SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 37
KKU_Biomech_M4_L1

Posture

Dr / Shimaa Essa
Lecturer of physical therapy , faculty of community,
King Khalid university

Lesson (1)
Upon successful completion of this lesson you would
be able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Define normal posture.
Realize the development of posture.
Identify advantages of normal posture.
Distinguish between different types of posture.
Realize types of poor posture.
Analysis posture.
Evaluate deviations of normal posture.
The postural alignment starts its development from early
period of life with development of the spine and its
curvature. You we learn what is meant by posture, the
development and characteristics of normal posture,
advantages of correct posture, types of postures, what is
meant by poor or faulty posture, the disadvantages of
poor posture. And practically diagnose posture deviations
of normal.
DEVELOPMENT OF POSTURE
The postural alignment starts its development from early
period of life with development of the spine and its
curvature. At first, at birth the spine has one "C"-shaped
curve with one convexity and one concavity. Then, as the
child is trying to raise his head 'from prone lying position
cervical curve starts to develop and in the early phase of
education of walking, another curve will be developed
which is the lumbar curve. These two curves are considered
as "secondary curves" to the first one which is called
"primary curve".
CURVATURES OF THE SPINE
1- FROM FRONTAL VIEW:
If the spine is viewed from the
front or the back view it
seems to be straight and
symmetrical.

Posterior (Back) Spinal
Column
CURVATURES OF THE SPINE
2- FROM SAGITTAL VIEW:
If the spine is viewed
from the lateral side, four
normal curves will appear
which are:
a- Two primary curves:
dorsal and sacral which
are convex posteriorly.
b- Two secondary curves:
cervical and lumbar which
are convex anteriorly.
DEFINITION:

Good posture is the attitude which, is
assumed by Body parts to maintain stability
and balance with minimum effort and least
strain during supportive and non supportive
positions.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD POSTURE
(Prerequisites of good posture):
For good posture to be maintained the following
must be obtained:
The ability to maintain 'the body upright in
good and erect position with less energy.

The ability to maintain balance in upright
position via keeping the line of gravity near the
center of the base of support.
Effects

of good posture:

Maintaining good posture has its values in different
body functions and systems.
The effects of good posture include:
1- Helps the muscles in the body to be unloaded
and relaxed.
2- Improves respiratory and circulatory
efficiency.
3- Prevents unnecessary strain and fatigue.
4- Decreases the incidence of diseases resulting
from bad posture.
5- Improves the subject’s state; mentally or
psychologically.
TYPES OF POSTURE
1) Fatigue posture

2) Easy posture

3) Rigid posture
1- Easy Posture
It Is good, symmetrical and balanced
position
This position can not be maintained for a long
time. So, the subject will shift his weight in a
swaying movement in order to prevent fatigue
and to maintain a good circulation in the postural
muscles of the legs when standing.
By alternating the main support from one leg to
the other; the muscles become periodically
unloaded and relaxed.
2- Fatigue Posture
It is asymmetrical or sagging posture
This position is relaxed and can be
maintained for. a long time as most of
body's joints are in semi-flexion. The load on
the muscles will decrease and the energy
expenditure is 10% less than easy posture.
3- Rigid Posture
It is called posture of attention. It
doesn't mean normal posture
This position can not be assumed
for a long time as most of body's joints
are. In extension; so, the load will
increase on joints and muscles and
energy expenditure is 20% more than
easy posture. So, with referring to 3 types
of posture the energy in:
Rigid > Easy > Fatigue
DEFINITION:

