Topic 1


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locomotion and support based on curriculum.
excluded mechanism and the rest topic after mechanism of locomotion

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  • Locomotion requires support that is suited to moving in water, through air or over land
  • Lie along the main axis of the body
  • Latin word which means to ‘hang’ ----attached to the axial skeleton
  • Each vertebra differs in structure , depending on its function and position in the vertebral column
  • Latin word which means to ‘hang’ ----attached to the axial skeleton
  • Humerus (upper arm),ulna n radius (forearm),carpals,metacarpals and phalanges (hand)
  • Topic 1

    1. 1. LOCOMOTION AND SUPPORT1)Understanding support & locomotion in human &animals2) Appreciating a healthy musculoskeletal system
    2. 2. LEARNING OUTCOMES (UNDERSTANDINGSUPPORT & LOCOMOTION)I. Necessity for support/locomotionII. Problems that could be facedIII. Solution for the problemsIV. Bones (components of axial & appendicular skeletons)V. Know bones, skeleton muscles & tendons
    3. 3. LEARNING OUTCOMES CONT…VI. How movement is brought in a limbVII. Function of cartilage and synovial fluidVIII. Mechanism of locomotionIX. Some consequences of impaired musculoskeletal system on support & locomotion
    4. 4. INTRODUCTION Support/Locomotion Healthy Support/Locomotion Musculoskeletal in Humans & Animals System Skeletal Muscles & The Mechanism of Skeleton Tendons in Locomotion movement
    6. 6. INTRODUCTION CONT..Definition: Locomotion is the whole movement organisms from place to placeForms of locomotion: walking climbing running swimming crawling flying
    7. 7. NECESSITY FOR SUPPORT & LOCOMOTION INHUMANS & ANIMALSThe purposes of locomotion are to search for food search for a mate seek for shelter avoid from predators and other dangers
    8. 8. PROBLEMS FACED IN SUPPORT &LOCOMOTION Water- supportive medium - but it is dense & resists movement Air - less dense - but a lot of effort and energy is needed to lift an animal off to fly Land- provides with surface for support/movement -but most animals need to hold their bodies clear off the ground to minimise friction
    9. 9. SOLUTION FOR THE PROBLEMS In humans & animals, support & locomotion are provided by the skeleton Skeleton is a structure that supports the body of a human or an animal
    10. 10. SKELETON Types of Skeleton Exoskeleton Endoskeleton Hydrostatic Skeleton crab fish worm grasshopper cat caterpillar
    11. 11. EXOSKELETON Outer covering Made up of rigid & strong materials eg: calcium and chitin Jointed external skeleton (chitin) provides locomotion & support to insects (Phylum Arthropoda) For molluscs (eg: snails,oysters) consists of a hard shell of calcium to cover and protect the soft body
    12. 12. ENDOSKELETON Comprising of many component parts of cartilage or bones These articulate (move against each other) at the joints Soft tissues surround the bones, protected by the skin
    13. 13. HYDROSTATIC SKELETON Pressure in spaces surrounded by muscles exerted by the body fluids Body fluids do not flow out and is of constant value Forms an incompressible ‘skeleton’ for the muscles to contract
    14. 14. IMPORTANCE OF SKELETAL SYSTEM Giving shape and form; without it the whole body collapses Makes locomotion possible-skeleton works together with muscles Protects soft tissues and vital organs Makes breathing possible Formation of blood cells Stores calcium and phosphorus within the bones
    15. 15. HUMAN SKELETON 2 main parts Axial skeleton Human skeleton Appendicular skeleton
    16. 16. AXIAL SKELETON Vertebral column (spine) Skull Rib cage Axial skeleton
    17. 17. APPENDICULAR SKELETON Appendicular skeleton Upper limb Lower limbPectoral girdle Pelvic girdle (Fore limb) (Hind limb) Arm Hand Upper arm Forearm
    18. 18. APPENDICULAR SKELETON Pectoral girdle (consists of two halves) and each half consists of: o A scapula (shoulder blade) o A clavicle (collar bone) Pelvic girdle (hips) Two upper limbs, each limb consists of: o Arm (upper arm and forearm) o Hand Two lower limbs, each limb consist of : o Femur ( thigh bone) o Tibia o Fibula (thin bone) o Foot
    20. 20. THE AXIAL SKELETON (SKULL) Skeleton of the head Consists of :  Cranium  Facial skeleton
    21. 21. SKULL (CRANIUM) Dome-shaped Formed from the fusion of sutures (immovable joints found only between skull bones) of 8 flat bones soon after birth Protects the brain Supports organs of special senses (sight, hearing, smell, and taste) Provides a foundation for structures to take air, food and water into the body
