Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Long bone

3,087 views

Published on

anatomy of long bone and joint classificationq

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Long bone

  1. 1. Anatomy of long bone and classification of Joints Prepared by Dr DipendraMaharjan 1st yr Resident, NAMS
  2. 2. Bone • Calcified, living, connective tissue that forms the majority of skeletal system • Intercellular calcified matrix which consist collagen fiber • Functions as – – – – – Supportive structure Protector Reservoir Act as a lever Act as a container
  3. 3. Type of Bone • Compact – Dense bone tissue composed of osteons, which resist pressure and shocks and protect the spongy tissue – forms especially the diaphysis of the long bones. • Spongy – Tissue made of bony compartments separated by cavities filled with bone marrow, blood vessels and nerves – gives bones their lightness.
  4. 4. Classification of bone • According by shape – Long bone – Short bone – Flat bone – Irregular bone – Sesamoid bone
  5. 5. Long bone • Longer than they are wide. • Reflects the elongated shape rather than the overall size. • Consist of a shaft plus two ends and are constructed primarily of compact bone • may contain substantial amounts of spongy bone. • All bones of the limbs, except the patella, wrist and ankle bones, are long bones.
  6. 6. Parts of long bone
  7. 7. • Epiphysis – Are expanded articular ends – separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate during bone growth – composed of a spongy bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone. – Proximal epiphysis • Enlarged terminal part of the bone, • nearest the center of the body, – Distal epiphysis • Enlarged terminal part of the bone, • farthest from the center of the body,
  8. 8. • Metaphysis – Part of the bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis; – it contains the connecting cartilage enabling the bone to grow – disappears at adulthood. • Diaphysis – Elongated hollow central portion of the bone located between the methaphyses; – made of compact tissue – encloses the medullary cavity.
  9. 9. Structure of long bone
  10. 10. • Osteon – Elementary cylindrical structure of the compact bone – Runs parallel to longest axis of bone – Surrounds and opens into Haversian canal. • Haversian canal – Lengthwise central canal of the osteon – enclose blood vessels and nerves.
  11. 11. • Volkmann’s canals – Perforating canal – Transverse canals of the compact bone enclosing blood vessels and nerves – they connect the Haversian canals and with the medullary cavity and the periosteum. • Medullarycavity – Cylindrical central cavity of the bone containing the bone marrow – encloses lipid-rich yellow bone marrow.
  12. 12. • Periosteum – Fibrous membrane rich in blood vessels that envelopes the bone – contributes especially to the bone’s growth in thickness. – anchored to the bone itself by bits of collagen called Sharpey’s perforating fibers. • Concentric lamellae – Bony layers of osteon made of collagen fibers – arranged concentrically around the Haversian canal – form as the bones grow.
  13. 13. • Articular cartilage – Smooth resistant elastic tissue covering the terminal part of the bone – facilitates movement and absorbs shocks. • Blood vessel – Channel in the bone through which the blood circulates, carrying the nutrients and mineral salts the bone requires. • Bone marrow – Soft substance contained in bone cavities, producing blood cells – red in children, yellow in the long bones of adults.
  14. 14. JOINTS the site where two or more skeletal elements come together
  15. 15. Classification of Joint • According to function of joint – Synarthroses • no/little movement • Sutures, Teeth,Epiphyseal plates,1st rib and costal cart. – Amphiarthroses • slight movement • Distal Tibia/fibula, Intervertebral discs, Pubic symphysis – Diarthroses • great movement • Glenohumeral joint, Knee joint, TMJ
  16. 16. • According to the structure of Joint – Cartilaginous – Fibrous – Synovial
  17. 17. • Cartilaginous Joint – are connected entirely by cartilage – allow more movement between bones than a fibrous joint but less than the highly mobile synovial joint – also forms the growth regions of immature long bones and the intervertebral discs of the spinal column. – Types • Synchondrosis • Symphysis
  18. 18. Cartilaginous • Synchondrosis (synarthroses) – Primary cartilaginous joints – Occur where two ossification centre in a developing bone remain seperated by a layer of cartilage – Growth plate between head and shaft of developing long bone – Allow bone growth and eventually become completely ossified • Symphysis (amphiarthroses) – – – – Secondary cartileginousjoints Two separate bones are interconnected by cartilage Mostly occur in midline Pubis symphysis, intervertebral disc between adjacent vertebrae
  19. 19. • Fibrous Joint – are connected by dense connective tissue, consisting mainly of collagen – Types • Sutures • Syndesmoses • Gomphosis
  20. 20. Fibrous • Suture – Only in skull where adjacent bones are linked by a thin layer of connective tissue • Gomphoses – Occur only between the teeth and adjacent bone – Short collagen tissue fibre in the periodontal ligament run between the root of the tooth and the bony socket • Syndesmoses – Joints in which two adjacent bones are linked by a ligament – Are moveable – Ligamentumflavum, interosseos membrane
  21. 21. Synovial Joint • Are diarthrosis • the most common and most movable type • achieve movement at the point of contact of the articulating bones. • The main structural differences between synovial and fibrous joints are – the existence of capsules surrounding the articulating surfaces of a synovial joint – the presence of lubricating synovial fluid within those capsules.
  22. 22. Classification of synovial Joint • Based upon movement – Uniaxial joint – Biaxial Joint – Multiaxial Joint
  23. 23. Classification of synovial Joint • Based on the shape of their articular surface – Planar Joint – Hinge Joint – Pivot Joint – Bicondylar Joint – Condylar Joint – Saddle Joint – Ball and socket joint
  24. 24. • Plane Joint – Also called Gliding Joints – One moves across the surface of another – Allow sliding or gliding movements – Acromoclavicular joint
  25. 25. • Hinge Joint – Also known as ginglymus joint – Allow movement around one axis that passes transversly through the joint – Permit flexion and extension – Humeroulnar joint
  26. 26. • Pivot Joint – Also called trochoid joint – Allow movement around one axis that passes longitudinally along the shaft of the bone – One bone rotates another – Atlanto-axial joint
  27. 27. • Bicondylar Joint – Formed by two convex condyles that articulate with concave or flat surface – Allow movement mostly in one axis with limited rotation around a second axis – Knee joint
  28. 28. • Condylar Joint – Ellipsoid Joint – Allow movement around two axis that are at right angle to each other – Permit flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and limited circumduction – Wrist joint
  29. 29. • Saddle Joint – Also known as sellar joint – Allow movement around two axis that are at right angle to each other – Articularsuface are saddle shaped – Permits flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction – Carpometacarple joint of the thumb, sternoclavicular joint
  30. 30. • Ball and Socket Joint – Universal joint, spheroidal joint – Allow movement around multiple axis – Permits extension, flexion, abduction, adduction, circumduction except gliding – Hip joint, glenohumeral joint
  31. 31. Thank You!
  32. 32. References • Gray’s anatomy for student by Drake, Vogi • Gray’s anatomy : the anatomical by susanstandring • Clinical anatomy by region – Richard snell • Netter’s Anatomy • Gross Anatomy BRSeries by Kyung • Clinically oriented Anatomy by Moore • Last’s Anatomy regional and applied

×