Joints

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Joints

  1. 1. KKU_Biomech_M1_L2 Musculoskeletal system Lesson (2)Dr / Shimaa EssaLecturer of physical therapy , faculty of community,King Khalid university
  2. 2. Upon successful completion of this lesson you would be able to: 1- Define joint. 2- Identify functions of Joints. 3- Distinguish between different Classifications of joints. 4- Identify degrees of freedom for different joints in human body.
  3. 3. • Joint is the meeting of two bones or more in the skeletalSystem.• Or, it is the connection (or articulation) in the skeleton between any of its rigid component parts, whether bones or cartilages.Arthrology:• 1- Arthr: means joint or articulation.• 2- Ology: means the science which deal with.• Arthrology is the branch of anatomy concerned with the joints. SO......... Arthrology is the science of studying joints.
  4. 4. What are joints?A joint, or articulation, is the place where two bones come together. How are joints classified? 1- Functional Classification *focuses on the amount of movement allowed. Immovable, slightly movable, freely movable. 2- Structural Classification *focuses on the material that binds the joint together. a) Fibrous joints-- Immovable b) Cartilaginous joints-- slightly movable c) Synovial joints-- freely movable
  5. 5.  Fibrous= (Synarthrosis) & (Synostoses) Immovable: connect bones, no movement. (skull and pelvis). Cartilaginous= (Amphiarthrosis) slightly movable, bones are attached by cartilage, a little movement (spine or rib’s cartilage). Synovial= (Diarthrosis) freely movable, much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavities between bones are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones.
  6. 6. What are fibrous joints?• Collagen fibers join bones – No joint cavity; made of fibrous CT – Usually synarthrotic• Types – Sutures: skull (become bone in middle age) – Gomphoses: teeth (periodontal ligament holds tooth in place) – Syndesmoses: short ligaments bind two bones • Radius and ulna; tibia and fibula
  7. 7. What are bony joints?• Synostoses• Two bones, once separate, now fused – Frontal bone, Epiphyseal line
  8. 8. What are cartilagenous joints?• Cartilage binds two bones – No joint cavity – Usually amphiarthrotic• Types – Synchrondroses: hyaline cartilage joins  Epiphyseal plate, costal cartilage (to sternum) – Symphyses: fibrocartilage joins  Pubic symphysis, intervertebral joints
  9. 9. What are synovial joints?o Has joint cavitybetween two boneso Synovial fluid fills the spaceo Always diarthrotic e.g. Shoulder, knee,elbow, hip
  10. 10. What are the components s of a synovial joint?• Basic features 1) Joint (articular) cavity: contains slippery fluid - Articular capsule and cartilage bind cavity 2) Two capsule layers o Outer fibrous CT capsule, continuous w/periosteum o Inner synovial membrane: CT which secretes fluid
  11. 11. What are the components s of a synovial joint? 3) Meniscus: is a pad of cartilage - Continuous with synovial membrane: Shock absorber 4) Tendon: is a dense, regular Connective Tissue - Attaches muscle to bone 5) Ligament: is a dense, regular Connective Tissue - Attaches bone to bone
  12. 12. What types of synovial joints are there?• Classified as mono-, bi- and multiaxial joints
  13. 13. What types of synovial joints based on shape arethere? flat or slightly curved articular surface – Carpals
  14. 14. What types of synovial joints based on shape arethere? most moveable type – Shoulder and Hip joints (multiaxial)
  15. 15. What types of synovial joints based on shape arethere? Uniaxial (flexion & extension) – Elbow, knee, finger/toe
  16. 16. What types of synovial joints based on shape arethere? Monoaxial (Rotation) - Atlas-axis (say no); radioulnar
  17. 17. What types of synovial joints based on shape arethere? concave/convex surfaces – Biaxial; only one joint at the base of thumb (1st Carpometacarpal joint)
  18. 18. What types of synovial joints based on shape arethere? rounded articular surface (modified ball & socet), Biaxial. – Metacarpophalangeal joints (base of fingers)
  19. 19. What types of synovial joints based on shape arethere? is an ovoid shaped joint allows (flexion, extension; abduction, adduction) movement and is biaxial.  The Radiocarpal articulation (wrist joint)
  20. 20. What types of synovial joints based on shape arethere? composed of two types of joints, multiaxial.  Tempromandibular joint ( Hing + Gliding), it makes (flexion. extension, protrusion, retrusion, and side way movements)
  21. 21. Types of synovial joints based on shape Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  22. 22. Types of synovial joints based on shape Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  23. 23. Summary of Joint Classes
  24. 24. Structural Characteristics Types Mobility Bones united by 1.Suture 1.Immobile collagen fibers 2.Syndesmosis (synarthrosis) 3.gomphosis 2.Slightly moveable (amphiarthrosis) 3.Immobile Bone ends united 1.Synchondrosi 1.Immobile by cartilage s (hyaline) 2.Slightly moveable 2.Symphysis (fibrocartliage) Bone ends covered 1.Gliding/ Plane Freely moveable with articular 2.Hinge (diarthrosis) which cartilage and 3.Pivot depends on joint enclosed within a 4.Condyloid design capsule lined with 5.Saddle a synovial 6.Ball and membrane socket 7.Ellipsoid 8.Compound

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