.
• The embryo and hatched larvae is infected.
• It suppresses by reducing oviposition, % hatch
and survival of infected larvae.
Nosema locustae
• Infects grasshoppers
• Most effective when ingested by nymphal
stages of grasshoppers and kills them within 3
– 6 weeks post infection.
• Not all infected grasshoppers are killed by this
protozoan infection.
MICROBIAL PRODUCTS IN
BIOPESTICIDES
• Microorganisms are known to produce anti – pest
chemical compounds.
• Antinsectan compounds derived from:
 Non – filamentous bacteria (eg: aminolevulinic acid,
thiolutin, thuringiensin, xenorhabdins)
 Actinomycetes
 Fungi (eg: actinomycin A, avermectins, citromycin,
nikkomycin, spinosyns, various cyclic peptides)
are well known as toxins, growth inhibitors, antifeedants
and physiological disrupters.
MICROBIAL PRODUCTS IN
BIOPESTICIDES
• Some transgenic crops can be considered
among microbial based products
• Eg: Bacillus thuringiensis based genetically
engineered crops like Bt cotton and maize.
• Genetically modified (GM) sugar beet, papaya,
sweet pepper, tomato etc are successfully
grown.
MAIN CHALLENGES TO MICROBIAL
PESTICIDES
• The utilization of microbial pesticides in
IPM model requires high scientific study
such as systematic surveys on properties,
mode of action, pathogenicity, etc.
• Ecological studies are necessary on the
dynamics of diseases in insect
populations because the environmental
factors play a vital role in disease
outbreaks to control the pests.
MAIN CHALLENGES TO MICROBIAL
PESTICIDES
• In order to improve mass production
technologies; contamination should be reduced
with the improvement of formulation potency
and increase in shelf-life of microbial
biopesticides.
• Dry formulations should be commercially
focused than the liquid formulations with the
improvement of slow speed with which
microbial pathogens kill their host. Genetic and
biotechnological tools would lead to the
production of strains with improved
pathogenesis and virulence.
MAIN CHALLENGES TO MICROBIAL
PESTICIDES
• Due to narrow specificity mostly forces
biopesticide application with common
conventional insecticides. However, this
practice can also lead to incompatibility
problems such as inhibition or death of the
living organism.
• All aspects study should be done especially;
persistence, resistance, dispersal potential,
the range of non-target organisms affected
directly and/or indirectly in order to solve the
problem of regarding the regulatory and
registration.
POSITIVE ASPECTS OF MICROBIAL
PESTICIDES
• The bioactive agents are basically non-toxic and
nonpathogenic to non-target organisms, communities and
humans.
• They have narrow area of toxic action, mostly specific to a
single group or species of insect pests and do not directly
affect beneficial insects (predators, parasites, parasitoids,
pollinators) in treated areas.
• They can be used in combination with synthetic chemical
insecticides because in most cases the microbial product
is not deactivated.
POSITIVE ASPECTS OF MICROBIAL
PESTICIDES
• Their residues have no adverse effects on humans or
other animals, therefore, microbial insecticides can be
used in near harvesting time.
• Sometime, the pathogenic microorganisms can become
established in a pest population or its habitat and
provide control pest generation to generations or season
after seasons.
• They improve the root and plant growth by encouraging
the beneficial soil microflora and also increase yield.
DEMERITS OF MICROBIAL PESTICIDES
• Owing to the specificity of the action, microbes may control only
a portion of the pests present in a field and may not control other
type of pests present in treated areas, which can cause
continuous damage.
• As heat, UV light and desiccation reduces the efficacy of microbial
pesticides, the delivery systems become an important factor.
• Special formulations and storage procedures are necessary. Shelf
life is a constraint, given their short shelf lives.
• Given their pest specificity, markets are limited. The
development, registration and production costs cannot be spread
over a wide range of pest control sales; for example, insect
viruses are not widely available.
REFERENCES
 Nawaz M, Juma I, et.al.Current status and advancement of biopesticides:
Microbial and botanical pesticides; Journal of Entomology and Zoology
studies 2016
(www.entomo/journal.com/archives/2016/vol 4 issue 2/Part D/ 4-2-45.pdf)
 B.ramanujam, et al.management of insect pests by microorganisms, Poc
Indian Natn Sci Acad 80 no.2 June 2014 Spl. Sec pp.455-471
(www.insa.nic.in/writeraddata/ UpLoadedFiles/ PINSA/ Vol80-2014-2-
Art27.pdf)
 Koul Opender, Microbial biopesticides: opportunities and challenges; CAB
reviews Perspectives in agriculture, veterinary studies, nutrition and natural
resources, 2011No. 056;pdf
(http://www.cabi.org/cabreviews)
 http://www.epa.gov/ingredients-used-pesticide-products/what -are-
biopesticides.
Biopesticides

More Related Content

What's hot

Production of biopestcides
Production of biopestcidesProduction of biopestcides
Production of biopestcides
Deepika Rana
 
Rhizobium Biofertilizer Mass Production
Rhizobium Biofertilizer Mass ProductionRhizobium Biofertilizer Mass Production
Rhizobium Biofertilizer Mass Production
Dr. Pavan Kundur
 
