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9.2_Microgrid Hardware-in-the-Loop Laboratory Testbed and Open Platform (HILLTOP)_Limpaecher_EPRI/SNL Microgrid Symposium

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Presentation from the EPRI-Sandia Symposium on Secure and Resilient Microgrids: Microgrid Hardware-in-the-Loop Laboratory Testbed and Open Platform (HILLTOP), presented by Erik Limpaecher, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Baltimore, MD, August 29-31, 2016.

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9.2_Microgrid Hardware-in-the-Loop Laboratory Testbed and Open Platform (HILLTOP)_Limpaecher_EPRI/SNL Microgrid Symposium

  1. 1. MIT Lincoln Laboratory This work is sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Erik Limpaecher Microgrid Hardware-in-the-Loop Laboratory Testbed and Open Platform (HILLTOP) August 30, 2016
  2. 2. Community mGrids - 2 KN 30 August 2016 Status Quo: Single-customer Microgrids • Only economical and practical for large utility customers – University campuses – Hospitals – Prisons – Department of Defense bases Santa Rita Jail CERTS microgrid controller Princeton University 15 MW cogen & thermal storage Illinois Institute of Technology high reliability distribution system
  3. 3. Community mGrids - 3 KN 30 August 2016 Community Microgrids Single-Customer Microgrids Graphic credit: EPRI Challenges • Technical 1. Regional resilience analysis: site selection 2. Microgrid site design 3. Economical systems integration 4. Safe grid interconnection 5. Stable islanded operation • Policy – Coordination with public utilities commission – Framework for utility involvement – Financial pro forma for real estate developers Community Microgrids • Many recent studies…no actual deployments – Sandia “Advanced Microgrids” study (Mar 2014) – “Microgrids …for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts” (Feb 2014) – “Minnesota Microgrids” (Sep 2013)
  4. 4. Community mGrids - 4 KN 30 August 2016 Community Microgrids Single-Customer Microgrids Graphic credit: EPRI Challenges • Technical 1. Regional resilience analysis: site selection 2. Microgrid site design 3. Economical systems integration 4. Safe grid interconnection 5. Stable islanded operation • Policy – Coordination with public utilities commission – Framework for utility involvement – Financial pro forma for real estate developers Community Microgrids • Many recent studies…no actual deployments – Sandia “Advanced Microgrids” study (Mar 2014) – “Microgrids …for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts” (Feb 2014) – “Minnesota Microgrids” (Sep 2013)
  5. 5. Community mGrids - 5 KN 30 August 2016 • High NRE to integrate systems in the field – One vendor’s microgrid controller quote: $1M starting price • Risk of damage to expensive equipment – One utility-deployed microgrid: 1 year of controls testing, damaged a 750 kW transformer, required significant engineering staff support • Interconnection behavior unknowable to utility engineers – Controls are implemented in proprietary software – Microgrids are a system of systems: Exhibit emergent behavior • “Vaporware” – No standard list of functions or performance criteria – Difficult to validate marketing claims • No standards verification – IEEE P2030.7 and P2030.8 standards are on the horizon How Do We Accelerate Microgrid Deployment? Reduce Integration Time, Cost, & Risk
  6. 6. Community mGrids - 6 KN 30 August 2016 Types of Power System Testbeds Full System Inv G C C Inv Power Testbed G C C Power HIL Inv C G C Controller HIL C GInv C Simulation GInv CC mC mC mC DMS DMS Legend G generator Inv battery or solar inverter C device controller mC microgrid controller DMS distribution management system controller power grid high-bandwidth AC-AC converter simulation or emulation boundary hardware virtual (simulated or emulated) Matlab SimPowerSystems simulation (not real-time) Florida State CAPS facility Princeton University cogeneration plant ORNL DECC Microgrid Lab MIT-LL HILLTOP System
  7. 7. Community mGrids - 7 KN 30 August 2016 Power Distribution Integration Platforms and Testbeds Full System Inv G C C Inv Power Testbed G C C Power HIL Inv C G C Controller HIL C GInv C Simulation GInv CC mC mC mC DMS DMS Legend G generator Inv battery or solar inverter C device controller mC microgrid controller DMS distribution management system controller power grid high-bandwidth AC-AC converter simulation or emulation boundary hardware virtual (simulated or emulated) Simulation Controller HIL Power HIL Power Testbed Full System TestCoverage Test Fidelity Low Low High High low cost ($10k-100k) moderate cost ($100k-300k) high cost ($500k-$millions)
