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ARANYA LOW-COST
   HOUSING
     INDORE

        - AR. B. V. DOSHI
CASE STUDY FACTS

•Location - 6km from the centre of
Indore city, M.P.
• Client- Indore Development Authority
•Principal Architect - Balkrishna Doshi
•Project Associate - Mr. Himanshu Parikh
• Structural Engineer - M/s Stein Doshi &
Bhalla, New Delhi
•Project Engineers -Environmental
Engineering Consultants, Bombay

•Total Built-up Area -100,000 m2
•Project Cost - Rs. 100 Million
•Year of completion - 1989
•Award - Aga Khan award for
Architecture in 1996anard for
PRE-DESIGN STAGE ANALYSIS
Objectives:

• To improve and upgrade the existing slum area
• To provide serviced sites for new housing developments instead of
building complete houses.
• To provide for 6,500 residential plots ranging in size from 35m2 for
EWS to 475m2 for high income groups

Financial Aspects:

• The idea was to mix some middle income plots with EWS plots to
use the profits to raise capital towards development of local trades.
• Funding – 100% public sources.
                                   Sales      Local sources

                                             National
                                             Sources
                                             International
                                             Sources
OBJECTIVES

The general objectives of Aranya were to:
• Create a township with a sense of continuity and fundamental
values of security in a good living environment.
• Achieve a community character by establishing harmony between
the built environment and the people.
• Create a balanced community of various socio-economic groups to
evolve a framework through design.
EVOLUTION OF MASTER PLAN




Plan proposed by IDA         N                                       N
                                         Initial stage of proposed plan
                                         with distributed open spaces and
                                         street hierarchy




                               N
Later stage of development to with
rectified orientation to minimize heat
gain and increase shading
                                             Proposed master plan           N
DISTRIBUTION OF AMENITIES




• Community facilities grouped in     • Community amenities distributed
local sub centers.                    evenly
•Formal organization                  •Informality created
                                      •Accessibility improved

                               • Lower level community facilities
                               organized in green spaces
                               •Even distribution
                               •Maintains link with town centre
                               •Pedestrian access easier.
ACCESS TO AMMENITIES ( in minutes)




                                     N
THE NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT
              Concept
              • Slum development project
              • Inspiration from existing slum
              settlements in Indore

              Characteristics
              • Mixed and multiple land use
              • Formation of small
              neighborhoods and houses
              extending to the outdoors.
              • Small shops operating within
              congested areas.
              • Trees planted in public places
              • Streets accommodating social,
              economic and domestic activities.
SITE ANALYSIS

       • Urban Indore city 214 sq. km.
       • Major development along Delhi –
       Mumbai highway running through the
       city in the north south direction
       • Surroundings: - Delhi-Mumbai
       highway on the east
       - Developing industrial areas on the
       north, south and west.
       - Internal city roads to the north,
       south and west.
       • Approach through the Delhi –
       Mumbai highway
       • Site selection criteria:
       - Linkages to the city
       - Employment generating industrial
       areas in the surroundings.
Existing features:
• 1.85 hectares allotted for
existing light industries.

Geographical features:
• Flat site
• A natural water channel
running diagonally across the
SW corner.
• Top strata of the black cotton
soil 2-2.5 m thick.
• Gradually sloping (Gradient :
1:110 approx.) towards the
north-west corner.
Township level:

•The aim was to create a central spine. The master plan was informal with
interlinked space of cultural context, maintenance of hierarchy of road,
open spaces, a central location of basic community services.

•The central spine was a focus of the converging six sectors

Six Sector level:

•This enabled segregation of pedestrian and vehicular movement, good
distribution of built and unbuilt spaces by promoting interactive land use.
N
ZONING I




Residential              commercial   N
ZONING II
      DISTRIBUTION OF PLOTS ACCORDING TO INCOME
                        GROUPS




 Lower income and economically weaker sections of the society

EWS           65%    uniformly distributed
LIG           11%    uniformly distributed
MIG           14%    close to artery
HIG            9%    arterial road
HIERARCHY OF ROADS




                     60 m
                     30 m
                     12 m
                     15 m
                     9.5 m
                     4.5 m
                     1.5 m


                     N
ROADS
                               • Segregation of vehicular and
                               pedestrian traffic
                               • Offsets break visual monotony
                               • Hierarchy is based on the
                               volume of the traffic and
                               activities




•The roads suit human scale
•Use of cul-de-sacs to avoid
traffic
CIRCULATION AND LINKAGES
                                     For clear segregation of vehicular
                                     and pedestrian traffic:

                                     •Vehicular access in the form
                                     rectilinear and formal roads in the
                                     hierarchy of 4.5m wide to 15m
                                     wide road draw the vehicles
                                     outwardly.
                                     •Pedestrian access in the form of
                                     informal interlinked open spaces
                                     draws people inwardly.