Biopesticides
BiopesticidesBiopesticides
Biopesticides
Ruchi
 
Mycorrhiza Biofertilizer: VAM
Mycorrhiza Biofertilizer: VAMMycorrhiza Biofertilizer: VAM
Mycorrhiza Biofertilizer: VAM
Vishal Pandey
 
Biofertilizer and biopesticides
Biofertilizer and biopesticidesBiofertilizer and biopesticides
Biofertilizer and biopesticides
Rajpal Choudhary
 
Bio pesticides
Bio pesticidesBio pesticides
Bio pesticides
Sivasangari Shanmugam
 
plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
plant growth promoting rhizobacteriaplant growth promoting rhizobacteria
plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
Abhinav Vivek
 
Rhizobium ppt
Rhizobium pptRhizobium ppt
Rhizobium ppt
chandankc1
 
Biopesticide
Biopesticide Biopesticide
Bacillus thurengiensis
Bacillus thurengiensisBacillus thurengiensis
Bacillus thurengiensis
Jazmin Caur
 
Microbial insecticides
Microbial insecticidesMicrobial insecticides
Microbial insecticides
Iniya Lakshimi
 
BIO FERTILIZER
BIO FERTILIZERBIO FERTILIZER
BIO FERTILIZER
Anusha Aditya
 
Rhizobium
RhizobiumRhizobium
Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer
Agrobacterium mediated gene transferAgrobacterium mediated gene transfer
Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer
Nishanth S
 
Role of microbes in soil
Role of microbes in soilRole of microbes in soil
Role of microbes in soil
AnuKiruthika
 
Biopesticides
Biopesticides Biopesticides
Biopesticides
Mahewash Sana Pathan
 
Biological Nitrogen fixation
Biological Nitrogen fixation Biological Nitrogen fixation
Biological Nitrogen fixation
Shri Shankaracharya College, Bhilai,Junwani
 
Biological control of plant pathogens
Biological control of plant pathogensBiological control of plant pathogens
Biological control of plant pathogens
Plant Disease Control Hub
 
Mycorrhizae types and applications
Mycorrhizae  types and applicationsMycorrhizae  types and applications
Mycorrhizae types and applications
Nischitha R
 
Biofertilizers ppt
Biofertilizers pptBiofertilizers ppt
Biofertilizers ppt
Navneet Kaur
 

What's hot (20)

Production of biopestcides
Production of biopestcidesProduction of biopestcides
Production of biopestcides
 
Rhizobium Biofertilizer Mass Production
Rhizobium Biofertilizer Mass ProductionRhizobium Biofertilizer Mass Production
Rhizobium Biofertilizer Mass Production
 
Biopesticides
BiopesticidesBiopesticides
Biopesticides
 
Mycorrhiza Biofertilizer: VAM
Mycorrhiza Biofertilizer: VAMMycorrhiza Biofertilizer: VAM
Mycorrhiza Biofertilizer: VAM
 
Biofertilizer and biopesticides
Biofertilizer and biopesticidesBiofertilizer and biopesticides
Biofertilizer and biopesticides
 
Bio pesticides
Bio pesticidesBio pesticides
Bio pesticides
 
plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
plant growth promoting rhizobacteriaplant growth promoting rhizobacteria
plant growth promoting rhizobacteria
 
Rhizobium ppt
Rhizobium pptRhizobium ppt
Rhizobium ppt
 
Biopesticide
Biopesticide Biopesticide
Biopesticide
 
Bacillus thurengiensis
Bacillus thurengiensisBacillus thurengiensis
Bacillus thurengiensis
 
Microbial insecticides
Microbial insecticidesMicrobial insecticides
Microbial insecticides
 
BIO FERTILIZER
BIO FERTILIZERBIO FERTILIZER
BIO FERTILIZER
 
Rhizobium
RhizobiumRhizobium
Rhizobium
 
Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer
Agrobacterium mediated gene transferAgrobacterium mediated gene transfer
Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer
 
Role of microbes in soil
Role of microbes in soilRole of microbes in soil
Role of microbes in soil
 
Biopesticides
Biopesticides Biopesticides
Biopesticides
 
Biological Nitrogen fixation
Biological Nitrogen fixation Biological Nitrogen fixation
Biological Nitrogen fixation
 
Biological control of plant pathogens
Biological control of plant pathogensBiological control of plant pathogens
Biological control of plant pathogens
 
Mycorrhizae types and applications
Mycorrhizae  types and applicationsMycorrhizae  types and applications
Mycorrhizae types and applications
 
Biofertilizers ppt
Biofertilizers pptBiofertilizers ppt
Biofertilizers ppt
 

Similar to Biopesticides

Biopesticide
BiopesticideBiopesticide
Biopesticide
Rachana Choudhary
 
Microbial control of insect pests
Microbial control of insect pestsMicrobial control of insect pests
Microbial control of insect pests
vivekbps
 
biopesticides-150723082006-lva1-app6891.pdf
biopesticides-150723082006-lva1-app6891.pdfbiopesticides-150723082006-lva1-app6891.pdf
biopesticides-150723082006-lva1-app6891.pdf
HINDUJA20
 