  8. 8. Community mGrids - 8 KN 30 August 2016 Power Distribution Integration Platforms and Testbeds Full System Inv G C C Inv Power Testbed G C C Power HIL Inv C G C Controller HIL C GInv C Simulation GInv CC mC mC mC DMS DMS Legend G generator Inv battery or solar inverter C device controller mC microgrid controller DMS distribution management system controller power grid high-bandwidth AC-AC converter simulation or emulation boundary hardware virtual (simulated or emulated) low cost moderate cost high cost Simulation Controller HIL Power HIL Power Testbed Full System TestCoverage Test Fidelity Low Low High High
  9. 9. Community mGrids - 9 KN 30 August 2016 10-5 10-4 10-3 1 ms 10-2 10-1 100 1 s Time (seconds) HIL simulation rate 80 mS (12.5 kHz) One AC cycle 16.7 ms (60 Hz) User display update rate 66.7 ms (15 Hz) Load profile & irradiance data 1 s (1 Hz) Power converter controller response 0.5-1 ms (1-2 kHz) Secondary control 0.1-1 s (1-10 Hz) Power system fault transients 0.3-1 ms (1-3 kHz) Genset protection functions 0.1-0.2 s (50-100 Hz) • Microgrid controller HIL simulates in real-time at sub-cycle timescales Wide Test Coverage with Real-time Simulation Useful for: • Steady-state • Dynamic analysis • Transient analyses
  10. 10. Community mGrids - 10 KN 30 August 2016 2016 HILLTOP Block Diagram Modbus TCP Communication Translation Hardware / Firmware COM Microgrid Controller (Unit Under Test) MIT-LL Interface Box Vendor-supplied equipment Modbus RS485 Woodward EasyGen 3500 #1 COM DIO AIO COM DIO AIO Simulated Diesel Genset Simulated Combined Heat and Power System Simulated Battery Storage & Power Converter Simulated Breakers and Loads Simulated Distribution Grid and Microgrid Test Feeder Simulated PV & Inverter COM DIO AIOCOM DIO AIOCOM DIO AIO Simulated Generic Relays Woodward EasyGen 3500 #2 Modbus RS485 Firewall and Network Switch Lantronix Intellibox 2100 TCP to RS485 Lantronix Intellibox 2100 TCP to RS485 SEL-751 Relays (qty 3) Simulated Load Meters EPC Power Electronics Controller #1: Storage EPC Power Electronics Controller #2: PV Modbus TCP MIT-LL Interface Box OPAL-RT and Typhoon HIL Real-time Simulation Platforms Microgrid Controller Mechanical Enclosure Cyber Test C2 Proxy
  11. 11. Community mGrids - 11 KN 30 August 2016 2015 & 2016 Symposium Test Feeder FY15 Symposium FY16 Symposium
  12. 12. Community mGrids - 12 KN 30 August 2016 Microgrid Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform MIT Lincoln Lab Windows Server Power Supply Interface Box Monitoring I/O Analog & Digital Opal-RT HIL Target Firewall and Network Switch Console Woodward easYGens Integrated Woodward easYgen 3000 genset controllers, EPC power converter controllers, SEL 751 relays, and SEL 2440 fast load-shed controllers
  13. 13. Community mGrids - 13 KN 30 August 2016 • Generator statistics • High speed instrumentation – 8kHz sampling – Voltage and current – Bias signals CHIL Integration: Diesel Genset Model Validation Shutdown of Generator and ModelStart-up of Generator and Model • 1 MVA • 480Vac • 3 phase
  14. 14. Community mGrids - 14 KN 30 August 2016 Device Controller Integration: Woodward easYgen 3000 Interface Box Woodward easYgen 3000 Controller Genset Simulation in HIL Governor AVR M MCBGCB Load 16 Vac 16Vac Vabc Iabc 16 Vac 120Vac 0-1 A 120 VAC Feeder Tachometer Vabc 16 Vac 0-1 A Ia F_ref: 60 Hz V_ref: 480 VLL ±5V square wave Throttle Field G Legend M Motor G Generator GCB Generator Circuit Breaker MCB Mains Circuit Breaker Signal voltage transformer Voltage-controlled current source
  15. 15. Community mGrids - 15 KN 30 August 2016 2015 Microgrid Controls Symposium Boston, MA
  16. 16. Community mGrids - 16 KN 30 August 2016 Microgrid Operating in Real-time
  17. 17. Community mGrids - 17 KN 30 August 2016 Microgrid Controller Symposium Save the Date: Thursday February 16, 2017 at MIT • Google search for “Eventbrite: Microgrid & DER Controller Symposium” • Hosted by Mass. Clean Energy Center and DOE-OE – Utilities, project developers, and microgrid vendors – MIT Campus – Agenda is posted • Integrating 6 microgrid controller vendors • Demonstrations of several HIL testbeds
