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Maulana Azad National Institute
   of Technology, Bhopal
       Department of Energy
MICROGRID AND ITS CONTROL



        Ph D Seminar-I
              by
     Mrs. ANULA KHARE
     Scholar NO. 083113201
       under guidance of
    DR. SAROJ RANGNEKAR
Outline
• Concept and architecture of micro
  grid
• Modes of operation
• Control strategy
• Literature review
• References
INTRODUCTION


WHAT IS A MICROGRID ?
Conceptual Micro grid
BASIC ARCHITECTURE OF
      MICRO GRID
            • Group of radial feeders
            • Point of coupling(pcc)
            • Micro Grid central
              controller (MGCC)
            • Power electronic-interface-
              e.g. rectifier,Inverters.
            • Micro sources
            • storage
            • Critical and non critical
              loads
Power Electronics Interfaced
           Micro source



–
Storage

• It is very much a key to unlock the doors of
  renewable energy.
• Needed because of inherent intermittency
  of supply from renewable sources.
• Needed to ensure secure and continuous
  supply during off grid and on grid
  condition.
TYPES OF STORAGE

• Electrochemical energy storage –
           Battery and super capacitors.
• Super conducting magnetic storage.
• Kinetic energy (inertia) storage.
• Thermal storage.
ADVANTAGES OF
       MICROGRID
• Energy efficiency
• Minimization of overall energy
  consumption
• Improved environmental impact
• Improvement of energy system reliability
• Network benefits
• Cost efficient electricity infrastructure
  replacement
POWER OUTPUT CONTROL
  OF MICRO SOURCES

• Resembles with electrical power
  system – speed governors and voltage
  regulators replaced by a central
  supervisory controller
• To keep real and reactive power output
  constant : P-Q control
MODE OF OPERATION
•   Single master operation (SMO).
•   Multi master operation (MMO).
•    Grid connected operation
•   Stand alone or Islanded mode of
    operation.
SMO
• Most of the micro sources connected
  to the network with a P-Q control type
  and a single VSI inverter is associated
  with the storage device- the master
  which provides frequency reference.
MMO
• There are several inverters operating
  as VSI with a predefined
  frequency/active power and
  voltage/reactive power droop. Other P-
  Q controlled inverters may also co-
  exist.
GRID CONNECTED
• Micro grid(MG) connected parallel to main
  grid – to either draw or supply power to
  grid.
• Should not actively regulate voltage at
  PCC.
• Harmonics and DC current injected to grid
  should be below required levels.
• Should satisfy all of its load requirements
  and contractual obligations with grid.
ISLANDED OPERATION
• Disconnected from main grid due to abnormal
  conditions in grid or due to planned switching.
• Problem of voltage and frequency management.
• Problem of balance between supply and demand
• Problem of power quality management
• Micro source issues
• Communication among MG components.
• For multi customer system have to be well
  organized concerning contractual issues.
Cooperation Of Micro Source And Storage
   Device During Islanding Operation
    .   Pure droop control.
    • Inverter mode control.
    • Primary energy source control.
    • Autonomous control.
    • Reverse droop control.
    • Multi agent based PQ control.
PURE DROOP CONTROL
Micro source controller for
 inverter modes control.
Primary Energy Source Control
Reverse droop control
Autonomous Control
Comparison of above
          strategies
• Inverter mode ,primary energy source and multi
  agent based control approaches guarantee that
  voltage and frequency will not vary much from
  nominal value hence suitable to drive quality
  sensitive loads
• Pure droop reverse droop and autonomous control
  are suitable for loads which can tolerate
  fluctuations
• Choice also depend on micro source,ownership
  and storage
Literature Review
(1) S. Chakraborty, Manoja D. Weiss and Simoes, “Distributed Intelligent Energy
 Management System for a Single Phase , High frequency AC micro grid”, IEEE
 transaction on industrial electronics, vol. 54, no.1,Feb.2007


     In this paper a single phase high frequency
 micro grid is shown as a solution for better
 utilization of micro grid. 1-Φ 500 Hz buses are
 used to combine renewable sources with loads and
 grid.Proposed system utilizes an active filter called
 unified power quality conditioner .Also a unified
 power flow conditioner is used to control the power
 flow from/to grid.
…
                  Continued