    22. 22. SKULL (FACIAL SKELETON) Consists of 14 bones Example:  2 eye sockets (orbits) – which protect the eyeballs  2 nasal bones – which form the bridge of the nose  Upper jaw bone (maxilla) – which is fused to the base of the cranium  Lower jaw bone (mandible) – which is hinged to the cranium
    23. 23. AXIAL SKELETON (VERTEBRAL COLUMN) Also known as the backbone or the spine Consists of a series of 33 small bones (vertebrae) Provides protection for the spinal cord which runs through it Intervertebral cartilage disc:  Separates adjacent vertebrae  Acts as a shock-absorbing cushion; reduces friction and allows movement between adjacent vertebrae
    24. 24. AXIAL SKELETON (VERTEBRAL COLUMN) 33 vertebrae of the vertebral column are made up of:  7 cervical (cervix=neck) vertebrae in the neck region  12 thoracic vertebrae in the thorax region  5 lumbar vertebrae – supporting the lower back  5 sacral vertebrae – fused to form a single sacrum  4 caudal vertebrae – fused to form a single coccyx
    27. 27. VERTEBRAL COLUMN (A TYPICAL VERTEBRA)Common characteristics of a typical vertebra  A centrum- body of the vertebra  A neural arch (vertebral arch)- protects the spinal cord  A neural canal (vertebral canal)- carries the spinal cord  Transverse process- for attachment of muscle
    29. 29. THE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE 3 types  Atlas – first cervical vertebra  Axis – second cervical vertebra  Typical cervical vertebra All cervical vertebrae have  1 neural canal – the spinal cord passes through this hole  2 vertebraterial canals – the vertebral arteries pass through these holes
    31. 31. THE CERVICAL VERTEBRA (ATLAS) 1st cervical vertebra Supports the head Do not have these 3 structures  Centrum (body)  Transverse processes  Neural spine
    33. 33. THE CERVICAL VERTEBRA (AXIS) 2nd cervical vertebra Has centrum and tranverse processes
    34. 34. THE 3RD TO 7TH CERVICAL VERTEBRAE The smallest and lightest vertebrae Have thinner centrum and a smaller neural spine Transverse process has a vertebrarterial canal
    36. 36. THE THORACIC VERTEBRAE 12 thoracic vertebrae  Larger than the cervical vertebrae  Increase in size from top to bottom  Support the rib cage A typical thoracic vertebra has  A heart shaped centrum (body)  A small circular neural canal  A long neural spine which point downwards  2 long transverse processes with facets on top fitting into facets on the bottom of the upper vertebra  Neural spine and the transverse processes –for attachment of ligaments and muscles supporting the head and neck
    38. 38. THE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE 5 lumbar vertebrae  Kidney shaped  The largest vertebrae found  Provides the only support to the upper body  Triangular spinal canal  Large broad transverse processes  Short broad neural spine
    40. 40. SACRUM & COCCYX Sacrum  Triangular bone formed by the fusion of 5 sacral vertebrae  4 transverse lines indicates the fusion of the vertebrae  On both sides of the transverse lines are paired sacral foramina (openings) Coccyx  Triangular bone formed by the fusion of 4 caudal vertebrae
    42. 42. AXIAL SKELETON (RIB CAGE) 12 pairs Articulate with the thoracic vertebrae 7 upper ribs directly join the sternum by cartilage at the end of the ribs Next 3 ribs (8th,9th,10th) attach to the rib cage above cartilage The bottom remaining 2 ribs are not connected to sternum or rib cage (called ‘floating ribs’)
    43. 43. RIB CAGE Functions:  Protect vital organs (eg: lung, heart)  Attachment of intercostal muscles  Provides the pumping mechanism required for breathing
    44. 44. APPENDICULAR SKELETON The components are  Pectoral girdle  Pelvic girdle  Upper limb  Lower limb
    45. 45. APPENDICULAR SKELETON (PECTORALGIRDLE) Contains 2 bones Clavicle (collar bone) Scapula (shoulder blade)
    46. 46. PECTORAL GIRDLE Clavicle  Long,flat,gently curved bone  Articulates with the shoulder at one end and with the scapula at the other end Scapula  Flat triangular shaped bone with a spine at its dorsal surface
    48. 48. PELVIC GIRDLE Strong, bony structure, supporting the upper body (trunk) & transmitting its weight to the legs Formed by a pair of hips Each hip bone  Consists of 3 bones  ilium  pubic  ischium
    49. 49. APPENDICULAR SKELETON (UPPER LIMB) Upper limb (Fore limb) Arm Hand Upper arm Forearm
    51. 51. UPPER LIMB 2 upper limb  Arm  Upper arm  Forearm  Hand Attached to the pectoral girdle Upper one consists 1 bone  Humerus Forearm consist 2 bones  Radius  Ulna
