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EES-UETP Microgrid course

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DC Microgrids

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EES-UETP Microgrid course

  1. 1. DC MICROGRIDS Prof. Josep M. Guerrero Microgrid Research Programme – Aalborg University
  2. 2. 2Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU  Microgrid Research Programme in AAU  Microgrid Definition and Operation  Microgrids Projects  DC Microgrid Control Architectures
  3. 3. Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 3
  4. 4. Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 4
  5. 5.  Residential Microgrids - 2013 DK Smart Grid Strategy (2015 hourly electricity pricing)  Hydrogen Communities (Vestenkov, Lolland) – IRD  Small remote/isolated Microgrids  Large remote Microgrids: Geographical islands (70 habited islands in DK) Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 5
  6. 6. MicroGrid Research Programme Areas AC MicroGrids DC MicroGrids  Modeling  Control & Operation  Energy Storage  Protection  Power Quality  Standard-based ICT  Networked Control  EMS & Optimization  Multi-Agents MICROGRID RESEARCH PROGRAMME 6 Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 6 Figures: 6 Post Docs 12 PhDs 5 Visiting scholars
  7. 7. MICROGRID RESEARCH TEAMMICROGRID RESEARCH TEAM @ AALBORG Josep M. Guerrero Tomislav Dragicevic DC MGs Fabio Andrade MGs stability Qobad Shafiee Secondary Control Lexuan Meng Tertiary Control Dan Wu Primary Control Chendan Li MGs Agents Yajuan Guan Ancillary services for MGs Nelson Diaz Energy storage for MicroGrids Chi Zhang LVDC distribution MGs Hengwei Lin Management and Protection for Microgrids Xin Zhao AC/DC Hybrid MG Bo Sun EV Charging Stations Javier Roldan LVRT & PQ Valerio Mariani Nonlinear Control Ernane Coelho MGs modelling Juan C. Vasquez Min Chen Power Electronics Yang Han PQ & MV MGs 7 Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 7
  8. 8. 8 8 Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 8 Every setup is able to emulate a multi-converter low- voltage Microgrid, local and energy management control programmed in real-time control platforms.
  9. 9. 9 9 Every setup is able to emulate a multi-converter low-voltage Microgrid, local and energy management control programmed in real-time control platforms. MGCC Labview, communication systems, control, 24 DC-AC inverters Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  10. 10. Ethernet Communication DC Power Line AC Power Line 10 10Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU The laboratory is based on 6 workstations • 4 DC-AC converters, • LCL-filters, • ABB Motorized change-over switches • Kamstrup Smart-meters.
  11. 11. 1111 11Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  12. 12. Bidirectional powersupply Electric Panelboard Workstation 4 DC power line AC power line SmartMeters Cabine t Workstation 3 Workstation5 Workstation6 Workstation2 Workstation1 Communication Nodes 12 Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 12
  13. 13. 13Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU  Microgrid Research Programme in AAU  Microgrid Definition and Operation  Microgrids Projects  DC Microgrid Control Architectures
  14. 14. What is a Microgrid? Main Utility Grid PCC Household appliances and electronics DC Coupled Subsystem Hybrid AC/DC Microgrids 14 Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 14
  15. 15. 1515 151515 15Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  16. 16. 16 1616 161616 16Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  17. 17. 17  Phase I: Design, modelling and control.  Phase II: Coordination control schemes between microgrid elements, including communication systems and energy management systems for DC microgrids.  Phase III: Creation of two Living Labs as a user-centred research concept, to test innovation systems and elements that can conform a DC microgrid for different applications. • Home DC Microgrid Living Lab, at AAU to research and test DC distribution for 1-2 family houses • 工业微网设计 Industrial DC Microgrid Living Lab, At North China Electrical Power University (China), for research, demo and test of energy solutions for commercial buildings. Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  18. 18. Danish 18
  19. 19. Danish 19 Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 19
  20. 20. Phase 1. Phase 2. Phase 3 380Vdc Powered Home 20 Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 20
  21. 21. 21 380Vdc Powered Home 1. Vdc consumer electronics 2. 12/24 Vdc wall sockets 3. 12 Vdc LED lighting 4. 24 Vdc home entertainment system 5. 12 Vdc coffee maker 6. 12 Vdc refrigerator 7. 24 Vdc vacuum cleaner 8. 48 Vdc washing machine 9. 48 Vdc air conditioner 10. 12 Vdc hair dryer 11. 48 Vdc whisper wind turbine 12. PVs connected in 380vdc bus bar 13. 380vdc charger 14. 380vdc busway distribution system