Poor posture is a position resulting from any deviation
from ideally aligned erect posture (good posture).
CAUSES OF POOR POSTURE:
Poor posture may occur due to:1- Defects in:
•Joints: such as stiffness or immobilization.
•Bones: such as shortening or deformity.
•Muscles: such as weakness, paralysis or contracture.
•Vision or hearing.
2- Bad habits: either from early childhood or from
occupational positions. Example for that is the
workers that perform jobs which require continuous
flexed position of the trunk.
3- Pain, fatigue or bad psychological state.
EFFECTS OF POOR POSTURE:
Poor posture causes deviations from the normally aligned
posture. As a result the body functions are altered and this
may lead to dysfunction and diseases. Poor posture may
cause one or more of the following dysfunction:
1. Secondary deformities and compensatory postural
defects.
2. Easy fatigability and high energy expenditure.
3. Decrease both respiratory and circulatory efficiency.
4. Pain, bad cosmetic appearance and psychological
disturbances.
Analysis of
Posture
To assess posture ideally, the subject stands upright,
and attention should be given to the following:
No movement in the atlantoaxial or atlanto-occipital
joint which results in protrusion of the jaw.

Stands as straight as possible.
Knees should be straight as much as possible.
Head faces forward and arms beside the body.
Almost all joints of the body must be in the neutral
position.
Assessment should be From 3 Views:
1- Anterior view.
2- Posterior view.
3- Lateral view.
The Parts Which are Important to be
Observe:
1- Head alignment.
2- Curvature of the spine; cervical, thoracic and lumbar.
3- Shoulders and arms.
4- Pelvic inclination.
5- Hip, knee and ankle joints.
Correct Posture (Lateral)
Line is…
• Through external
auditory meatus (Ear)
• Midway through
shoulder
• Through lumbar bodies
• Slightly anterior to
midline of knee
• Slightly anterior to lateral
malleolus
Correct Posture (Posterior)
Line is…
• In the center of head,
neck, back and pelvis
• Falls exactly in the mid
point between the two
Knees and ankles

Good Posture
Types of Poor Posture
(from the lateral view)
Kyphotic-lordotic Posture
Flat-back Posture
Sway-back Posture
Kyphotic-Lordotic Posture
Head- Forward
Cervical Spine- Hyper-lordosis
(hyper-extended)
Thoracic Vertebrate- increased
flexion
Lumbar Vertebrate- Hyperlordosis; (hyperextended).
Pelvis- Anterior tilt (forward and
down)
Knees- hyperextended
Ankle joints- plantar flexed, legs
are behind midline
IDEAL
Flat-Back Posture
Head- Forward
Cervical Spine- extended
Thoracic Vertebrate- reduced
curvature (extension)
Lumbar Vertebrate – straight
(flexion)
Pelvis- posterior tilt (backward)
and down)
Hips- extended
Knees- extended
Ankle joints- slightly plantar flexed
IDEAL
Sway-Back Posture
Head: Forward
Cervical Spine -Hyper extended
Thoracic Vertebrate- slight flexion
Lumbar Vertebrate –slight
extension
Pelvis-posterior tilt and anterior to
midline
Hips- Hyper extended
Knees- Hyper extended
Ankle- slightly planter-flexed

IDEAL
Evaluation
Lateral Evaluation
• Plumb Alignment: aligned anterior to lateral
malleolus
Things to Examine
• Position of knees
– Check for hyperextension or flexion

• Pelvic position and spine curvature
• Head, chest and abdominal position
Lateral: Knee Position

Good Alignment

Flexion of Knees

Hyperextension
of knees
Evaluation
Anterior Evaluation
• Position of feet

– Check for pronation or supination
– Check arch of the foot

• Position of legs

– Check for bowlegs

• Position of knees

– Check for knock-knees

• Appearance of ribs
• Position of head
Anterior: Good Alignment
Knee caps face
straight ahead
Legs are straight
up and down

Toes are straight

Arches have
normal halfdome shape
Anterior: Foot Supination & Pronation

Slight knee
knocking

Contracted
anterior
tibalis

Feet are supinated
Weight is
on outside
of feet

Feet are pronated
Evaluation
Posterior Evaluation
• Plumb Alignment- align midway between heels

Things to Examine
•
•
•
•
•

Note alignment of Achilles Tendon
Hip adduction/abduction
Check for level posterior iliac spine
Check for lateral pelvic tilt
Check for spine and shoulder problems
Posterior Evaluation

