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  1. 1. KKU_Biomech_M1_L1 Musculoskeletal system Lesson (1)Dr / Shimaa EssaLecturer of physical therapy , faculty of community,King Khalid university
  2. 2. Upon successful completion of this lesson you would be able to: 1- Identify functions of bones. 2- Distinguish between different Classifications of bones. 3- Name all bones of the human skeleton.
  3. 3. IntroductionBone is a calcified osteoid [os = bone+ oid = form or resemblance] tissue.Bones function as levers, mineral salts store,supporters and protectors of the vital organsof the human body. Bones have severalclassifications along with its sub-classifications, that you need to know allabout it.
  4. 4. Functions of Bones1) Support of the body2) Protection of soft organs3) Movement due to attached skeletal muscles4) Storage of minerals and fats5) Blood cell formation
  5. 5. Long Short Shape Irregular Pneumatic Skull Flat Bone Rib cageclassifications (Ribs + Sternum) Axial skeleton Vertebral column Location Shoulder girdle + Appendicular Upper limb skeleton Pelvic girdle Dynamic Compact + structure Spongy Lower limb
  6. 6. Classification of boneaccording to location
  7. 7. AppendicularAxial skeleton skeleton
  8. 8. Forms the longitudinal part ofthe bodyDivided into three parts Skull Vertebral Column Rib Cage
  9. 9. Skull
  10. 10. The Vertebral ColumnConsists of 33 Consists of 5 regions:vertebrae 1. Cervical regionVertebrae separated (7 vertebrae).by intervertebral discs 2. Thoracic region (12 vertebrae).The spine has 4normal curvatures 3. Lumber region (5 vertebrae). 4. Sacral region (5vertebrae). 5. Coccygeal region (4 vertebrae).
  11. 11.  Ribs  Thoracic Vertebrae  Sternum  Costal cartilages•7 True ribs are directlyattached to the sternum(first 7 pairs)•3 false ribs are joined tothe 7th rib•2 floating ribs
  12. 12. Divided into 2 parts1- Upper appendicular skeleton( shoulder girdle + upper limb)2- Lower appendicular skeleton(pelvic girdle + lower limb)
  13. 13. UpperoShoulder (pectoral) girdle: Scapula + Clavicleo Upper limb:1- Proximal segmentbone ( )2- Intermediate segmentbones ( )3- Distal segmentof bones (8 Carpals,5 Metacarpals, 14 phalanges).
  14. 14. UpperDistal segmentThree sets of bones(8 Carpals,5 Metacarpals, 14phalanges).
  15. 15. Lowero Pelvic girdle:2 Hip bones + Sacrumo Lower limb:1- Proximal segmentbone (Femure)2- Intermediate segmentbones ( , )3- Distal segmentof bones (7 Tarsals,5 Metatarsals, 14 phalanges).
  16. 16. Lower Three sets of bones(7 Tarsals, 5 Metatarsals,14 phalanges).
  17. 17. Classification of boneaccording to shape
  18. 18. 1. Long- bones are longer than they are wide, and have a shaft and 2 condyles.(Humerus, metacarpals)2. Short- usually square in shape, cube like (carpals, tarsals)3. Flat- flat , curved (cranial bones, Sternum)4. Irregular- odd shapes (vertebrae, pelvis)5. Pneumatic - has air filled spacese.g. cranial bones.
  19. 19. Structure of a long bone 1. Shaft a. Hollow cylinder of compact bone. b. Central cavity contains bone marrow -- production of blood cells. 2. Epiphyses. a. Surface of compact bone. b. Central areas are spongy bone -- contain bone marrow.
  20. 20. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  21. 21. Two basic typesCompact bone • Homogeneous, hardSpongy bone Small spong-like pieces of bone Many open spaces
  22. 22. In this lesson we discussed functions ofbones, Learned how bones are classified,and also knew names of each bone in thehuman skeleton.