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Long bone


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anatomy of long bone and joint classificationq

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Long bone

  1. 1. Anatomy of long bone and classification of Joints Prepared by Dr DipendraMaharjan 1st yr Resident, NAMS
  2. 2. Bone • Calcified, living, connective tissue that forms the majority of skeletal system • Intercellular calcified matrix which consist collagen fiber • Functions as – – – – – Supportive structure Protector Reservoir Act as a lever Act as a container
  3. 3. Type of Bone • Compact – Dense bone tissue composed of osteons, which resist pressure and shocks and protect the spongy tissue – forms especially the diaphysis of the long bones. • Spongy – Tissue made of bony compartments separated by cavities filled with bone marrow, blood vessels and nerves – gives bones their lightness.
  4. 4. Classification of bone • According by shape – Long bone – Short bone – Flat bone – Irregular bone – Sesamoid bone
  5. 5. Long bone • Longer than they are wide. • Reflects the elongated shape rather than the overall size. • Consist of a shaft plus two ends and are constructed primarily of compact bone • may contain substantial amounts of spongy bone. • All bones of the limbs, except the patella, wrist and ankle bones, are long bones.
  6. 6. Parts of long bone
  7. 7. • Epiphysis – Are expanded articular ends – separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate during bone growth – composed of a spongy bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone. – Proximal epiphysis • Enlarged terminal part of the bone, • nearest the center of the body, – Distal epiphysis • Enlarged terminal part of the bone, • farthest from the center of the body,
  8. 8. • Metaphysis – Part of the bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis; – it contains the connecting cartilage enabling the bone to grow – disappears at adulthood. • Diaphysis – Elongated hollow central portion of the bone located between the methaphyses; – made of compact tissue – encloses the medullary cavity.
  9. 9. Structure of long bone
  10. 10. • Osteon – Elementary cylindrical structure of the compact bone – Runs parallel to longest axis of bone – Surrounds and opens into Haversian canal. • Haversian canal – Lengthwise central canal of the osteon – enclose blood vessels and nerves.
  11. 11. • Volkmann’s canals – Perforating canal – Transverse canals of the compact bone enclosing blood vessels and nerves – they connect the Haversian canals and with the medullary cavity and the periosteum. • Medullarycavity – Cylindrical central cavity of the bone containing the bone marrow – encloses lipid-rich yellow bone marrow.
  12. 12. • Periosteum – Fibrous membrane rich in blood vessels that envelopes the bone – contributes especially to the bone’s growth in thickness. – anchored to the bone itself by bits of collagen called Sharpey’s perforating fibers. • Concentric lamellae – Bony layers of osteon made of collagen fibers – arranged concentrically around the Haversian canal – form as the bones grow.
  13. 13. • Articular cartilage – Smooth resistant elastic tissue covering the terminal part of the bone – facilitates movement and absorbs shocks. • Blood vessel – Channel in the bone through which the blood circulates, carrying the nutrients and mineral salts the bone requires. • Bone marrow – Soft substance contained in bone cavities, producing blood cells – red in children, yellow in the long bones of adults.
  14. 14. JOINTS the site where two or more skeletal elements come together
  15. 15. Classification of Joint • According to function of joint – Synarthroses • no/little movement • Sutures, Teeth,Epiphyseal plates,1st rib and costal cart. – Amphiarthroses • slight movement • Distal Tibia/fibula, Intervertebral discs, Pubic symphysis – Diarthroses • great movement • Glenohumeral joint, Knee joint, TMJ
  16. 16. • According to the structure of Joint – Cartilaginous – Fibrous – Synovial
  17. 17. • Cartilaginous Joint – are connected entirely by cartilage – allow more movement between bones than a fibrous joint but less than the highly mobile synovial joint – also forms the growth regions of immature long bones and the intervertebral discs of the spinal column. – Types • Synchondrosis • Symphysis
  18. 18. Cartilaginous • Synchondrosis (synarthroses) – Primary cartilaginous joints – Occur where two ossification centre in a developing bone remain seperated by a layer of cartilage – Growth plate between head and shaft of developing long bone – Allow bone growth and eventually become completely ossified • Symphysis (amphiarthroses) – – – – Secondary cartileginousjoints Two separate bones are interconnected by cartilage Mostly occur in midline Pubis symphysis, intervertebral disc between adjacent vertebrae
  19. 19. • Fibrous Joint – are connected by dense connective tissue, consisting mainly of collagen – Types • Sutures • Syndesmoses • Gomphosis
  20. 20. Fibrous • Suture – Only in skull where adjacent bones are linked by a thin layer of connective tissue • Gomphoses – Occur only between the teeth and adjacent bone – Short collagen tissue fibre in the periodontal ligament run between the root of the tooth and the bony socket • Syndesmoses – Joints in which two adjacent bones are linked by a ligament – Are moveable – Ligamentumflavum, interosseos membrane
  21. 21. Synovial Joint • Are diarthrosis • the most common and most movable type • achieve movement at the point of contact of the articulating bones. • The main structural differences between synovial and fibrous joints are – the existence of capsules surrounding the articulating surfaces of a synovial joint – the presence of lubricating synovial fluid within those capsules.
  22. 22. Classification of synovial Joint • Based upon movement – Uniaxial joint – Biaxial Joint – Multiaxial Joint
  23. 23. Classification of synovial Joint • Based on the shape of their articular surface – Planar Joint – Hinge Joint – Pivot Joint – Bicondylar Joint – Condylar Joint – Saddle Joint – Ball and socket joint
  24. 24. • Plane Joint – Also called Gliding Joints – One moves across the surface of another – Allow sliding or gliding movements – Acromoclavicular joint
  25. 25. • Hinge Joint – Also known as ginglymus joint – Allow movement around one axis that passes transversly through the joint – Permit flexion and extension – Humeroulnar joint
  26. 26. • Pivot Joint – Also called trochoid joint – Allow movement around one axis that passes longitudinally along the shaft of the bone – One bone rotates another – Atlanto-axial joint
  27. 27. • Bicondylar Joint – Formed by two convex condyles that articulate with concave or flat surface – Allow movement mostly in one axis with limited rotation around a second axis – Knee joint
  28. 28. • Condylar Joint – Ellipsoid Joint – Allow movement around two axis that are at right angle to each other – Permit flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and limited circumduction – Wrist joint
  29. 29. • Saddle Joint – Also known as sellar joint – Allow movement around two axis that are at right angle to each other – Articularsuface are saddle shaped – Permits flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction – Carpometacarple joint of the thumb, sternoclavicular joint
  30. 30. • Ball and Socket Joint – Universal joint, spheroidal joint – Allow movement around multiple axis – Permits extension, flexion, abduction, adduction, circumduction except gliding – Hip joint, glenohumeral joint
  31. 31. Thank You!
  32. 32. References • Gray’s anatomy for student by Drake, Vogi • Gray’s anatomy : the anatomical by susanstandring • Clinical anatomy by region – Richard snell • Netter’s Anatomy • Gross Anatomy BRSeries by Kyung • Clinically oriented Anatomy by Moore • Last’s Anatomy regional and applied