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Volatile Oils
MR NANDAKISHOR B. DESHMUKH.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
SHRADDHA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY, KONDALA ZAMBRE ,
WASHIM.
SUBJECT - PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY -I
CLASS- B-PHARM- II SEM IV1
1
Volatile Oils
The odorous volatile principles of plant and animal
sources are known as volatile oils.
They evaporate when exposed to air at ordinary room
temperature so also called as ethereal oils.
They represent the essence or active constituents of
plant so called as essential oils.
2
Properties
 1. Soluble in alcohol, ether, and lipid solvents and insoluble in water.
 2. Generally lighter than water.
 3. They have characteristic odour and high refractive index
 4. Optically active compounds.
 5. They are secreted in special structures such as ducts, cells, trichomes and
Lysigenous glands.
 6. Commonly found in dicot plant families such as Umbelliferae, Labiatae,
Zingiberaceae etc and present in entire plant or any part of plant.
3
Types of volatile oils- On the basis of chemical
nature
 1. Aldehyde volatile oil- Cinnamon, Lemon peel
 2. Alcohol V. O.- Cardamom, Coriander
 3. Ester VO- Mustard
 4. Hydrocarbon VO- Turpentine
 5. Ketone VO- Camphor, Musk
 6. Phenolic VO- Clove
4
Chemical tests
1.A thin section of drug treated with alcoholic solution of
Sudan-III- gives red colour.
2. A thin section of drug treated with a drop of tincture
alkane- gives red colour.
5
Uses
 As flavouring and perfuming agents.
 For medicinal useslike-Carminative(Cardamom),anthelmintic (Chenopodium), Local
 anaesthetic (Clove), Antiseptic (Eucalyptus) etc.
 Citral is obtained from Lemon grass oil and Citral is used for synthesis of vitamin A.
 Terpeneless volatile oils are used for high priced perfumes because of their specificity
and stability.
 These are prepared by removing hydrocarbons and undesired components by fractional
distillation.
6
7

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Volatile Oils Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry -I

  • 1. Volatile Oils MR NANDAKISHOR B. DESHMUKH. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR SHRADDHA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY, KONDALA ZAMBRE , WASHIM. SUBJECT - PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY -I CLASS- B-PHARM- II SEM IV1 1
  • 2. Volatile Oils The odorous volatile principles of plant and animal sources are known as volatile oils. They evaporate when exposed to air at ordinary room temperature so also called as ethereal oils. They represent the essence or active constituents of plant so called as essential oils. 2
  • 3. Properties  1. Soluble in alcohol, ether, and lipid solvents and insoluble in water.  2. Generally lighter than water.  3. They have characteristic odour and high refractive index  4. Optically active compounds.  5. They are secreted in special structures such as ducts, cells, trichomes and Lysigenous glands.  6. Commonly found in dicot plant families such as Umbelliferae, Labiatae, Zingiberaceae etc and present in entire plant or any part of plant. 3
  • 4. Types of volatile oils- On the basis of chemical nature  1. Aldehyde volatile oil- Cinnamon, Lemon peel  2. Alcohol V. O.- Cardamom, Coriander  3. Ester VO- Mustard  4. Hydrocarbon VO- Turpentine  5. Ketone VO- Camphor, Musk  6. Phenolic VO- Clove 4
  • 5. Chemical tests 1.A thin section of drug treated with alcoholic solution of Sudan-III- gives red colour. 2. A thin section of drug treated with a drop of tincture alkane- gives red colour. 5
  • 6. Uses  As flavouring and perfuming agents.  For medicinal useslike-Carminative(Cardamom),anthelmintic (Chenopodium), Local  anaesthetic (Clove), Antiseptic (Eucalyptus) etc.  Citral is obtained from Lemon grass oil and Citral is used for synthesis of vitamin A.  Terpeneless volatile oils are used for high priced perfumes because of their specificity and stability.  These are prepared by removing hydrocarbons and undesired components by fractional distillation. 6
  • 7. 7