Biological control of pest
Biological control of pestBiological control of pest
Biological control of pest
N.H. Shankar Reddy
 
microbial insecticides
microbial insecticidesmicrobial insecticides
microbial insecticides
Suprabha Sanil
 
Genetic engineering and molecular interaction of entomopathogenic fungi
Genetic engineering and molecular interaction of entomopathogenic fungiGenetic engineering and molecular interaction of entomopathogenic fungi
Genetic engineering and molecular interaction of entomopathogenic fungi
PogulaKranthi
 
Micro Oraganisms used in Bio pesticide
Micro Oraganisms used in Bio pesticideMicro Oraganisms used in Bio pesticide
Micro Oraganisms used in Bio pesticide
ChamudithaBenaragama
 
Biopesticides
BiopesticidesBiopesticides
Biopesticides
AnjnaSharma111
 
Microbial control - insect- pest control
Microbial control - insect- pest controlMicrobial control - insect- pest control
Microbial control - insect- pest control
Anand P P
 
Ranjeet Kumar _Study of biopesticides.pptx
Ranjeet Kumar _Study of biopesticides.pptxRanjeet Kumar _Study of biopesticides.pptx
Ranjeet Kumar _Study of biopesticides.pptx
Ranjeettaram
 
Biopesticide
Biopesticide Biopesticide
Biopesticide
KhushiPatel104
 
Microbial pest control ppt
Microbial pest control ppt Microbial pest control ppt
Microbial pest control ppt
Pranjali Nene
 
Microbes in biological control,Fermentation and enzyme technology
Microbes in biological control,Fermentation and enzyme technologyMicrobes in biological control,Fermentation and enzyme technology
Microbes in biological control,Fermentation and enzyme technology
Gowri Prabhu
 
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents & Biofertilizers.pdf
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents & Biofertilizers.pdfMicrobes as Biocontrol Agents & Biofertilizers.pdf
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents & Biofertilizers.pdf
VishnuKannan19
 
Biopesticides
BiopesticidesBiopesticides
Biopesticides
vivekbps
 
Industrial microbiology,
Industrial microbiology,Industrial microbiology,
Industrial microbiology,
Bahauddin Zakariya University lahore
 
Types of biopesticides
Types of biopesticidesTypes of biopesticides
Types of biopesticides
Indira Kandasamy
 
Biological control
Biological controlBiological control
Biological control
zarreena siddiqui
 
Bacterial insecticides.ppt
Bacterial insecticides.pptBacterial insecticides.ppt
Bacterial insecticides.ppt
bashirlone123
 
Biopesticides
BiopesticidesBiopesticides
Biopesticides
Muslima7
 

Similar to Biopesticides (20)

Biopesticide
BiopesticideBiopesticide
Biopesticide
 
Microbial control of insect pests
Microbial control of insect pestsMicrobial control of insect pests
Microbial control of insect pests
 
biopesticides-150723082006-lva1-app6891.pdf
biopesticides-150723082006-lva1-app6891.pdfbiopesticides-150723082006-lva1-app6891.pdf
biopesticides-150723082006-lva1-app6891.pdf
 
Biological control of pest
Biological control of pestBiological control of pest
Biological control of pest
 
microbial insecticides
microbial insecticidesmicrobial insecticides
microbial insecticides
 
Genetic engineering and molecular interaction of entomopathogenic fungi
Genetic engineering and molecular interaction of entomopathogenic fungiGenetic engineering and molecular interaction of entomopathogenic fungi
Genetic engineering and molecular interaction of entomopathogenic fungi
 
Micro Oraganisms used in Bio pesticide
Micro Oraganisms used in Bio pesticideMicro Oraganisms used in Bio pesticide
Micro Oraganisms used in Bio pesticide
 
Biopesticides
BiopesticidesBiopesticides
Biopesticides
 
Microbial control - insect- pest control
Microbial control - insect- pest controlMicrobial control - insect- pest control
Microbial control - insect- pest control
 
Ranjeet Kumar _Study of biopesticides.pptx
Ranjeet Kumar _Study of biopesticides.pptxRanjeet Kumar _Study of biopesticides.pptx
Ranjeet Kumar _Study of biopesticides.pptx
 
Biopesticide
Biopesticide Biopesticide
Biopesticide
 
Microbial pest control ppt
Microbial pest control ppt Microbial pest control ppt
Microbial pest control ppt
 
Microbes in biological control,Fermentation and enzyme technology
Microbes in biological control,Fermentation and enzyme technologyMicrobes in biological control,Fermentation and enzyme technology
Microbes in biological control,Fermentation and enzyme technology
 
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents & Biofertilizers.pdf
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents & Biofertilizers.pdfMicrobes as Biocontrol Agents & Biofertilizers.pdf
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents & Biofertilizers.pdf
 
Biopesticides
BiopesticidesBiopesticides
Biopesticides
 
Industrial microbiology,
Industrial microbiology,Industrial microbiology,
Industrial microbiology,
 
Types of biopesticides
Types of biopesticidesTypes of biopesticides
Types of biopesticides
 