  22. 22. 2222 222222 22Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 242424 24 Functionalities of the EVCS  P/Q coordination  Frequency participation  Voltage support  Unbalance compensation  Harmonics sharing Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  25. 25. 25Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU  Microgrid Research Programme in AAU  Microgrid Definition and Operation  Microgrids Projects  DC Microgrid Control Architectures
  26. 26. Advantage of DC transmission systems  no reactive power loading of the transmission line  complete control of energy flow  no reactive power loading of the transmission line  reduced losses Why Back to Back links?  Different system frequencies  No additional short circuit power contribution to connected networks  Fully controllable power flow 27Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  27. 27. Problems in AC microgrids:  Synchronization of distributed generators  Inrush current (transformers, Induction motors, Induction generators)  Three-Phase Unbalance (single-phase loads, single-phase generators such as photovoltaic) Recent Trends  Introduction of many Inverter loads (AC/DC and DC/AC conversions are included)  Introduction of distributed generations with DC output (photovoltaic, fuel cell,variablespeed type wind turbine, microturbine, gas engine)  Needs for higher quality power DC-Coupled Microgrids  DC microgrids/nanogrids  DC distributed power systems (DPS)  Applications: VRM, -48 V telecom systems, DC-link for UPS systems  Isolated systems: avionic, automotive, marine… 28Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  28. 28. 300-400V DC Operational and Demo Sites Worldwide (Europe, USA and Japan) Demonstrations of 300-400V DC MicroGrids in the world 29Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  29. 29. AC Residential system AC commercial system DC Microgrid topology 30Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  30. 30. The key application areas for standardization of dc power use in buildings include: ✔Interiors and occupied spaces where lighting and control loads dominate the need for dc electricity ✔Data centers and telecom central offices with their dc powered information and communications technology (ICT ) equipment ✔Outdoor electrical uses, including electric vehicle charging and outdoor light-emitting diode (LED ) lighting ✔Building services, utilities, and HVAC with variable-speed drive (VSD ) and electronic dc motorized equipment. 24 VDC 380 VDC 380 VDC 24 & 380 VDC 31Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  31. 31. EMerge Alliance dc standard as implemented for building interiors DC 24V- Infrastructure 32Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  32. 32. EA’s dc standards as implemented in a data center 33Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  33. 33. Barriers: The Challenges of Increased DC Use in Buildings The use of dc power is not without it challenges. These fall into 5 major categories: 1) lack of application and equipment standards for dc power distribution 2) lack of common understanding and basic application knowledge of building distribution-level dc 3) differences in safety and power protection device application 4) lack of a robust ecosystem to support the use of dc in building-level electrification 5) unclear pathway for moving from ac-centric power distribution to dc-inclusive distribution schemes. The first 3 challenges are being addressed with increasing resources by such standards and trade organizations as: EA , the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI ), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC ), IEEE , NE MA, NFPA, the Power Sources Manufacturers Association (PSMA), the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGI P) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST ), UL , and others. 34Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  34. 34. DC Microgrid at Xiamen University, China  150 kWp PV  System  DC Lighting  Energy Storage  Air Conditioning  Electric Vehicle  Charge Station  Data Center  Home  And Office  Appliances Cloud-based energy monitor, management, and control system Optimal equipment choice and operation of direct-current MicroGrids Efficiency Comparison:  DC vs. AC  Lighting: 92% vs.78%  AC: 93%vs. 87%  Data Center: 78% vs.64%  EV Charger: 94% vs.76% 35Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  35. 