Scoliosis
•Lateral curve in the spine
Types of Scoliosis
•Congenital
•Neuromuscular
•Paralytic

•Idiopathic
85% of cases
Unknown Cause

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS)
Posterior Evaluation

Scoliosis: Perform Posture Analysis
Check if shoulders are
level
Check distance between
arms and side of body
Check if hips are level
Check if head is centered
over the pelvis.
Posterior Evaluation

Scoliosis
• Shoulders not level,
prominent or uneven
scapulas
• Uneven gap between arm
and body
• Elevated or uneven hip
• Head not centered over
pelvis
• Bending test reveals
uneven portions of back
Summary of
Posture
o The spinal column has 2 primary curves (Thoracic &
Sacral) and 2 secondary curves (Cervical & Lumber).
o Good posture is the attitude which, is assumed by Body
parts to maintain stability and balance with minimum effort
and least strain during supportive and non supportive
positions.
o Poor posture is a position resulting from any deviation
from ideally aligned erect posture (good posture).
o There are 3 types of normal posture, Easy, fatigue and
rigid postures.
o Evaluation of posture is conducted from 3 views. Lateral,
Anterior and posterior views.
Understanding Posture: Types, Development, Evaluation and Correction

More Related Content

What's hot (20)

Stretching Exercises
Stretching ExercisesStretching Exercises
Stretching Exercises
 
Relaxation
RelaxationRelaxation
Relaxation
 
Resistance exercise
Resistance exerciseResistance exercise
Resistance exercise
 
Balance Training
Balance TrainingBalance Training
Balance Training
 
Pelvic tilt
Pelvic tiltPelvic tilt
Pelvic tilt
 
Types of stretching technique
Types of stretching techniqueTypes of stretching technique
Types of stretching technique
 
Standing fundamental position
Standing   fundamental positionStanding   fundamental position
Standing fundamental position
 
Biomechanics of throwing
Biomechanics of throwingBiomechanics of throwing
Biomechanics of throwing
 
Scapulohumeral rhythm and exercises
Scapulohumeral rhythm and exercisesScapulohumeral rhythm and exercises
Scapulohumeral rhythm and exercises
 
Manual Muscle Testing (MMT)
Manual Muscle Testing (MMT)Manual Muscle Testing (MMT)
Manual Muscle Testing (MMT)
 
Aerobic & anaerobic exs
Aerobic & anaerobic exsAerobic & anaerobic exs
Aerobic & anaerobic exs
 
Classification of movements
Classification of movementsClassification of movements
Classification of movements
 
Types of muscle contraction
Types of muscle contractionTypes of muscle contraction
Types of muscle contraction
 
Balance
BalanceBalance
Balance
 
Prehension
PrehensionPrehension
Prehension
 
Goniometry.ppt uche
Goniometry.ppt ucheGoniometry.ppt uche
Goniometry.ppt uche
 
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitationProprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
 
Forward head posture
Forward head postureForward head posture
Forward head posture
 
Posture analysis
Posture analysisPosture analysis
Posture analysis
 
YOGA AND PHYSIOTHERAPY
YOGA AND PHYSIOTHERAPYYOGA AND PHYSIOTHERAPY
YOGA AND PHYSIOTHERAPY
 

Viewers also liked

BIOMECHANICS OF POSTURE
BIOMECHANICS OF POSTUREBIOMECHANICS OF POSTURE
BIOMECHANICS OF POSTUREsenphysio
 
Strength training for sport - FILEX 2013
Strength training for sport - FILEX 2013Strength training for sport - FILEX 2013
Strength training for sport - FILEX 2013Mark McKean
 
Center of gravity
Center of gravityCenter of gravity
Center of gravityClement Tay
 
Body mechanics nur 123
Body mechanics nur 123Body mechanics nur 123
Body mechanics nur 123Pamela Cengizp
 