Vehicular roads




 Informal pedestrian pathways and open
 spaces
HIERARCHY OF OPEN SPACES
• Interlinked informal spaces
• Continuous system of open spaces is
provided
• Staggered roads create spaces for
community congregation
• A single large open space is avoided




                                         Access to open spaces in minutes
LAND USE DISTRIBUTION



             Roads
              26%
                      Residential
Open Spaces             Space
    9%                   58%
        Community
       &Commercial
         facilities
            7%
CLIMATE RESPONSIVE FEATURES
•   Most of the plots small in size and clustered in low rise blocks
•   Longer side façade oriented in the north-south axis to reduce the solar
    radiation on the building.
•   Each house has minimum exposure to wall surface and a common wall.




The north south orientation of          The building height to street width
clusters                                ratio is such that streets are
                                        shaded except when the sun is
                                        overhead
CLIMATE RESPONSIVE FEATURES
• The two openings on the north and south permit light and cross
ventilation.
• Courtyards within the houses, cul-de-sacs, public squares and small
activity areas shaded adequately by adjacent buildings.
• Use of locally available building materials.
• Topography used for orientation of major infrastructure network and
spatial organization.
Plan showing varied houses with backyards (private open spaces)
SITE AND SERVICE SCHEME OF DESIGN
                   •In this scheme services like
                   water tap, toilets and street lights
                   and a plinth are provided around
                   which houses can have different
                   configurations.
                   •Longer side of a block of row
                   house was oriented north south
                   to reduce solar radiation
                   •Provision of vertical expansions
                   •Housing was seen more as a
                   process than a product
SERVICES
SITE AND SERVICE APPROACH

• Cost-effective
• Progressive development of facilities.
• Houses built by the people themselves to
suit their needs.
• Each family provided with a plot having a
water tank, sewerage connection, paved
access with street lighting, storm water
drainage
• Service cores - key to this site and
           service scheme.
           - nuclei around which
           houses were built.
• Houses were clustered in groups of 10.
• Septic tank provided for every 2 clusters.
• Water drawn from 3 local reservoirs.
•To economize, 20 toilets are connected to
1 manhole.
• One service line serves four rows of
houses
SEWERAGE SYSTEM

• Major alternatives:
- Sewer-less sanitation.
-Conventional sewerage system.
• The soil being impermeable
black soil of 2m depth,
conventional sewerage system
was adopted.
• Designed     after     thorough
analysis of topography –
naturally slopes towards NW
• Higher income groups, using
more water were located at high
ground level to generate large
flow..
• Lower income groups, using
less water located at lower
ground level
• This resulted in 10-15%
savings.
TREATMENT SYSTEM
• For conveyance system, a wet well and lift station was constructed near
the final manhole.
• Oxidation pond - located on the NW corner of the site.
                   - removes biological oxygen
                   - simple in operation
                   - effluent suitable for disposal



STORM WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM
• Very efficient and facilitates healthy and clean living.
• Combination of underground and surface drainage system.
• Underground used for wider roads
• Surface drainage used for internal roads

ELECTRICITY
• High income and middle-income groups were provided with overhead
cables.
• Economically Weaker Sections were provided with underground cables
CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
•Foundation: Under rimmed piles in concrete, cast in situ locally was used
as the soil was black cotton soil.

•Structural members: Reinforced concrete plinth beams, load bearing
brick walls, reinforced concrete slabs.
• Exterior finishes: Bright colour in the façade, railing, grills and cornices
seen in the old houses of Indore used in some houses in the township.




• Residents were free to use any material like brick or stone that were
locally available
LANDSCAPE
•   Landscape and green areas include flowering and shade giving trees
    with thick ground cover, including lantana, an ever-green tree , that
    requires little maintenance.
•   Trees include casuarinas, bottle brush and eucalyptus
CONCLUSION
                                • It understands the traditional Indian habits
                                • Planning and design is in accordance with
                                the prevailing socio-economic and
                                technological conditions
                                • Cost –effective construction materials and
                                techniques have been adopted
                                • Planning is “whole to part” – i.e. From
                                township level to dwelling unit level.
                                • Accessibility has been an essential factor for
                                designing.