35. DC Building (EPARC, Taiwan) DC 380 V  150 kWp PV  System  DC Lighting  Energy Storage  Air Conditioning  Electric Vehicle  Charge Station  Data Center  Home  And Office  Appliances Cloud-based energy monitor, management, and control system Optimal equipment choice and operation of direct-current microgrids Efficiency Comparison:  DC vs. AC  Lighting: 92% vs.78%  AC: 93%vs. 87%  Data Center: 78% vs.64%  EV Charger: 94% vs.76% 36Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  36. 36. DC Building (EPARC, Taiwan) DC 380 V 37Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  37. 37. Green Home (Korea) DC 380 V  LVDC 380 V  MV Distribution level 22.9 kV 38Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  38. 38. Fukuoka Smart House DC 380 V (Japan)  Home Energy Management Systems  Bidirectional Meters 39Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  39. 39. Data server DC microgrids for data centers & servers Four power conversions can result in a poor efficiency of the system. Online UPS system is easily available in the market Supplying digital loads. A classical solution: 40Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  40. 40. PDU -. Power Distribution Unit. PSU -. Power Supply Unit DC microgrids for data centers & servers 41Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  41. 41. Example of distributed power architecture Source: Intechopen PIBC PBUS PPOL IBC 42Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  42. 42. Typical AC distribution architecture (dotted components are optional)  Commercial UPS system solution  Two AC buses (AC main & critical AC bus)  High number of conversions (until 5) Source: Leonardo Energy 43Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  43. 43. Typical DC distribution architecture  Front ends are used  High voltage DC bus  Low number of conversions Source: Leonardo Energy 44Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  44. 44. DC distribution architecture with intermediate bus  Intermediate low voltage bus Source: Leonardo Energy 45Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  45. 45. Small scale demonstration comparing conventional a high efficiency AC architecture (on right) with 380V DC facility-level distribution (on left). Overhead lights operated on 380Vdc as well. DC – AC Demonstration Facility 46Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  46. 46. Small scale demonstration setup for AC (top) and DC (bottom) 7% improved efficiency and 6% savings with DC DC – AC Demonstration Facility 47Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  47. 47. Sendai Microgrid Project 48Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  48. 48. Sendai Microgrid Project 49Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  49. 49. Sendai Microgrid Project 50Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  50. 50. Fukushima 51Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  51. 51. Fukushima 52Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  52. 52. Events timeline for a microgrid in Sendai, Japan, after the March 11, 2011 earthquake. K. Hirose, “Performance of the Sendai Microgrid During the 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami” Sendai Microgrid Project 53Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  53. 53. Japan residential DC microgrid 54Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  54. 54. DC Microgrid Ring (Japan) 55Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  55. 55. REbus™ is an open standard for DC electricity distribution. REbus™ microgrid is a flexible energy network that lets you make and use clean renewable energy for home, business, school, or neighbourhood. (400V) Comercial DC Microgrid 56Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  56. 56. Primary Source Units (PSU) Load Units (LU) Powerline Communication • Robust narrowband FSK modulation • Programmable transmission data rate up to 30kbps • Programmable communication frequency from 50kHz to 500kHz • Complete Media Access Control (MAC) logic • CSMA/CD type collision detection and resolution • Programmable automatic preamble generation • Programmable automatic packet-priority management with four levels • Error detection (CRC 16) REbus™ Comercial DC microgrid
  57. 57. 58 f/V Droop Control Resistive line P-V droop Resistive virtual impedance Virtual inertia f-P Virtual synchronous gen DC droop P-V droop I-V virtual resistance DC inertia V-P Virtual dynamo www.microgrids.et.aau.dk 58
  58. 58. 5959 59www.microgrids.et.aau.dk
  59. 59. 60 COORDINATED CONTROL FOR ISLANDED MICROGRIDS DC Low voltage MicroGrid coordinated control: DC Microgrids: Bus voltage signaling www.microgrids.et.aau.dk
  60. 60. 61 PRIMARY CONTROL OF A DC www.microgrids.et.aau.dk
  61. 61. 62 62 SECONDARY CONTROL OF A DC www.microgrids.et.aau.dk
  62. 62. 636363 63www.microgrids.et.aau.dk
  63. 63. 64646464 64www.microgrids.et.aau.dk
