Wireless SCADA Data Communications


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Paper presented at the last BCWWA 2008 conference

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  • Wireless SCADA Data Communications

    1. 1. Wireless Data Communications for SCADA Systems Presented by: Dan Ehrenreich Motorola Inc . BCWWA Conference Whistler, April 2008
    2. 2. Advanced SCADA Features Networking (Communication Anywhere to Anywhere) Data Reliability (No Communication Errors) Data Security (Immune to Intrusion) Communication Network
    3. 3. “Open” Communication Solutions <ul><li>Versatile IEDs </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure Control </li></ul><ul><li>Flow calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Pumps Start </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><li>SCADA </li></ul><ul><li>Wonderware </li></ul><ul><li>Intellution </li></ul><ul><li>Factorylink </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>Versatile Interface <ul><li>MODBUS </li></ul><ul><li>DNP 3.0 </li></ul><ul><li>OPC </li></ul><ul><li>MDLC over TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure/Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Leak detection </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul><ul><li>PLC Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Allen Bradley </li></ul><ul><li>Modicon </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>900 Mhz Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>900MHz S.Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Analog Trunking </li></ul><ul><li>VHF / UHF Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>UHF-900 MHz MAS System </li></ul><ul><li>Telco Network </li></ul><ul><li>GSM/GPRS </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave……. </li></ul>Versatile Media
    4. 4. A Communication Oriented RTU 1/3 Programmable Controller Communication Modem, Remote Control Local Control <ul><li>A powerful combination of two functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable Logic Controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Modem </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. A Communication Oriented RTU 2/3 RTU Local Control of Remote Sites Reporting By Event Node Linking two Media Protocol Converter for PLC Links Store and Forward Repeater F1-F1 Time Synchronization
    6. 6. A Communication Oriented RTU 3/3 Polling via radio Report by Event PLC RTU Local Process Network Comm. ++ +++ - +
    7. 7. “Store and Forward” Links S&F FIU All radio links may use the same frequency ! S&F Repeater RTU RTU RTU SCADA HMI
    8. 8. Backup Links Enhance Reliability IP Gateway Damaged Wire-line Backup Radio RF SCADA Control Center Line RF RTU Radio RTU RTU RTU RF
    9. 9. Wide Area SCADA-Data Network ToolBox Primary Water SCADA Secondary MCC Ethernet Ethernet IP Gateway Line Based network S&F Repeater RTU and Comm. Node RTU for Pumping Station RTU for Reservoir IP S&F Repeater
    10. 10. Complex SCADA System Main ToolBox Primary MCC Secondary MCC Remote Ethernet Local Ethernet IP Gateway Line Based IP RTU & Data Comm. Node Remote ToolBox Wireline Comm. RTU & Data Comm. S&F RTU & Data Comm. Node (SLIP) Wireline Comm. RTU & Data Comm. Node RTU & Data Comm. Node Prime Link Backup Link Prime Link Prime Link Printer Backup Link TS
    11. 11. Reporting in Wireless SCADA Systems <ul><li>Cyclic Polling of RTUs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete Polling - “Tell me about all your conditions” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time consuming process not suitable for wireless media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report by Exception – “Tell me about only what changed” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change of state that does not require immediate attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclic Health Check - “Indicate shortly that you are alive” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To minimize the health check cycle (leave time gaps for alarms) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiating Unsolicited Messages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report By Event - Predefined Alarm conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must get immediate attention of the operator (critical alarms) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Group Calls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burst messages – “Everyone Accept this Message” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No acknowledgement is expected (“all keep quite for 5 minutes”) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Multiple Address System Network Site 2 SCADA Site 1 Remote Programming F2 F1 F2 F1 Using the 7-Layer protocol sites may be configured for single frequency F 3 F3 F3 F3 F3 RTU RTU RTU RTU F1 F2
    13. 13. Wireless IP Connection with SCADA Master Control Center Programming ToolBox IP Network Ethernet Wireless IP Infrastructure IP Gateway IP Con. IP Con. RTU IP Con. IP Con. Programming STS IP Con. RTU 900 MHz – 5.7 GHz RTU
    14. 14. Wireless GSM/GPRS Network Site 4 Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 SCADA Micro Wave Back Bone Voice Voice Voice RTU RTU RTU RTU
    15. 15. Combined PLC and I/Os with RTU Wireless Network Customer Site RTU With radio STS ToolBox I/O Control Installed PLC or IED I/O Control PLC or IED with Native protocol
    16. 16. SCADA Security Incident Trends Source: Eric Byres * Projected 20* 22* Something Big Changes Here
    17. 17. Combined Set of Solutions May Help <ul><li>Physical Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate security to remote sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firewalls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting the corporate network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of private data network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public networks are often vulnerable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of “complex” protocol structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for specific analyzer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communications Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined Encryption and Authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple passwords across the system, etc. </li></ul></ul>IP Gateway Master Control Center
    18. 18. Cost Saving Analysis 1/2 <ul><li>Calculate the overall Economic factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of lost potable water due to bursts and leakages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of electric energy during designated period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost for repairs and replacement of equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost travel to remote sites for periodic checkup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of system supervision and manual data collection </li></ul></ul> Cost (without SCADA) – Cost (with SCADA) Saving = -------------------------------------------------------------- (%) Cost (without SCADA)
    19. 19. Cost Saving Analysis 2/2
    20. 20. System Programming Tasks <ul><li>With Simple Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Network Addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Error Detection </li></ul><ul><li>& Message Retry </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostics </li></ul><ul><li>Data Security </li></ul><ul><li>Main Application </li></ul><ul><li>With Layered Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Built In </li></ul><ul><li>Built In </li></ul><ul><li>Built In </li></ul><ul><li>Built In </li></ul><ul><li>Main Application </li></ul>