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Hydrogen fuel cell

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this is the representation of hydrogen fuel. In this presentation we showed how hydrogen is useful for future consumption of fuel. We know that in the future the non-renewable sources of energy will be extincted so we have to concentrate on conventional sources of energy like solar energy energy, nuclear energy, hydrogen fuel. Because hydrogen is highly combustible and produce large of energy so we consider to use hydrogen fuel in future aspect

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Hydrogen fuel cell

  1. 1. HYDROGEN A FUEL FOR TODAY AND TOMORROW SHAILESH MISHRA GAURAV PANDEY MANISH TRIPATHI MANISH KUMAR SINGH DEEPAK KUMAR SINGH MENTOR: DR. D.K. BHALLA
  2. 2. HISTORY The first references to hydrogen fuel cells appeared in 1838. In a letter dated October 1838 but published in the December 1838 edition of The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Welsh physicist and barrister WILLIAM GROOVE wrote about the development of his first crude fuel cells. He used a combination of sheet iron, copper and porcelain plates, and a solution of sulphate of copper and dilute acid. In a letter to the same publication written in December 1838 but published in June 1839, German physicist Christian Friedrich Schönbein discussed the first crude fuel cell that he had invented. His letter discussed current generated from hydrogen and oxygen dissolved in water. Grove later sketched his design, in 1842, in the same journal. The fuel cell he made used similar materials to today's phosphoric-acid fuel cell
  3. 3. •What is Hydrogen? • Element 1 on the Periodic Table - 1 proton, 1 electron • Diatomic molecule (H2) - 2 protons, 2 electrons • Highest energy content of common fuels on a WEIGHT basis • Lowest energy content of common fuels on a VOLUME basis • Elemental hydrogen is abundant on earth, but usually bound to carbon or oxygen • Abundant throughout the universe (stars are primarily hydrogen)
  4. 4. •DIFFERENT HYDROGEN STRUCTURE
  5. 5. What is a hydrogen fuel cell? •Hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) are a type of electrochemical cell. •HFCs generate electricity by reduction and oxidation reactions within the cell. •They use three main components, a fuel, an oxidant and an electrolyte. •HFCs operate like batteries, although they require external fuel. •HFCs are a thermodynamically open system. •HFCs use hydrogen as a fuel, oxygen as an oxidant, a proton exchange membrane as an electrolyte, and emit only water as waste.
  6. 6. How do they work? •Fuel (H2) is first transported to the anode of the cell •Fuel undergoes the anode reaction •Anode reaction splits the fuel into H+ (a proton) and e- •Protons pass through the electrolyte to the cathode •Electrons can not pass through the electrolyte, and must travel through an external circuit which creates a usable electric current •Protons and electrons reach the cathode, and undergo the cathode reaction
  7. 7. •How a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Works
  8. 8. Chemistry behind the technology Oxidation At the anode of the cell, a catalyst (platinum powder) is used to separate the proton from the electron in the hydrogen fuel. Anode half-reaction: 2H2  4H+ + 4e- Eo = 0.00V Reduction At the cathode of the cell, a second catalyst (nickel) is used to recombine the protons, electrons, and oxygen atoms to form water. Cathode half- reaction: 4H+ + O2 + 4e-  2H2O Eo = 0.68V In electrochemistry, the Eo cell value (energy) of a fuel cell is equal to the Eo of the cathode half-reaction minus the Eo of the anode half-reaction. For a hydrogen fuel cell, the two half reactions are shown above. So to calculate the energy of one fuel cell, we need to subtract the anode energy from the cathode energy. For a HFC, the Eo cell = 0.68V – 0.00V which equals 0.68V
  9. 9. In this project we will produce electricity using hydrogen fuel. It helps to run hydrogen powered bicycle By wikipedia
  10. 10. Uses of hydrogen fuel cells There are many different uses of fuel cells being utilized right now. Some of these uses are… •Power sources for vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses and even boats and submarines •Power sources for spacecraft, remote weather stations and military technology •Batteries for electronics such as laptops and smart phones •Sources for uninterruptable power supplies.
  11. 11. Problems regarding hydrogen fuel cells •Lack of hydrogen infrastructure •Need for refueling stations •Lack of consumer distribution system •Cost of hydrogen fuel cells •2009 Department of Energy estimated $61/kw •Honda FCX Clarity costs about half a million dollars to make •Carbon cost of producing hydrogen •Problems with HFC cars •Short range (~260 miles) •Warm up time (~5 minutes)
  12. 12. Other Ways to Liberate Hydrogen From Water • Steam Electrolysis • Split water with heat, pressure, and electricity • Thermochemical • Split water with chemicals and heat • Photoelectrochemical • Split water using sunlight directly, or using chemicals and heat • Biological • Split water using organisms
  13. 13. Bush Administration’s Hydrogen Commitment • 500 metric tons of carbon saved each year by 2040 • Reduce demand for oil by 11 million barrels per day by 2040 • Child born in 2003 to drive a hydrogen car at age 16
  14. 14. Why Hydrogen? It’s abundant, clean, efficient, and can be derived from diverse domestic resources. HIGH EFFICIENCY & RELIABILITY ZERO/NEAR ZERO EMISSIONS Transportation . Distributed Generation Biomass Hydro Wind Solar Geothermal Nuclear Oil Coal Natural Gas With Carbon Sequestration
  15. 15. •Hydrogen Storage • High-pressure storage tanks. Hydrogen gas can be compressed and stored in storage tanks at high pressure, but these tanks must be very strong. • Liquid hydrogen. Hydrogen can be stored as a liquid. In this form, more hydrogen can be stored per volume, but it must be kept at very cold temperature (about - 253° C).
  16. 16. Fuel leak simulation Hydrogen on left Gasoline on right Equivalent energy release •Hydrogen Safety Hydrogen Gasoline Three Second seconds One minute
  17. 17. •Flexibility Of Use Transportation Desired range can be achieved with on-board hydrogen storage (unlike Battery Electric Vehicle) Can be used in internal combustion engines Trains, automobiles, buses, and ships Buildings Combined heat, power, and fuel Reliable energy services for critical applications Grid independence Industrial Sector Already plays an important role as a chemical Opportunities for additional revenue streams
  18. 18. •So– why hydrogen? • Energy security • Diverse domestic sources • Flexibility of system • Economic security • International leadership in technical • development and deployment • Price stability • Environmental security • Potential to meet GHG targets • Urban air quality improvements • Reduction in air pollutants
  19. 19. Why India Should Think About Hydrogen As estimation of use of crude oil state that the fossil fuel will extinct till 2100 A.D. At present , In a setback for the government’s grand plan to cut down the current account deficit (CAD), through containing the outflow of dollars and saving around $8.47 billion on crude oil imports from Iran, the Persian Gulf country has turned down India’s request for accepting full rupee payment for oil imports.
  20. 20. Conclusion • Hydrogen fuel cells will dramatically change our cars, homes and businesses are powered and heated, and it both positively and negatively change places like the Middle East and third world countries. They will also clean up the world’s air.
  21. 21. Any query ?????
  22. 22. Thank you

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