Biological control
Biological controlBiological control
Biological control
 
Bacterial insecticides.ppt
Bacterial insecticides.pptBacterial insecticides.ppt
Bacterial insecticides.ppt
 
Biopesticides
BiopesticidesBiopesticides
Biopesticides
 

Recently uploaded

Stay Ahead of the Curve with PFAS Testing
Stay Ahead of the Curve with PFAS TestingStay Ahead of the Curve with PFAS Testing
Stay Ahead of the Curve with PFAS Testing
York Analytical Laboratories
 
按照学校原版(UAL文凭证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证快速办理
按照学校原版(UAL文凭证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证快速办理按照学校原版(UAL文凭证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证快速办理
按照学校原版(UAL文凭证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证快速办理
xeexm
 
一比一原版(Glasgow毕业证)英国格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Glasgow毕业证)英国格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(Glasgow毕业证)英国格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Glasgow毕业证)英国格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
aonx8o5f
 
BASIC CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT AND DIFFERENT CONSTITUTENET OF ENVIRONMENT
BASIC CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT AND DIFFERENT CONSTITUTENET OF ENVIRONMENTBASIC CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT AND DIFFERENT CONSTITUTENET OF ENVIRONMENT
BASIC CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT AND DIFFERENT CONSTITUTENET OF ENVIRONMENT
AmitKumar619042
 
Chapter two introduction to soil genesis.ppt
Chapter two introduction to soil genesis.pptChapter two introduction to soil genesis.ppt
Chapter two introduction to soil genesis.ppt
ketema51ak
 
一比一原版美国堪萨斯大学毕业证(KU学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国堪萨斯大学毕业证(KU学位证)如何办理一比一原版美国堪萨斯大学毕业证(KU学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国堪萨斯大学毕业证(KU学位证)如何办理
7kvwgv0y
 
SOIL AND ITS FORMATION bjbhjbhvhvhjvhj .pptx
SOIL AND ITS FORMATION bjbhjbhvhvhjvhj .pptxSOIL AND ITS FORMATION bjbhjbhvhvhjvhj .pptx
SOIL AND ITS FORMATION bjbhjbhvhvhjvhj .pptx
anmolbansal1969
 
Republic of Ethiopia EPA (2003) Ambient Environment Standards for Ethiopia.pdf
Republic of Ethiopia EPA (2003) Ambient Environment Standards for Ethiopia.pdfRepublic of Ethiopia EPA (2003) Ambient Environment Standards for Ethiopia.pdf
Republic of Ethiopia EPA (2003) Ambient Environment Standards for Ethiopia.pdf
Abraham Lebeza
 
A Comprehensive Guide on Cable Location Services Detections Method, Tools, an...
A Comprehensive Guide on Cable Location Services Detections Method, Tools, an...A Comprehensive Guide on Cable Location Services Detections Method, Tools, an...
A Comprehensive Guide on Cable Location Services Detections Method, Tools, an...
Aussie Hydro-Vac Services
 
快速办理(Calabria毕业证书)卡拉布里亚大学毕业证在读证明一模一样
快速办理(Calabria毕业证书)卡拉布里亚大学毕业证在读证明一模一样快速办理(Calabria毕业证书)卡拉布里亚大学毕业证在读证明一模一样
快速办理(Calabria毕业证书)卡拉布里亚大学毕业证在读证明一模一样
astuz
 
学校原版(unuk学位证书)英国牛津布鲁克斯大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
学校原版(unuk学位证书)英国牛津布鲁克斯大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样学校原版(unuk学位证书)英国牛津布鲁克斯大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
学校原版(unuk学位证书)英国牛津布鲁克斯大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
ehfyqtu
 
Mass Production of Trichogramma sp..pptx
Mass Production of Trichogramma sp..pptxMass Production of Trichogramma sp..pptx
Mass Production of Trichogramma sp..pptx
SwastikBhattacharjya
 
21321321321sfsdfdsfsdfsdfsfddsfppt ai.pptx
21321321321sfsdfdsfsdfsdfsfddsfppt ai.pptx21321321321sfsdfdsfsdfsdfsfddsfppt ai.pptx
21321321321sfsdfdsfsdfsdfsfddsfppt ai.pptx
JustineGarcia32
 
Formulation of aramang baked products enriched with malunggay
Formulation of aramang baked products enriched with malunggayFormulation of aramang baked products enriched with malunggay
Formulation of aramang baked products enriched with malunggay
Open Access Research Paper
 
原版制作(Manitoba毕业证书)曼尼托巴大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Manitoba毕业证书)曼尼托巴大学毕业证学位证一模一样原版制作(Manitoba毕业证书)曼尼托巴大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Manitoba毕业证书)曼尼托巴大学毕业证学位证一模一样
mvrpcz6
 
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systemsExploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
CIFOR-ICRAF
 
(Q)SAR Assessment Framework: Guidance for Assessing (Q)SAR Models and Predict...
(Q)SAR Assessment Framework: Guidance for Assessing (Q)SAR Models and Predict...(Q)SAR Assessment Framework: Guidance for Assessing (Q)SAR Models and Predict...
(Q)SAR Assessment Framework: Guidance for Assessing (Q)SAR Models and Predict...
hannahthabet
 