Year 11 biomechanics with levers, force summation
Year 11 biomechanics with levers, force summationYear 11 biomechanics with levers, force summation
Year 11 biomechanics with levers, force summationryanm9
 

Viewers also liked (10)

BIOMECHANICS OF POSTURE
BIOMECHANICS OF POSTUREBIOMECHANICS OF POSTURE
BIOMECHANICS OF POSTURE
 
Posture
PosturePosture
Posture
 
Strength training for sport - FILEX 2013
Strength training for sport - FILEX 2013Strength training for sport - FILEX 2013
Strength training for sport - FILEX 2013
 
Posture ppt
Posture pptPosture ppt
Posture ppt
 
Center of gravity
Center of gravityCenter of gravity
Center of gravity
 
Body mechanics nur 123
Body mechanics nur 123Body mechanics nur 123
Body mechanics nur 123
 
Center of gravity
Center of gravityCenter of gravity
Center of gravity
 
Body mechanics
Body mechanicsBody mechanics
Body mechanics
 
Posture
PosturePosture
Posture
 
Year 11 biomechanics with levers, force summation
Year 11 biomechanics with levers, force summationYear 11 biomechanics with levers, force summation
Year 11 biomechanics with levers, force summation
 

Similar to Understanding Posture: Types, Development, Evaluation and Correction

posture-150118053346-conversion-gate02.pdf
posture-150118053346-conversion-gate02.pdfposture-150118053346-conversion-gate02.pdf
posture-150118053346-conversion-gate02.pdfAbdulWadoodPanhwar
 
Posture in biomech.pptx
Posture in biomech.pptxPosture in biomech.pptx
Posture in biomech.pptxShadowTi1
 
Pathfit-GROUP2.pptx.244h86rghhr45ihfeuuff
Pathfit-GROUP2.pptx.244h86rghhr45ihfeuuffPathfit-GROUP2.pptx.244h86rghhr45ihfeuuff
Pathfit-GROUP2.pptx.244h86rghhr45ihfeuuffAllysaEchanes
 
Postural Analysis .ppt
Postural Analysis .pptPostural Analysis .ppt
Postural Analysis .pptekaprasana1
 
Is Your Posture Killing You?
Is Your Posture Killing You?Is Your Posture Killing You?
Is Your Posture Killing You?Dr. Mark Wade
 
Wendy Hendrie, posture
Wendy Hendrie, postureWendy Hendrie, posture
Wendy Hendrie, postureMS Trust
 
HUMAN POSTURE and it is help full for physiotherapy and neursing students.PPT
HUMAN  POSTURE and it is help full for physiotherapy and neursing students.PPTHUMAN  POSTURE and it is help full for physiotherapy and neursing students.PPT
HUMAN POSTURE and it is help full for physiotherapy and neursing students.PPTMunnaKendre
 
PPDA Lesson 1_Skeletal Anatomy.pptx
PPDA Lesson 1_Skeletal Anatomy.pptxPPDA Lesson 1_Skeletal Anatomy.pptx
PPDA Lesson 1_Skeletal Anatomy.pptxMariaRodriguez315195
 
1586439085KINESIOLOGY_SHS_306_LECTURE_MODULE_3.ppt
1586439085KINESIOLOGY_SHS_306_LECTURE_MODULE_3.ppt1586439085KINESIOLOGY_SHS_306_LECTURE_MODULE_3.ppt
1586439085KINESIOLOGY_SHS_306_LECTURE_MODULE_3.pptsiddhimeena3
 
Fundamental and Auxiliary movements.pptx
Fundamental and Auxiliary movements.pptxFundamental and Auxiliary movements.pptx
Fundamental and Auxiliary movements.pptxDIVINE SPORTS ACADEMY
 
Chapter 1 General Anatomy
Chapter 1   General AnatomyChapter 1   General Anatomy
Chapter 1 General Anatomycodelifemd
 