  18. 18. Community mGrids - 18 KN 30 August 2016 Vision for the Microgrid Controller HIL Platform – 1 – Development Platform – 2 – Deployment Platform – 3 – Standards Test Platform • Application of real-time sim. technology to power engineering • Cost-effective engineering and project development • Enables performance evaluation of commercial products • Demonstrations at Mass. Microgrid Controls Symposium • Perform controller and systems integration • Pre-commission testing of advanced power system projects • Test edge conditions and exercise the actual device controllers • Technical risk reduction and confidence building for the utility • Project enabler: South Boston microgrid • Industry-standard test platform for new power systems • Test against IEEE P2030.8 standard and utility requirements – 4 – Electric Power HIL Controls Collaborative (EPHCC) Shared Repository
  19. 19. Community mGrids - 19 KN 30 August 2016 Elements of the HIL Shared Repository Microgrid Test Feeders Validated Device Models Validated Device Controller Software Interface Circuitry for Device Controllers Interface Code for Device Controllers Standard Test Stimuli Communications Interface Translation Code Post-processing Scripts for Test Results HIL Target Platform Conversion Scripts Netlists Load profiles, irradiance profiles, grid outages, faults Circuit schematics, bills of materiel Targets: OPAL-RT, Typhoon HIL, RTDS, NI, and others Motor-generators, power converters / inverters, and relays Genset controllers, power converter controllers, relay protection functions Modbus TCP Microgrid Test Repository Controller-in- the-Loop Repository HIL Platform Repository 50 51 27 59 25 MODBUS 52 IEC 61850 GOOSE MMS
  20. 20. Community mGrids - 20 KN 30 August 2016 Repository Structure • Goals: – Multi-users – Multi-platform • Directory structure designed for other simulation platforms • Unit tests for checking compatibility across tools • Documentation Distribution Systems Sheriff Banshee Components Cross-platform Translation Tools Cable Transformer Passive Load Active Load Circuit Breaker Motor Relay Genset PV CHP/ Thermal ESS Bullfrog Root Device Model Software Controller ABB CHIL EPC CHIL Vendor-X CHIL · Model · Stimuli · Post-Processing Scripts · Model · Stimuli · Post-Processing Scripts · Validation · Unit Test · Validation · Unit Test
  21. 21. Community mGrids - 21 KN 30 August 2016 • Component models, distribution test feeders, and C-HIL setups are documented, tested, and publicly available – https://github.com/PowerSystemsHIL/ • Working with DOE’s GMLC-OL program as pilot effort to hone organization and working processes Repository is Publicly Available
  22. 22. Community mGrids - 22 KN 30 August 2016 Division 7 Scott van Broekhoven Ed Corbett Maura Custar Elizabeth Dalli Jason LaPenta Erik Limpaecher Raajiv Rekha Bill Ross Reynaldo Salcedo Tammy Santora Chris Smith MIT Kendall Nowocin Summer Interns Matt Backes, UIUC Aidan Dowdle, MIT Marissa Garcia, USC Division 4 Joe Cooley Division 6 Igor Pedan Sejal Popat Contributors Collaborators Allan Abela, EPC Power Vijay Bhavaraju, Eaton Ivan Celanovic, Typhoon HIL Fran Cummings, Peregrine Group Babak Enayati, National Grid Mark Evlyn, Schneider Julie Fortin-Morin, OPAL RT Thomas Kirk, OPAL RT Scott Manson, Schweitzer Mirjana Marden, ARPA E Galen Nelson, MassCEC Luis Ortiz, Anbaric Jim Reilly, Reilly Associates Todd Snider, EPC Power Travis Sheehan, Boston Redev. Authority Tom Steber, Schneider Brad Swing, City of Boston
  23. 23. Community mGrids - 23 KN 30 August 2016 Erik Limpaecher Assistant Group Leader Energy Systems, Group 73 781-981-4006 (lab) 781-999-2237 (cell) elimpaecher@ll.mit.edu
  24. 24. Community mGrids - 24 KN 30 August 2016 BACK-UP SLIDES
  25. 25. Community mGrids - 25 KN 30 August 2016 Technical Challenges for Community Microgrids Industrial load Battery storage Residential load Substation Microgrid Controller Distribution Utility DMS Regional Transmission Operator CHP plant 1 CHP plant N Critical load Solar array = controller Community microgrid => Stable off-grid operationEconomical asset integration Safe interconnectionRequirements Minimize cost, eliminate batteries Integration of multiple assets owned by separate entities No low-level controlChallenge Reference design: mix of fast-responding generation assets Open controller standard, HIL testbed Islanding detection using only sensing S&T solution FY 16 Focus FY 16 Focus
  26. 26. Community mGrids - 26 KN 30 August 2016 HILLTOP Collaborations Efforts San Nicolas Island
  27. 27. Community mGrids - 27 KN 30 August 2016 Industry Feedback on the Electric Power HIL System “It would reduce our risks and costs considerably… The ability to perform commissioning of a microgrid’s control systems prior to construction would also reduce the distribution utility’s perceived technical risk, thereby increasing our project success rate and reducing deployment timelines and costs.” – Dr. Luis Ortiz, Anbaric Microgrid “An open source HIL library would accelerate the entire industry, but the industry isn’t organized well enough to make this happen. This is a perfect role for government. We would contribute engineering support to such an effort.” – Schneider Electric executive