Ch-2-Forest_And_Wildlife_Resources_Full_Chapter_Explanation_pdf_.pdf
Ch-2-Forest_And_Wildlife_Resources_Full_Chapter_Explanation_pdf_.pdfCh-2-Forest_And_Wildlife_Resources_Full_Chapter_Explanation_pdf_.pdf
Ch-2-Forest_And_Wildlife_Resources_Full_Chapter_Explanation_pdf_.pdf
RhemanRaphael
 
一比一原版美国贝翰文大学毕业证(BU学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国贝翰文大学毕业证(BU学位证)如何办理一比一原版美国贝翰文大学毕业证(BU学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国贝翰文大学毕业证(BU学位证)如何办理
sf3cfttw
 
Green Wealth Management - UBS A world of access and opportunuty
Green Wealth Management - UBS A world of access and opportunutyGreen Wealth Management - UBS A world of access and opportunuty
Green Wealth Management - UBS A world of access and opportunuty
adrianmaruntelu
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Stay Ahead of the Curve with PFAS Testing
Stay Ahead of the Curve with PFAS TestingStay Ahead of the Curve with PFAS Testing
Stay Ahead of the Curve with PFAS Testing
 
按照学校原版(UAL文凭证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证快速办理
按照学校原版(UAL文凭证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证快速办理按照学校原版(UAL文凭证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证快速办理
按照学校原版(UAL文凭证书)伦敦艺术大学毕业证快速办理
 
一比一原版(Glasgow毕业证)英国格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Glasgow毕业证)英国格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(Glasgow毕业证)英国格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(Glasgow毕业证)英国格拉斯哥大学毕业证如何办理
 
BASIC CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT AND DIFFERENT CONSTITUTENET OF ENVIRONMENT
BASIC CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT AND DIFFERENT CONSTITUTENET OF ENVIRONMENTBASIC CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT AND DIFFERENT CONSTITUTENET OF ENVIRONMENT
BASIC CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT AND DIFFERENT CONSTITUTENET OF ENVIRONMENT
 
Chapter two introduction to soil genesis.ppt
Chapter two introduction to soil genesis.pptChapter two introduction to soil genesis.ppt
Chapter two introduction to soil genesis.ppt
 
一比一原版美国堪萨斯大学毕业证(KU学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国堪萨斯大学毕业证(KU学位证)如何办理一比一原版美国堪萨斯大学毕业证(KU学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国堪萨斯大学毕业证(KU学位证)如何办理
 
SOIL AND ITS FORMATION bjbhjbhvhvhjvhj .pptx
SOIL AND ITS FORMATION bjbhjbhvhvhjvhj .pptxSOIL AND ITS FORMATION bjbhjbhvhvhjvhj .pptx
SOIL AND ITS FORMATION bjbhjbhvhvhjvhj .pptx
 
Republic of Ethiopia EPA (2003) Ambient Environment Standards for Ethiopia.pdf
Republic of Ethiopia EPA (2003) Ambient Environment Standards for Ethiopia.pdfRepublic of Ethiopia EPA (2003) Ambient Environment Standards for Ethiopia.pdf
Republic of Ethiopia EPA (2003) Ambient Environment Standards for Ethiopia.pdf
 
A Comprehensive Guide on Cable Location Services Detections Method, Tools, an...
A Comprehensive Guide on Cable Location Services Detections Method, Tools, an...A Comprehensive Guide on Cable Location Services Detections Method, Tools, an...
A Comprehensive Guide on Cable Location Services Detections Method, Tools, an...
 
快速办理(Calabria毕业证书)卡拉布里亚大学毕业证在读证明一模一样
快速办理(Calabria毕业证书)卡拉布里亚大学毕业证在读证明一模一样快速办理(Calabria毕业证书)卡拉布里亚大学毕业证在读证明一模一样
快速办理(Calabria毕业证书)卡拉布里亚大学毕业证在读证明一模一样
 
学校原版(unuk学位证书)英国牛津布鲁克斯大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
学校原版(unuk学位证书)英国牛津布鲁克斯大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样学校原版(unuk学位证书)英国牛津布鲁克斯大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
学校原版(unuk学位证书)英国牛津布鲁克斯大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
 
Mass Production of Trichogramma sp..pptx
Mass Production of Trichogramma sp..pptxMass Production of Trichogramma sp..pptx
Mass Production of Trichogramma sp..pptx
 
21321321321sfsdfdsfsdfsdfsfddsfppt ai.pptx
21321321321sfsdfdsfsdfsdfsfddsfppt ai.pptx21321321321sfsdfdsfsdfsdfsfddsfppt ai.pptx
21321321321sfsdfdsfsdfsdfsfddsfppt ai.pptx
 
Formulation of aramang baked products enriched with malunggay
Formulation of aramang baked products enriched with malunggayFormulation of aramang baked products enriched with malunggay
Formulation of aramang baked products enriched with malunggay
 
原版制作(Manitoba毕业证书)曼尼托巴大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Manitoba毕业证书)曼尼托巴大学毕业证学位证一模一样原版制作(Manitoba毕业证书)曼尼托巴大学毕业证学位证一模一样
原版制作(Manitoba毕业证书)曼尼托巴大学毕业证学位证一模一样
 
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systemsExploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
Exploring low emissions development opportunities in food systems
 
(Q)SAR Assessment Framework: Guidance for Assessing (Q)SAR Models and Predict...
(Q)SAR Assessment Framework: Guidance for Assessing (Q)SAR Models and Predict...(Q)SAR Assessment Framework: Guidance for Assessing (Q)SAR Models and Predict...
(Q)SAR Assessment Framework: Guidance for Assessing (Q)SAR Models and Predict...
 