  64. 64. 656565 65 TERTIARY CONTROL AND EMS IN www.microgrids.et.aau.dk
  65. 65.  DC System Optimization ---- Local Generation Control Typical Efficiency Curve Constraints • Capacity • DC Bus Voltage • System Dynamics Objective • System Overall Efficiency Output Current (A) 666666 66www.microgrids.et.aau.dk
  66. 66. 67 Adaptive VR System Damping System efficiency 676767 67www.microgrids.et.aau.dk
  67. 67. 68  The research is based on droop controlled paralleled dc-dc converters.  In primary control level, adaptive virtual resistance method is proposed and implemented for changing the load sharing ratio among converters.  Secondary control for system damping is proposed to achieve desirable system damping level when tertiary control shifts virtual resistance.  Tertiary control for system efficiency optimization is proposed and demonstrated to be capable of improving system level efficiency. 686868 68www.microgrids.et.aau.dk
  68. 68. 6969696969 69www.microgrids.et.aau.dk  Centralized Optimization Method Primary Primary Secondary Tertiary Communication Links Central Controller Adv.: 1. Reliable solution 2. Strong supervision 3. Easy implementation. Dis-Adv.: 1. Failure on comm. and central controller may cause the failure of the whole system 2. Low flexibility and expandability 3. Not suitable for sighly distributed system. Obstacle of Distributed Optimization: Optimization requires reliable global information Solution: Consensus Algorithm
  69. 69. 7070707070 70www.microgrids.et.aau.dk  Tertiary Agent based Distributed Hierarchical Control
  70. 70. 7171717171 71www.microgrids.et.aau.dk  DC System Optimization ---- Local Generation Control Study Case
  71. 71. 7272727272 72www.microgrids.et.aau.dk  Multi-agent Based Distributed Optimization #1 #2 #3 #4
  72. 72. 7373737373 73www.microgrids.et.aau.dk  Complete control architecture
  73. 73. 7474747474 74www.microgrids.et.aau.dk  Conclusion  Consensus algorithm is used for distributed information sharing  Genetic Algorithm is implemented in tertiary level for obtaining optimal output current of each converter considering the operation sequence of each converter  Virtual resistance is adjusted so as to follow the optimal current reference given by tertiary control  Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, however, the system stability considering the impact of communication and consensus algorithm need to be further analyzed
  74. 74. 75 Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje; Škrlec, Davor; Kuzle, Igor; Guerrero, Josep M.; Kirschen, Daniel ” Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility. I E E E Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 2014. Dragicevic, Tomislav; Shafiee, Qobad; Wu, Dan; Meng, Lexuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M. / Modeling and Control of Flexible HEV Charging Station upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage. Proceedings of the 11th International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals and Devices, SSD 2014. IEEE Press, 2014. El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M. / Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles. In: I E E E Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2014. Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Skrlec, Davor / Advanced LVDC Electrical Power Architectures and Microgrids : A Step towards a New Generation of Power Distribution Networks. In: I E E E Electrification Magazine, Vol. 2, No. 1, 03.2014, p. 54-65 . Dragicevic, Tomislav; Guerrero, Josep M.; Sucic, Stepjan / Flywheel-Based Distributed Bus Signalling Strategy for the Public Fast Charging Station. In: I E E E Transactions on Smart Grid, 2014. Gouveia, C.; Moreira, C.L.; Lopes, J.A.P., "Microgrids emergency management exploiting EV, demand response and energy storage units," PowerTech (POWERTECH), 2013 IEEE Grenoble , vol., no., pp.1,6, 16-20 June 2013 J.A. Peças Lopes, Silvan A. Polenz, C.L. Moreira, Rachid Cherkaoui, Identification of control and management strategies for LV unbalanced microgrids with plugged-in electric vehicles, Electric Power Systems Research, Volume 80, Issue 8, August 2010, Pages 898-906.
  75. 75. 76 Oct. 14 – Oct. 15 2013 Nov. 26 – Nov. 27 2013 Oct. 16 – Oct. 17 2013 Oct. 28 – Oct. 30 2013 Industrial/PhD course on EMS and Optimization in Microgrids - In Theory and Practice Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU
  76. 76. www.microgrids.et.aau.dk Microgrid research and activities 77 Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU 77
  77. 77. 78 78 Juan C. Vasquez juq@et.aau.dk Josep M. Guerrero joz@et.aau.dk www.microgrids.aau.dk Microgrid Research Programme – ET – AAU

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