  28. 28. Community mGrids - 28 KN 30 August 2016 2015 HILLTOP Block Diagram Modbus TCP Modbus TCP Modbus TCP Connection to HIL Demonstration Platform COM Microgrid Controller – Unit Under Test Interface Box Vendor-supplied equipment Modbus RS485 Prime Mover Device Controller Woodward EasyGen 3500 #1 OPAL-RT HIL 5607 Power COM DIO AIO COM DIO AIO Simulated 4 MVA Genset Simulated 1 MVA Genset Simulated Battery Storage & Power Converter Simulated Relays, Breakers, and Telemetry Simulated Grid and One Line Diagram of the Test Feeder (~18 Buses and 17 lines) Simulated PV & Inverter COM DIO AIO COM DIO AIOCOM DIO AIOCOM DIO AIO Simulated Battery Power Converter Controller Simulated PV Inverter Controller Simulated Protection Controller Prime Mover Device Controller Woodward EasyGen 3500 #2 Modbus RS485 Firewall and Network Switch Modbus TCP Lantronix Intellibox 2100 TCP to RS485 Lantronix Intellibox 2100 TCP to RS485
  29. 29. Community mGrids - 29 KN 30 August 2016 Repo. Category Fidelity Verification Component Type Dev. Environment Real-time Platform SW device model 0 - n/a 0 - "pre-alpha," untested Cable Matlab 2011b, SimPwrSys OPAL-RT SW controller 1 - steady-state 1 - "beta," unverified Breaker Matlab 2014, SimPwrSys Typhoon HIL C-HIL interface 2 - dynamic 2 - textbook implementation Relay Typhoon RTDS P-HIL interface 3 - transient 3 - agrees with literature Other LabVIEW National Instruments Test feeder 4 - unit tested Transformer - 3ph RSCAD Speedgoat 5 - field tested Transformer < 3ph dSPACE Load DG - Power Electronics DG - Machines Component Inventory Index • Work continues to identify additional key components and additional industry partners
  30. 30. Community mGrids - 30 KN 30 August 2016 Industry Feedback and FY16 HIL Development Priorities Blue: features considered for 2nd Symposium Attendee Priority Devel. Priority Development Status 1 1 Test under fault conditions 7 1 Self-healing and distribution system configurability 14 1 Test more system topologies 3 1 Integration of more DER device controllers 7 5 More formal testing / more rigorous analysis and metrics 9 5 Compare vendors’ performance 6 5 Exercise cyber security 9 8 Integration of more microgrid controllers / vendors 2 9 Islanded operation under more dynamic conditions 9 9 More extensive demonstration sequence / functionality 4 - Integration with distribution management system (DMS) 4 - Test against industry standard(s) 9 - Support additional communication protocols 13 - Integration with ISO energy market Not started In progress Done/tested Not planned
  31. 31. Community mGrids - 31 KN 30 August 2016 Heads-up Display (screen 1)
  32. 32. Community mGrids - 32 KN 30 August 2016 CHIL Integration ‒ SEL 751 Relay • SEL Collaboration • Three feeder protection relays implemented in hardware • Hardware I/O interface to PTs, CT’s, breakers • Protection features: – Overcurrent (50, 51) – Over/under voltage (27, 59) – Synchronism check (25) – Grid-tied protection – Islanded protection • Modbus TCP interface OPAL-RT INTERFACE WIRING DIAGRAM Protection Functions Data Logging Registers Mapping Preliminary Calculations
  33. 33. Community mGrids - 33 KN 30 August 2016 • Battery and PV Inverter to manufacturer validated modelled inverter • Inverter features: – Grid Forming – Grid Following • Modbus over RS485 CHIL Integration – EPC Power Inverter EPC Inverter User InterfaceManufacturer Validated Model
  34. 34. Community mGrids - 34 KN 30 August 2016 “…educating stakeholders.” – SoCalEdison engineer “…test[ing] our project concepts.” – Celtic Energy “…demonstrat[ing] standard functions and develop[ing] new functionalities.” – ABB engineer “…certification for utility interconnection.” “…pre-commissioning testing.” “…evaluating the safety and reliability impact on our distribution system of NY REV projects.” – ComEd engineer “DER vendors won’t give us their controller code to evaluate interconnection behavior. This platform could finally solve that problem.” – National Grid engineer “…pre-deployment testing of our self-healing distribution system project, which includes more than 100 intelligent relays.” – VP of Engineering, Eversource Energy The microgrid controller HIL platform would be helpful to my organization for…

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