Ch-2-Forest_And_Wildlife_Resources_Full_Chapter_Explanation_pdf_.pdf
Ch-2-Forest_And_Wildlife_Resources_Full_Chapter_Explanation_pdf_.pdfCh-2-Forest_And_Wildlife_Resources_Full_Chapter_Explanation_pdf_.pdf
Ch-2-Forest_And_Wildlife_Resources_Full_Chapter_Explanation_pdf_.pdf
 
一比一原版美国贝翰文大学毕业证(BU学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国贝翰文大学毕业证(BU学位证)如何办理一比一原版美国贝翰文大学毕业证(BU学位证)如何办理
一比一原版美国贝翰文大学毕业证(BU学位证)如何办理
 
Green Wealth Management - UBS A world of access and opportunuty
Green Wealth Management - UBS A world of access and opportunutyGreen Wealth Management - UBS A world of access and opportunuty
Green Wealth Management - UBS A world of access and opportunuty
 

Biopesticides

  • 2. BIOPESTICIDES • Includes naturally occurring substances that control pest (biochemical pesticides), microorganisms that control pests (microbial pesticides) and pesticidal substances produced by plants containing added genetic material (plant incorporated protectants or PIPs)
  • 3. CLASSES OF BIOPESTICIDES 1. BIOCHEMICAL PESTICIDES • Naturally occurring substances that control pests by non-toxic mechanisms • Includes substances that interfere with mating, such as insect sex pheromones, as well as various scented plant extracts that attract insect pests to traps
  • 4. CLASSES OF BIOPESTICIDES 2. MICROBIAL BIOPESTICIDES • Consist of a microorganism (e.g., a bacterium, fungus, virus or protozoan) as the active ingredient. • Active ingredient is relatively specific for its target pest • Eg: some Bt ingredients control moth larvae found on plants, other Bt ingredients are specific for larvae of flies and mosquitoes.
  • 5. CLASSES OF BIOPESTICIDES 3. PLANT – INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS (PIPs) • Pesticidal substances that plants produce from genetic material that has been added to the plant. • Eg: scientists can take the gene for the Bt pesticidal protein and introduce the gene into the plant's own genetic material. Then the plant, instead of the Bt bacterium, manufactures the substance that destroys the pest.
  • 6. NEEDS FOR BIOPESTICIDES • Proper pest management is important factor for healthy and high yielding crop to fulfill the food demand for increasing population. • Chemical pesticides have accelerated land, air and water contamination. • They have been the main cause of insect resistance as well as adverse impacts on natural enemies and humans.
  • 7. ADVANTAGES OF BIOPESTICIDES  Less toxic than conventional pesticides.  Effect only the target pest and closely related organisms whereas conventional pesticides are broad spectrum pesticides.  Effective in very small quantities and often decompose quickly, resulting in lower exposures and largely avoiding pollution problems caused by conventional pesticides.  When used as a component of Integrated Pest Management programs, biopesticides can greatly reduce the use of conventional pesticides while crop yields remain high.
  • 8. MICROBIAL BIOPESTICIDES • Constitute the largest group of broad- spectrum biopesticides which are pest specific. • There are atleast 3000 naturally occurring insect- specific microorganisms, 100 of which are insecticidal. 1. Bacterial biopesticides 2. Viral biopesticides 3. Fungal biopesticides 4. Protozoan biopesticides
  • 9. BACTERIAL BIOPESTICIDES • Mainly 4 categories: 1.Crystalliferous spore formers ( Bacillus thuringiensis) 2.Obligate pathogens (Bacillus papiliae) 3.Potential pathogens (Serratia marcesens) 4.Facultative pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) Out of these four, 1 and 2 are important biopesticides.
  • 10. Bacillus thuringiensis • GP, spore forming, facultative bacterium with nearly 100 subspecies and varieties divided into 70 serotypes. • Specific, safe and effective tool for insect control. • Insecticidal property resides in Cry family of crystalline proteins that are produced in the parasporal crystals and are encoded by the cry genes
  • 11. Bacillus thuringiensis –CRY proteins • Cry proteins are globular molecules with 3 structural domain connected by single linkers. • This 3 domain family is characterised by protoxins of two different lengths, one being longer with C – terminal extension necessary for toxicity. • This extension also has a characteristic role in crystal formation within the bacterium. • Cry proteins are responsible for feeding cessation and death of the insect.
  • 12.
  • 13. Bacillus thuringiensis- mechanism • Cry protoxins are ingested and then solubilised, releasing a protease resistant biologically active endotoxin, before it is being digested by protease of the gut to remove amino acids from its C and N terminal ends. • The C terminal domain of the active toxin binds to the specific receptors on brush border membranes of the midgut. • It is followed by the insertion of the hydrophobic region of the toxin into the cell membrane.
  • 14. Bacillus thuringiensis- mechanism • This creates a disruption in the osmotic balance because of the formation of transmembrane pores. • Ultimately cell lysis occurs in the gut wall leading to leakage of gut contents. • This induces starvation and lethal septicaemia of the target pest.