• Consistency in every aspect
• Staggered roads, prevent
thorough traffic, reduce
speed of vehicles
• Climate responsive and site
responsive design
PRESENTED BY:
ANUSHREE CHITNIS
 GAURI NADKARNI
 TEJASHREE NATU
   SHILPA JOHN
 NEHA DESHPANDE
AMRUTA MUGLIKAR
ANKITA KOLAMKAR

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Aranya Low Cost Housing

  • 1. ARANYA LOW-COST HOUSING INDORE - AR. B. V. DOSHI
  • 2. CASE STUDY FACTS •Location - 6km from the centre of Indore city, M.P. • Client- Indore Development Authority •Principal Architect - Balkrishna Doshi •Project Associate - Mr. Himanshu Parikh • Structural Engineer - M/s Stein Doshi & Bhalla, New Delhi •Project Engineers -Environmental Engineering Consultants, Bombay •Total Built-up Area -100,000 m2 •Project Cost - Rs. 100 Million •Year of completion - 1989 •Award - Aga Khan award for Architecture in 1996anard for
  • 3. PRE-DESIGN STAGE ANALYSIS Objectives: • To improve and upgrade the existing slum area • To provide serviced sites for new housing developments instead of building complete houses. • To provide for 6,500 residential plots ranging in size from 35m2 for EWS to 475m2 for high income groups Financial Aspects: • The idea was to mix some middle income plots with EWS plots to use the profits to raise capital towards development of local trades. • Funding – 100% public sources. Sales Local sources National Sources International Sources
  • 4. OBJECTIVES The general objectives of Aranya were to: • Create a township with a sense of continuity and fundamental values of security in a good living environment. • Achieve a community character by establishing harmony between the built environment and the people. • Create a balanced community of various socio-economic groups to evolve a framework through design.
  • 5. EVOLUTION OF MASTER PLAN Plan proposed by IDA N N Initial stage of proposed plan with distributed open spaces and street hierarchy N Later stage of development to with rectified orientation to minimize heat gain and increase shading Proposed master plan N
  • 6. DISTRIBUTION OF AMENITIES • Community facilities grouped in • Community amenities distributed local sub centers. evenly •Formal organization •Informality created •Accessibility improved • Lower level community facilities organized in green spaces •Even distribution •Maintains link with town centre •Pedestrian access easier.
  • 7. ACCESS TO AMMENITIES ( in minutes) N
  • 8. THE NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT Concept • Slum development project • Inspiration from existing slum settlements in Indore Characteristics • Mixed and multiple land use • Formation of small neighborhoods and houses extending to the outdoors. • Small shops operating within congested areas. • Trees planted in public places • Streets accommodating social, economic and domestic activities.
  • 9. SITE ANALYSIS • Urban Indore city 214 sq. km. • Major development along Delhi – Mumbai highway running through the city in the north south direction • Surroundings: - Delhi-Mumbai highway on the east - Developing industrial areas on the north, south and west. - Internal city roads to the north, south and west. • Approach through the Delhi – Mumbai highway • Site selection criteria: - Linkages to the city - Employment generating industrial areas in the surroundings.
  • 10. Existing features: • 1.85 hectares allotted for existing light industries. Geographical features: • Flat site • A natural water channel running diagonally across the SW corner. • Top strata of the black cotton soil 2-2.5 m thick. • Gradually sloping (Gradient : 1:110 approx.) towards the north-west corner.
  • 11. Township level: •The aim was to create a central spine. The master plan was informal with interlinked space of cultural context, maintenance of hierarchy of road, open spaces, a central location of basic community services. •The central spine was a focus of the converging six sectors Six Sector level: •This enabled segregation of pedestrian and vehicular movement, good distribution of built and unbuilt spaces by promoting interactive land use.
  • 12. N
  • 13. ZONING I Residential commercial N
  • 14. ZONING II DISTRIBUTION OF PLOTS ACCORDING TO INCOME GROUPS Lower income and economically weaker sections of the society EWS 65% uniformly distributed LIG 11% uniformly distributed MIG 14% close to artery HIG 9% arterial road
  • 15. HIERARCHY OF ROADS 60 m 30 m 12 m 15 m 9.5 m 4.5 m 1.5 m N
  • 16. ROADS • Segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic • Offsets break visual monotony • Hierarchy is based on the volume of the traffic and activities •The roads suit human scale •Use of cul-de-sacs to avoid traffic
  • 17. CIRCULATION AND LINKAGES For clear segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic: •Vehicular access in the form rectilinear and formal roads in the hierarchy of 4.5m wide to 15m wide road draw the vehicles outwardly. •Pedestrian access in the form of informal interlinked open spaces draws people inwardly. Vehicular roads Informal pedestrian pathways and open spaces
