Musculoskeletal System


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Muscular and Skeletal system combined

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Musculoskeletal System

  1. 1. Musculoskeletal System
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The Musculoskeletal system is made up of two different systems. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to know how each system works. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Three Types of Muscles <ul><li>The three types of muscles tissues are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Smooth Muscle <ul><li>smooth (or visceral) muscle- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forms the muscle layers in the walls of the digestive tract, bladder, various ducts, arteries and veins, and other internal organs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth- muscle cells are elongated and thin, have only one nucleus, and form sheets rather than bundles of muscles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Smooth Muscle
  6. 6. Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>skeletal (or voluntary/striated) muscle, is the most abundant tissue in the human body, it produces movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Each skeletal-muscle fiber is roughly cylindrical, contains many nuclei, and is crossed by alternating light and dark bands called striations . </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers bind together, via connective tissue , into bundles; and these bundles, in turn, bind together to form muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, skeletal muscles are composite structures composed of many muscle fibers, nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous system (SNS). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Skeletal Muscle
  8. 8. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>cardiac (or heart) muscle, a cross between the smooth and striated muscles, makes up the heart tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Like smooth muscle, it is controlled by the autonomic nervous system   (ANS). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cardiac Muscle
  10. 10. Muscle Function <ul><li>There are two important proteins involved in muscle function. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myosin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They overlap at an area called the sarcomere. </li></ul><ul><li>Video 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Video2 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Muscle Function
  12. 12. Skeletal System <ul><li>Its 206 bones form a rigid framework to which the softer tissues and organs of the body are attached. </li></ul><ul><li>Vital organs are protected by the skeletal system. </li></ul><ul><li>They also function to move, support, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The parts of the skeleton <ul><li>The human skeleton is divided into two distinct parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendicular </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Axial Skeleton <ul><li>The axial skeleton consists of bones that form the axis of the body and support and protect the organs of the head, neck, and trunk. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sternum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ribs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Vertebral Column </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>The appendicular skeleton is composed of bones that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Upper Extremities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Lower Extremities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shoulder Girdle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pelvic Girdle --(the sacrum and coccyx are considered part of the vertebral column) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sacrum
  17. 17. Composition of bones <ul><li>Bone is not a uniformly solid material, but rather has some spaces between its hard elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of bone tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spongy </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Compact Bone <ul><li>The hard outer layer of bones is composed of compact bone tissue, so-called due to its minimal gaps and spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>This tissue gives bones their smooth, white, and solid appearance, and accounts for 80% of the total bone mass of an adult skeleton. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Spongy Bone <ul><li>Filling the interior of the organ is the trabecular bone tissue (an open cell porous network also called cancellous or spongy bone) which is composed of a network of rod- and plate-like elements that make the overall organ lighter and allowing room for blood vessels and marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Trabecular bone accounts for the remaining 20% of total bone mass, but has nearly ten times the surface area of compact bone. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Bone Cells <ul><li>Osteoblasts: are mononucleate bone-forming cells. Osteoblasts also manufacture hormones , to act on the bone itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Osteocytes originate from osteoblasts. Their functions include formation of bone, matrix maintenance and calcium homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoclasts are the cells responsible for bone resorption (remodeling of bone to reduce its volume). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Five different types of bones <ul><li>Long (femur) </li></ul><ul><li>Short (carpus) </li></ul><ul><li>Flat (sternum) </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular (vertebrae) </li></ul><ul><li>Sesamoid (embedded in tendon) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Disorders <ul><li>Bone fracture </li></ul><ul><li>Osteomyelitis </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Osteosarcoma </li></ul><ul><li>Osteogenesis imperfecta </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul>
  23. 23. How do they work together? <ul><li>The musculoskeletal system consists of the skeletal system -- bones and joints and the skeletal muscle system. These two systems work together to provide basic functions that are essential to life, including: </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cell formation </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Storage: stores fat and minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage </li></ul>
  24. 24. Tissues involved <ul><li>There are 5 basic tissues comprising the musculoskeletal system:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bones ,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ligaments (attaching bone to bone)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cartilage (protective gel-like substance lining the joints and intervertebral discs),  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tendons (attaching muscle to bone).  </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. How do our muscles and bones work together to cause locomotion? <ul><li>Joint: where two bones meet </li></ul><ul><li>2 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Structural Joints <ul><li>Fibrous </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial </li></ul>
  27. 27. If you have a weak stomach look away now!!
  28. 28. Functional Joints <ul><li>Functional joints are classified by the range of movement they provide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>synarthroses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amphiarthroses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diarthrosis </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Moveable joints <ul><li>Ball and socket </li></ul><ul><li>Hinge </li></ul><ul><li>Pivot </li></ul><ul><li>Gliding </li></ul><ul><li>Saddle </li></ul><ul><li>Condyloid </li></ul>
  30. 30. Categories of moveable joints
  31. 32. How do muscles work to move joints? <ul><li>Flexor Vs Abductor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexor contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abductor extends </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Homeostasis and muscles <ul><li>Feedback loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscles help you respond to changes in your environment by enabling you to move. </li></ul>