  • 15. Bt subspecies and targets Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies Targets B. thuringiensis tenebrionis Colorado potato beetle and elm leaf beetle larvae B. thuringiensis kurstaki Variety of caterpillars B. thuringiensis isralensis Mosquito, blackfly and fungus gnat larvae B. thuringiensis aizawai Wax moth larvae and various caterpillars especially diamond back moth caterpillar
  • 16. Bacillus sphaericus • GP, strict aerobic bacterium, which produces round spores in a swollen club like terminal or subterminal sporangium. • Produces an intracellular protein toxin and a parasporal crystalline toxin at the time of sporulation. • The mosquito – larvicidal binary toxin produced by B. sphaericus is composed of Bin A (51.4 kDa) and Bin B (41.9 kDa).
  • 17. Bacillus sphaericus • Bin proteins forms a crystal and in solution it can exist as an oligomer containing 2 copies each of Bin A and Bin B. • Some toxin strains also produces 100 kDa toxins encoded by mtx genes. • Mainly used for mosquito control.
  • 18. VIRAL BIOPESTICIDES • The viruses used for pest control are: DNA containing baculoviruses (BVs) Nucleopolyhedrosis viruses (NPVs) Granuloviruses (GVs) Acoviruses Parvoviruses Polydnaviruses Pox viruses RNA containing recoviruses Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses Nodaviruses Picorna like viruses Tetraviruses
  • 19. VIRAL BIOPESTICIDES • They are narrow spectrum. • After application to plant surface, baculovirus occlusion bodies (OBs) are rapidly inactivated by solar UV radiation (280 – 320nm). • Efficacy can be improved by the use of formulations that include stilbene derived optical brighteners, which increase susceptibility to NPV infection. • UV inactivation can be controlled by creating systems which filter UV radiation such as plastic greenhouse structures.
  • 20.
  • 21. MECHANISM • Replication of virus occurs in the nuclei or cytoplasm of the target cell • The expression of viral proteins occurs in 3 phases: Early phase ie, 0-6 hr post infection Late phase ie, 6-24 hr post infection Very late phase ie, upto 72 hr post infection • It is at the late phase that the virions assemble as the 29kDa occlusion body protein is synthesised.
  • 22. MECHANISM • Virions of NPVs are occluded within each occlusion body to develop polyhedra whereas the GV virion is occluded in a small occlusion body to generate granules • Infected nuclei can produce 100s of polyhedra and 1000s of granules per cell. • These can create enzootics, deplete the pest populations and ultimately create significant impact on the economic threshold of the pest.
  • 23. VIRUSES AND THEIR TARGETS VIRUSES TARGETS Cydia pomonella GV Codling moth on fruit trees Phthorimaea operculella GV Potato tuberworms Virus based products Cabbage moth, corn earworms, cotton leafworms, bollworms, celery loopers, tobacco budworms
  • 24. FUNGAL BIOPESTICIDES • Fungi specifically associated with insects (aphids, thrips, mealy bugs, whiteflies, scale insects, mosquitoes and mites) are known as entomopathogenic fungi. • Obligate or facultative, commensals or symbionts of insects. • Belong to 4 major groups:  Laboulbeniales  Pyrenomycetes  Hyphomycetes  Zygomycetes
  • 25. FUNGAL BIOPESTICIDES • Most widely used species include:  Beauveria bassiana Metarhizium anisopliae Nomurea rileyi Paecilomyces farinosus Verticillium lecanii • The fungi attack the host via integument or gut epithelium and establish their conidia in the joints and the integument.
  • 26. FUNGAL BIOPESTICIDES • B. bassania and M. anisiphliae causes muscardine insect disease and after killing the host, cadavers become mumified or covered by mycelial growth. • Streptomycetes produce toxins. • Most active toxins are actinomycin A, cyclohexamide and novobiocin. • Spinosyns are isolated from Saccharopolyspora spinosa and are active against dipterans, hymenopterans, etc. and less active against coleopterans, aphids and nematodes.
  • 27. PROTOZOAN BIOPESTICIDES • Although they infect pests, induce chronic and debilitating effects on targets, the use of protozoa as biopesticide has not been very successful. • Microsporan protozoans are used as possible component of IPM. • Microsporidia are ubiquitous, obligate intracellular parasites. Eg: Nosema and Vairimorpha have some potential to attack lepidopteran and orthopteran insects.
  • 28. Nosema pyrausta • A microsporidian which infect European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. • Spores eaten by corn borer larvae germinates in the midgut and injects sporoplasm into midgut cell. • The sporoplasm reproduces and then forms more spores, which can infect other tissues • Spores in infected midgut cells are sloughed into the gut lumen and are eliminated along with the faeces to the plant.