PATHFIT-1-L12.pptx_20230918_045707_0000.pptx
PATHFIT-1-L12.pptx_20230918_045707_0000.pptxPATHFIT-1-L12.pptx_20230918_045707_0000.pptx
PATHFIT-1-L12.pptx_20230918_045707_0000.pptxNudiyaSappal
 

Similar to Understanding Posture: Types, Development, Evaluation and Correction (20)

POSTURE AND YOU.pptx
POSTURE AND YOU.pptxPOSTURE AND YOU.pptx
POSTURE AND YOU.pptx
 
posture-150118053346-conversion-gate02.pdf
posture-150118053346-conversion-gate02.pdfposture-150118053346-conversion-gate02.pdf
posture-150118053346-conversion-gate02.pdf
 
Posture in biomech.pptx
Posture in biomech.pptxPosture in biomech.pptx
Posture in biomech.pptx
 
Pathfit-GROUP2.pptx.244h86rghhr45ihfeuuff
Pathfit-GROUP2.pptx.244h86rghhr45ihfeuuffPathfit-GROUP2.pptx.244h86rghhr45ihfeuuff
Pathfit-GROUP2.pptx.244h86rghhr45ihfeuuff
 
Human Posture
Human PostureHuman Posture
Human Posture
 
Postural Analysis .ppt
Postural Analysis .pptPostural Analysis .ppt
Postural Analysis .ppt
 
Is Your Posture Killing You?
Is Your Posture Killing You?Is Your Posture Killing You?
Is Your Posture Killing You?
 
Wendy Hendrie, posture
Wendy Hendrie, postureWendy Hendrie, posture
Wendy Hendrie, posture
 
kinesiology
kinesiology kinesiology
kinesiology
 
HUMAN POSTURE and it is help full for physiotherapy and neursing students.PPT
HUMAN  POSTURE and it is help full for physiotherapy and neursing students.PPTHUMAN  POSTURE and it is help full for physiotherapy and neursing students.PPT
HUMAN POSTURE and it is help full for physiotherapy and neursing students.PPT
 
POSTURE.pptx
POSTURE.pptxPOSTURE.pptx
POSTURE.pptx
 
posture
postureposture
posture
 
PPDA Lesson 1_Skeletal Anatomy.pptx
PPDA Lesson 1_Skeletal Anatomy.pptxPPDA Lesson 1_Skeletal Anatomy.pptx
PPDA Lesson 1_Skeletal Anatomy.pptx
 
Posture
PosturePosture
Posture
 
1586439085KINESIOLOGY_SHS_306_LECTURE_MODULE_3.ppt
1586439085KINESIOLOGY_SHS_306_LECTURE_MODULE_3.ppt1586439085KINESIOLOGY_SHS_306_LECTURE_MODULE_3.ppt
1586439085KINESIOLOGY_SHS_306_LECTURE_MODULE_3.ppt
 
Fundamental and Auxiliary movements.pptx
Fundamental and Auxiliary movements.pptxFundamental and Auxiliary movements.pptx
Fundamental and Auxiliary movements.pptx
 
Body mechanics & basic exercise
Body mechanics & basic exerciseBody mechanics & basic exercise
Body mechanics & basic exercise
 
Chapter 1 General Anatomy
Chapter 1   General AnatomyChapter 1   General Anatomy
Chapter 1 General Anatomy
 
POSTURE
POSTUREPOSTURE
POSTURE
 
PATHFIT-1-L12.pptx_20230918_045707_0000.pptx
PATHFIT-1-L12.pptx_20230918_045707_0000.pptxPATHFIT-1-L12.pptx_20230918_045707_0000.pptx
PATHFIT-1-L12.pptx_20230918_045707_0000.pptx
 

More from Shimaa Essa

Physical therapy management of pain,shimaa essa
Physical therapy management of pain,shimaa essaPhysical therapy management of pain,shimaa essa
Physical therapy management of pain,shimaa essaShimaa Essa
 