  • 18. HIERARCHY OF OPEN SPACES • Interlinked informal spaces • Continuous system of open spaces is provided • Staggered roads create spaces for community congregation • A single large open space is avoided Access to open spaces in minutes
  • 19. LAND USE DISTRIBUTION Roads 26% Residential Open Spaces Space 9% 58% Community &Commercial facilities 7%
  • 20. CLIMATE RESPONSIVE FEATURES • Most of the plots small in size and clustered in low rise blocks • Longer side façade oriented in the north-south axis to reduce the solar radiation on the building. • Each house has minimum exposure to wall surface and a common wall. The north south orientation of The building height to street width clusters ratio is such that streets are shaded except when the sun is overhead
  • 21. CLIMATE RESPONSIVE FEATURES • The two openings on the north and south permit light and cross ventilation. • Courtyards within the houses, cul-de-sacs, public squares and small activity areas shaded adequately by adjacent buildings. • Use of locally available building materials. • Topography used for orientation of major infrastructure network and spatial organization.
  • 22. Plan showing varied houses with backyards (private open spaces)
  • 23. SITE AND SERVICE SCHEME OF DESIGN •In this scheme services like water tap, toilets and street lights and a plinth are provided around which houses can have different configurations. •Longer side of a block of row house was oriented north south to reduce solar radiation •Provision of vertical expansions •Housing was seen more as a process than a product
  • 24. SERVICES SITE AND SERVICE APPROACH • Cost-effective • Progressive development of facilities. • Houses built by the people themselves to suit their needs. • Each family provided with a plot having a water tank, sewerage connection, paved access with street lighting, storm water drainage • Service cores - key to this site and service scheme. - nuclei around which houses were built. • Houses were clustered in groups of 10. • Septic tank provided for every 2 clusters. • Water drawn from 3 local reservoirs. •To economize, 20 toilets are connected to 1 manhole. • One service line serves four rows of houses
  • 25. SEWERAGE SYSTEM • Major alternatives: - Sewer-less sanitation. -Conventional sewerage system. • The soil being impermeable black soil of 2m depth, conventional sewerage system was adopted. • Designed after thorough analysis of topography – naturally slopes towards NW • Higher income groups, using more water were located at high ground level to generate large flow.. • Lower income groups, using less water located at lower ground level • This resulted in 10-15% savings.
  • 26. TREATMENT SYSTEM • For conveyance system, a wet well and lift station was constructed near the final manhole. • Oxidation pond - located on the NW corner of the site. - removes biological oxygen - simple in operation - effluent suitable for disposal STORM WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM • Very efficient and facilitates healthy and clean living. • Combination of underground and surface drainage system. • Underground used for wider roads • Surface drainage used for internal roads ELECTRICITY • High income and middle-income groups were provided with overhead cables. • Economically Weaker Sections were provided with underground cables
  • 27. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS •Foundation: Under rimmed piles in concrete, cast in situ locally was used as the soil was black cotton soil. •Structural members: Reinforced concrete plinth beams, load bearing brick walls, reinforced concrete slabs.
  • 28. • Exterior finishes: Bright colour in the façade, railing, grills and cornices seen in the old houses of Indore used in some houses in the township. • Residents were free to use any material like brick or stone that were locally available
  • 29. LANDSCAPE • Landscape and green areas include flowering and shade giving trees with thick ground cover, including lantana, an ever-green tree , that requires little maintenance. • Trees include casuarinas, bottle brush and eucalyptus
  • 30. CONCLUSION • It understands the traditional Indian habits • Planning and design is in accordance with the prevailing socio-economic and technological conditions • Cost –effective construction materials and techniques have been adopted • Planning is “whole to part” – i.e. From township level to dwelling unit level. • Accessibility has been an essential factor for designing. • Consistency in every aspect • Staggered roads, prevent thorough traffic, reduce speed of vehicles • Climate responsive and site responsive design
  • 31. PRESENTED BY: ANUSHREE CHITNIS GAURI NADKARNI TEJASHREE NATU SHILPA JOHN NEHA DESHPANDE AMRUTA MUGLIKAR ANKITA KOLAMKAR