  • 29. Nosema pyrausta • These spores remain viable and are consumed during larval feeding so that infection is repeated in midgut cells of new host. This is horizontal transmission. • Nosema can be passed by vertical transmission. • As the infected female larva develops to an adult, the ovarian tissue and developing oocytes become infected. • The embryo and hatched larvae is infected. • It suppresses by reducing oviposition, % hatch and survival of infected larvae.
  • 30. Nosema locustae • Infects grasshoppers • Most effective when ingested by nymphal stages of grasshoppers and kills them within 3 – 6 weeks post infection. • Not all infected grasshoppers are killed by this protozoan infection.
  • 31. MICROBIAL PRODUCTS IN BIOPESTICIDES • Microorganisms are known to produce anti – pest chemical compounds. • Antinsectan compounds derived from:  Non – filamentous bacteria (eg: aminolevulinic acid, thiolutin, thuringiensin, xenorhabdins)  Actinomycetes  Fungi (eg: actinomycin A, avermectins, citromycin, nikkomycin, spinosyns, various cyclic peptides) are well known as toxins, growth inhibitors, antifeedants and physiological disrupters.
  • 32. MICROBIAL PRODUCTS IN BIOPESTICIDES • Some transgenic crops can be considered among microbial based products • Eg: Bacillus thuringiensis based genetically engineered crops like Bt cotton and maize. • Genetically modified (GM) sugar beet, papaya, sweet pepper, tomato etc are successfully grown.
  • 33. MAIN CHALLENGES TO MICROBIAL PESTICIDES • The utilization of microbial pesticides in IPM model requires high scientific study such as systematic surveys on properties, mode of action, pathogenicity, etc. • Ecological studies are necessary on the dynamics of diseases in insect populations because the environmental factors play a vital role in disease outbreaks to control the pests.
  • 34. MAIN CHALLENGES TO MICROBIAL PESTICIDES • In order to improve mass production technologies; contamination should be reduced with the improvement of formulation potency and increase in shelf-life of microbial biopesticides. • Dry formulations should be commercially focused than the liquid formulations with the improvement of slow speed with which microbial pathogens kill their host. Genetic and biotechnological tools would lead to the production of strains with improved pathogenesis and virulence.
  • 35. MAIN CHALLENGES TO MICROBIAL PESTICIDES • Due to narrow specificity mostly forces biopesticide application with common conventional insecticides. However, this practice can also lead to incompatibility problems such as inhibition or death of the living organism. • All aspects study should be done especially; persistence, resistance, dispersal potential, the range of non-target organisms affected directly and/or indirectly in order to solve the problem of regarding the regulatory and registration.
  • 36. POSITIVE ASPECTS OF MICROBIAL PESTICIDES • The bioactive agents are basically non-toxic and nonpathogenic to non-target organisms, communities and humans. • They have narrow area of toxic action, mostly specific to a single group or species of insect pests and do not directly affect beneficial insects (predators, parasites, parasitoids, pollinators) in treated areas. • They can be used in combination with synthetic chemical insecticides because in most cases the microbial product is not deactivated.
  • 37. POSITIVE ASPECTS OF MICROBIAL PESTICIDES • Their residues have no adverse effects on humans or other animals, therefore, microbial insecticides can be used in near harvesting time. • Sometime, the pathogenic microorganisms can become established in a pest population or its habitat and provide control pest generation to generations or season after seasons. • They improve the root and plant growth by encouraging the beneficial soil microflora and also increase yield.
  • 38. DEMERITS OF MICROBIAL PESTICIDES • Owing to the specificity of the action, microbes may control only a portion of the pests present in a field and may not control other type of pests present in treated areas, which can cause continuous damage. • As heat, UV light and desiccation reduces the efficacy of microbial pesticides, the delivery systems become an important factor. • Special formulations and storage procedures are necessary. Shelf life is a constraint, given their short shelf lives. • Given their pest specificity, markets are limited. The development, registration and production costs cannot be spread over a wide range of pest control sales; for example, insect viruses are not widely available.
  • 39. REFERENCES  Nawaz M, Juma I, et.al.Current status and advancement of biopesticides: Microbial and botanical pesticides; Journal of Entomology and Zoology studies 2016 (www.entomo/journal.com/archives/2016/vol 4 issue 2/Part D/ 4-2-45.pdf)  B.ramanujam, et al.management of insect pests by microorganisms, Poc Indian Natn Sci Acad 80 no.2 June 2014 Spl. Sec pp.455-471 (www.insa.nic.in/writeraddata/ UpLoadedFiles/ PINSA/ Vol80-2014-2- Art27.pdf)  Koul Opender, Microbial biopesticides: opportunities and challenges; CAB reviews Perspectives in agriculture, veterinary studies, nutrition and natural resources, 2011No. 056;pdf (http://www.cabi.org/cabreviews)  http://www.epa.gov/ingredients-used-pesticide-products/what -are- biopesticides.