Motor learning & recovery of function
Motor learning & recovery of functionMotor learning & recovery of function
Motor learning & recovery of functionShimaa Essa
 
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy is now Curable!!
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy is now Curable!!Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy is now Curable!!
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy is now Curable!!Shimaa Essa
 
Laser acupuncture: Practical guidelines
Laser acupuncture: Practical guidelinesLaser acupuncture: Practical guidelines
Laser acupuncture: Practical guidelinesShimaa Essa
 
Introduction to biomechanics
Introduction to biomechanicsIntroduction to biomechanics
Introduction to biomechanicsShimaa Essa
 
Center of gravity
Center of gravityCenter of gravity
Center of gravityShimaa Essa
 
Applying qm standard (4)
Applying qm standard (4)Applying qm standard (4)
Applying qm standard (4)Shimaa Essa
 

More from Shimaa Essa (13)

Physical therapy management of pain,shimaa essa
Physical therapy management of pain,shimaa essaPhysical therapy management of pain,shimaa essa
Physical therapy management of pain,shimaa essa
 
Motor learning & recovery of function
Motor learning & recovery of functionMotor learning & recovery of function
Motor learning & recovery of function
 
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy is now Curable!!
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy is now Curable!!Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy is now Curable!!
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy is now Curable!!
 
Laser acupuncture: Practical guidelines
Laser acupuncture: Practical guidelinesLaser acupuncture: Practical guidelines
Laser acupuncture: Practical guidelines
 
Gait analysis
Gait analysisGait analysis
Gait analysis
 
Stability
StabilityStability
Stability
 
Muscles
MusclesMuscles
Muscles
 
Planes & axes
Planes & axesPlanes & axes
Planes & axes
 
Joints
JointsJoints
Joints
 
Bones
BonesBones
Bones
 
Introduction to biomechanics
Introduction to biomechanicsIntroduction to biomechanics
Introduction to biomechanics
 
Center of gravity
Center of gravityCenter of gravity
Center of gravity
 
Applying qm standard (4)
Applying qm standard (4)Applying qm standard (4)
Applying qm standard (4)
 

Recently uploaded

MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Developmentchesterberbo7
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxVanesaIglesias10
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxHumphrey A Beña
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...DhatriParmar
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvRicaMaeCastro1
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmStan Meyer
 
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1GloryAnnCastre1
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptxmary850239
 
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsMental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsPooky Knightsmith
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleCeline George
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...DhatriParmar
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 

Recently uploaded (20)

MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
 
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptxROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
ROLES IN A STAGE PRODUCTION in arts.pptx
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
 
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Professionprashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
prashanth updated resume 2024 for Teaching Profession
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
 
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
Reading and Writing Skills 11 quarter 4 melc 1
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
 
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsMental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
 
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP ModuleMulti Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
Multi Domain Alias In the Odoo 17 ERP Module
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 