    52. 52. UPPER LIMB Hand consists of:  8 carpals -Arranged in 2 rows of 4 bones each  5 metacarpals -Form the palm  14 phalanges -Form fingers -2 phalanges in the thumb -3 phalanges in the rest of the four other fingers
    54. 54. LOWER LIMB Consists of  Femur (thigh bone)  Tibia and fibula  Foot bones Femur -The longest bone -Femur,tibia and patella together form the knee joint -Patella (knee cap) covers the front of the lowest end of the femur
    55. 55. LOWER LIMB Foot consists of these bones  7 tarsal  5 metatarsals  14 phalanges
    56. 56. MUSCLE The most abundant tissues in the human body Specialised to be able to contract to produce movements 3 main types  Smooth muscle  Cardiac muscle  Skeletal muscle
    57. 57. MUSCLE Smooth muscle  Cardiac Muscle
    58. 58. MUSCLE Skeletal muscle
    59. 59. SMOOTH MUSCLE Spindle-shaped muscle cells with pointed ends Each muscle cell has 1 nucleus lying in its centre Involuntary muscle (no conscious control over them)  Eg: the alimentary canal wall
    60. 60. CARDIAC MUSCLE Found only in the heart Also involuntary muscle
    61. 61. SKELETAL MUSCLE Also called striated/striped muscle Because the presence of alternating light and dark bands on the muscle fiber Voluntary muscle  Can be made to contract and relax by conscious control via nervous system
    62. 62. SKELETAL MUSCLE (STRUCTURE) Made up of long cylindrical cells called muscle fibres/myofibres Each muscle fibre  Has many nuclei  Covered by plasma membrane called sarcolemma  Contains many protein fibers (myofibrils)-contract
    64. 64. TENDONS & LIGAMENTSTendons A cord of dense connective tissue made up of strong & inelastic collagen fibres Connects muscle tissue to bones or cartilageLigaments Made of collagen fibres containing an elastic protein Strong and elastic Holding bones together at a joint & preventing them from being dislocated
    65. 65. COMPARISONS BTW TENDONS & LIGAMENTS Similarities  Connect 2 types of tissues together  Made of collagen tissue Tendons Aspect of Ligaments Comparison Muscle to bone Types of tissues Bone to bone connected Absent Presence of Present elastin Inelastic Elasticity Elastic
    66. 66. CARTILAGE & SYNOVIAL FLUID JOINTS Joints Found in the skeleton where bones meet Divided into 3 groups  Immovable (fixed joints) eg: sutures (skull)  Slightly movable eg: joints between adjacent centra of the vertebral column  Freely movable (synovial joints) eg: hip & knee
    67. 67. CARTILAGE & SYNOVIAL FLUID JOINTSCartilage In moveable joints, smooth muscle covers the bone surfaces Reduces the friction between articulating bone structuresSynovial fluid Secreted by the surrounding synovial membrane Lubricates the joint & nourishes the surrounding cartilage
    68. 68. CARTILAGE & SYNOVIAL FLUID JOINTSSynovial joints Articulating bone ends Surfaces are separated by a fluid-filled space (synovial joint) Classified according The ball & socket joints (at the shoulders & the hips ) which allow freedom of movement in any plane The hinge joints ( at the elbows & the knees) which allow movement only in one plane
    69. 69. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE UPPER LIMB: ELBOW JOINT) Flexion = bending of hinge joint Extension = straightening of hinge joint Muscle causes flexion = flexor Muscle cause extension = extensor In the elbow hinge joint, 2 sets of muscle  Biceps muscle  Triceps muscle
    70. 70. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE UPPER LIMB: ELBOW JOINT)Biceps muscle Lies in front of the humerus, forms the flexor Connected to the scapula (point of origin) by 2 tendons at its upper end Connected to the radius of the forearm (point of insertion) by a single tendon at its lower end
    71. 71. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE UPPER LIMB: ELBOW JOINT)Triceps muscle Lies behind the humerus , forms the extensor Connected to the scapula & the humerus (points of origin) by 3 tendons at its upper end Inserted to (olecranon process of)the ulna at its lower end
    72. 72. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE UPPER LIMB: ELBOW JOINT) Biseps & triceps muscles form an antogonistic pair Flexion occurs when biceps muscle contracts & triceps muscle relaxes causing the forearm to bend at the elbow, pulling it towards the scapula Extension occurs when the triceps muscle contracts and the biceps muscle relaxes causing the extension of the forearm at the elbow
    74. 74. HOW MOVEMENT IS BROUGHT ABOUT IN A LIMB(MOVEMENT IN THE LOWER LIMB: KNEE JOINT) Body moves forward by pushing each foot downwards and backwards against the ground one after another