Understanding Posture: Types, Development, Evaluation and Correction

  • 1. KKU_Biomech_M4_L1 Posture Dr / Shimaa Essa Lecturer of physical therapy , faculty of community, King Khalid university Lesson (1)
  • 2. Upon successful completion of this lesson you would be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define normal posture. Realize the development of posture. Identify advantages of normal posture. Distinguish between different types of posture. Realize types of poor posture. Analysis posture. Evaluate deviations of normal posture.
  • 3. The postural alignment starts its development from early period of life with development of the spine and its curvature. You we learn what is meant by posture, the development and characteristics of normal posture, advantages of correct posture, types of postures, what is meant by poor or faulty posture, the disadvantages of poor posture. And practically diagnose posture deviations of normal.
  • 4. DEVELOPMENT OF POSTURE The postural alignment starts its development from early period of life with development of the spine and its curvature. At first, at birth the spine has one "C"-shaped curve with one convexity and one concavity. Then, as the child is trying to raise his head 'from prone lying position cervical curve starts to develop and in the early phase of education of walking, another curve will be developed which is the lumbar curve. These two curves are considered as "secondary curves" to the first one which is called "primary curve".
  • 5. CURVATURES OF THE SPINE 1- FROM FRONTAL VIEW: If the spine is viewed from the front or the back view it seems to be straight and symmetrical. Posterior (Back) Spinal Column
  • 6. CURVATURES OF THE SPINE 2- FROM SAGITTAL VIEW: If the spine is viewed from the lateral side, four normal curves will appear which are: a- Two primary curves: dorsal and sacral which are convex posteriorly. b- Two secondary curves: cervical and lumbar which are convex anteriorly.
  • 7. DEFINITION: Good posture is the attitude which, is assumed by Body parts to maintain stability and balance with minimum effort and least strain during supportive and non supportive positions.
  • 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD POSTURE (Prerequisites of good posture): For good posture to be maintained the following must be obtained: The ability to maintain 'the body upright in good and erect position with less energy. The ability to maintain balance in upright position via keeping the line of gravity near the center of the base of support.
  • 9. Effects of good posture: Maintaining good posture has its values in different body functions and systems. The effects of good posture include: 1- Helps the muscles in the body to be unloaded and relaxed. 2- Improves respiratory and circulatory efficiency. 3- Prevents unnecessary strain and fatigue. 4- Decreases the incidence of diseases resulting from bad posture. 5- Improves the subject’s state; mentally or psychologically.
  • 10. TYPES OF POSTURE 1) Fatigue posture 2) Easy posture 3) Rigid posture
  • 11. 1- Easy Posture It Is good, symmetrical and balanced position This position can not be maintained for a long time. So, the subject will shift his weight in a swaying movement in order to prevent fatigue and to maintain a good circulation in the postural muscles of the legs when standing. By alternating the main support from one leg to the other; the muscles become periodically unloaded and relaxed.
  • 12. 2- Fatigue Posture It is asymmetrical or sagging posture This position is relaxed and can be maintained for. a long time as most of body's joints are in semi-flexion. The load on the muscles will decrease and the energy expenditure is 10% less than easy posture.
  • 13. 3- Rigid Posture It is called posture of attention. It doesn't mean normal posture This position can not be assumed for a long time as most of body's joints are. In extension; so, the load will increase on joints and muscles and energy expenditure is 20% more than easy posture. So, with referring to 3 types of posture the energy in: Rigid > Easy > Fatigue
  • 14. DEFINITION: Poor posture is a position resulting from any deviation from ideally aligned erect posture (good posture).
  • 15. CAUSES OF POOR POSTURE: Poor posture may occur due to:1- Defects in: •Joints: such as stiffness or immobilization. •Bones: such as shortening or deformity. •Muscles: such as weakness, paralysis or contracture. •Vision or hearing. 2- Bad habits: either from early childhood or from occupational positions. Example for that is the workers that perform jobs which require continuous flexed position of the trunk. 3- Pain, fatigue or bad psychological state.
  • 16. EFFECTS OF POOR POSTURE: Poor posture causes deviations from the normally aligned posture. As a result the body functions are altered and this may lead to dysfunction and diseases. Poor posture may cause one or more of the following dysfunction: 1. Secondary deformities and compensatory postural defects. 2. Easy fatigability and high energy expenditure. 3. Decrease both respiratory and circulatory efficiency. 4. Pain, bad cosmetic appearance and psychological disturbances.
  • 18. To assess posture ideally, the subject stands upright, and attention should be given to the following: No movement in the atlantoaxial or atlanto-occipital joint which results in protrusion of the jaw. Stands as straight as possible. Knees should be straight as much as possible. Head faces forward and arms beside the body. Almost all joints of the body must be in the neutral position.
  • 19. Assessment should be From 3 Views: 1- Anterior view. 2- Posterior view. 3- Lateral view. The Parts Which are Important to be Observe: 1- Head alignment. 2- Curvature of the spine; cervical, thoracic and lumbar. 3- Shoulders and arms. 4- Pelvic inclination. 5- Hip, knee and ankle joints.
  • 20. Correct Posture (Lateral) Line is… • Through external auditory meatus (Ear) • Midway through shoulder • Through lumbar bodies • Slightly anterior to midline of knee • Slightly anterior to lateral malleolus
  • 21. Correct Posture (Posterior) Line is… • In the center of head, neck, back and pelvis • Falls exactly in the mid point between the two Knees and ankles Good Posture
  • 22. Types of Poor Posture (from the lateral view) Kyphotic-lordotic Posture Flat-back Posture Sway-back Posture
  • 23. Kyphotic-Lordotic Posture Head- Forward Cervical Spine- Hyper-lordosis (hyper-extended) Thoracic Vertebrate- increased flexion Lumbar Vertebrate- Hyperlordosis; (hyperextended). Pelvis- Anterior tilt (forward and down) Knees- hyperextended Ankle joints- plantar flexed, legs are behind midline IDEAL
  • 24. Flat-Back Posture Head- Forward Cervical Spine- extended Thoracic Vertebrate- reduced curvature (extension) Lumbar Vertebrate – straight (flexion) Pelvis- posterior tilt (backward) and down) Hips- extended Knees- extended Ankle joints- slightly plantar flexed IDEAL
  • 25. Sway-Back Posture Head: Forward Cervical Spine -Hyper extended Thoracic Vertebrate- slight flexion Lumbar Vertebrate –slight extension Pelvis-posterior tilt and anterior to midline Hips- Hyper extended Knees- Hyper extended Ankle- slightly planter-flexed IDEAL
  • 26. Evaluation Lateral Evaluation • Plumb Alignment: aligned anterior to lateral malleolus Things to Examine • Position of knees – Check for hyperextension or flexion • Pelvic position and spine curvature • Head, chest and abdominal position
  • 27. Lateral: Knee Position Good Alignment Flexion of Knees Hyperextension of knees
  • 28. Evaluation Anterior Evaluation • Position of feet – Check for pronation or supination – Check arch of the foot • Position of legs – Check for bowlegs • Position of knees – Check for knock-knees • Appearance of ribs • Position of head
  • 29. Anterior: Good Alignment Knee caps face straight ahead Legs are straight up and down Toes are straight Arches have normal halfdome shape
  • 30. Anterior: Foot Supination & Pronation Slight knee knocking Contracted anterior tibalis Feet are supinated Weight is on outside of feet Feet are pronated
  • 31. Evaluation Posterior Evaluation • Plumb Alignment- align midway between heels Things to Examine • • • • • Note alignment of Achilles Tendon Hip adduction/abduction Check for level posterior iliac spine Check for lateral pelvic tilt Check for spine and shoulder problems
  • 32. Posterior Evaluation Scoliosis •Lateral curve in the spine Types of Scoliosis •Congenital •Neuromuscular •Paralytic •Idiopathic 85% of cases Unknown Cause Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS)
  • 33. Posterior Evaluation Scoliosis: Perform Posture Analysis Check if shoulders are level Check distance between arms and side of body Check if hips are level Check if head is centered over the pelvis.
  • 34. Posterior Evaluation Scoliosis • Shoulders not level, prominent or uneven scapulas • Uneven gap between arm and body • Elevated or uneven hip • Head not centered over pelvis • Bending test reveals uneven portions of back
  • 36. o The spinal column has 2 primary curves (Thoracic & Sacral) and 2 secondary curves (Cervical & Lumber). o Good posture is the attitude which, is assumed by Body parts to maintain stability and balance with minimum effort and least strain during supportive and non supportive positions. o Poor posture is a position resulting from any deviation from ideally aligned erect posture (good posture). o There are 3 types of normal posture, Easy, fatigue and rigid postures. o Evaluation of posture is conducted from 3 views. Lateral, Anterior and posterior views.