Both unified power quality conditioner and
 unified power flow conditioner consist of
 series and shunt active filters that use
 instantaneous ‘p-q’ theory to calculate
 compensating voltage and current, which
 then are synthesized using pulse width
 modulation in voltage source inverter(VSI).
Optimization of Operating Cost
• A distributed integrated energy management
  system (DIEMS) has been implemented for
  optimization of operating cost. A neural
  network is incorporated in DIEMS.
• Function of DIEMS is to generate set points
  for the sources and storage in such a way that
  economically optimized
    power dispatch will be maintained to
     fulfill certain load demands.
Salient features of HFAC
.   Advantages-easy filtering of
    harmonics,improved luminous
    efficiency,increased flexibility and reliability of
    storage,reduction in size of passive circuit
    components .
•   Power transmission and distribution- two
    significant factors affect the suitability of
    transmission is increased voltage drop and
    Power loss along the line.
•   Applications of HFAC-military, aircraft
    industry,iron steel industry,light and air
    conditioning.
(2)Hannu Laaksonen and Kimmo Kauhaniemi, “Voltage and Current THD
in micro grid With Different DG Unit and Load Configurations”, CIRED
   Seminar on Smart Grids for Distribution, Paper No. 0057 , 2008

  This paper studies the voltage and current total
   harmonic distortion (THD) before and after
   islanding in the micro grid with different micro
   grid configurations.
 • Causes – caused by nonlinear devices. System
   impedance at each harmonic frequency
   determines impact of nonlinear load on voltage
   distortion, higher order harmonics caused by
   converters may resonate with system impedance.
continued

•   Standards -Various organizations on national and
    international level have made standards both for
    individual and total harmonic distortion of voltage,
    for distributed generator units more tight limits are
    defined.
•   When the micro grid transfers from normal
    operation to islanded operation, micro grid is
    more sensitive to disturbances, therefore the
    effect of different filter types, sizes and switching
    frequencies must be carefully examined.
Solutions suggested—

(1) L-C-L filters should be used
(2) Amount of thyristor connected rectifier
 loads directly connected to micro grid should
 be low (15-20% of total load)
(3) IGBT based converters must be preferred
(4) SVM should be preferred over PWM
(5) Use of negative sequence filtering in
 control system of converters is beneficial
References
[1] John Baker, “New technology and possible advances in
  energy storage,” Energy Policy 36, 4368-4373, 2008.
[2] Peter J. Hall,Euan J. Bain,” Energy-storage technologies
  and electricity generation,” Energy Policy 36, 4352-
  4355,2008.
[3] M. Uzunoglu, O.C. Onar and M.S. Alam,”modelling
  control and simulation of a PV/FC/UC based hybrid power
  generation system for stand alone applications”,Renewable
  energy,doi:10.1016/j.renene,2008.
[4] J. Pecas Lopes, etal,”Defining Control Strategies for Micro
  Grids islanded operation,” IEEE Trans. On Power Systems,
  vol.21,PP 616924, 2006
continued
[5] J. Pecas Lopes, etal,”Micro Grid Black start and
Islanded Operation,” 15th Power Systems
Computation Conference, Belgium,2005.
[6]H. Laaksonen, P. Saari and R.Komulainen,”Voltage
and Frequency Control of Inverter Based Weak LV
Network Micro grid,”International Conference on
Future Power Systems, 2005..
[7] J. Oyarzabal, etal,”Agent-based Micro Grid
Management System,”International Conference on
Future Power Systems, 2005
...continue
                                   d
[8] D. Georgakis, etal,”Operation of a Prototype Micro
  Grid System Based on Micro sources Equipped with
  Fast-acting Power Electronics Interfaces,” 35th annual
  IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference,
  Vol.4,2521-2526, 2004.
[9] P. Chiradeja and R. Ram Kumar, “An approach to
  quantify the technical benefits of distributed
  generation,”IEEE trans on Energy Conversion, Vol. 19,
  No. 4, 764-773, December 2004.
[10] Ph. Strauss and A. Engler,”AC coupled pv hybrid
  systems and micro grid state of art and future trends,”
  third world conference on photovoltaic energy
  conversion,Japan, May 2003.
THANK YOU

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Microgrid

  • 1. Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal Department of Energy
  • 2. MICROGRID AND ITS CONTROL Ph D Seminar-I by Mrs. ANULA KHARE Scholar NO. 083113201 under guidance of DR. SAROJ RANGNEKAR
  • 3. Outline • Concept and architecture of micro grid • Modes of operation • Control strategy • Literature review • References
  • 6. BASIC ARCHITECTURE OF MICRO GRID • Group of radial feeders • Point of coupling(pcc) • Micro Grid central controller (MGCC) • Power electronic-interface- e.g. rectifier,Inverters. • Micro sources • storage • Critical and non critical loads
  • 7. Power Electronics Interfaced Micro source –
  • 8. Storage • It is very much a key to unlock the doors of renewable energy. • Needed because of inherent intermittency of supply from renewable sources. • Needed to ensure secure and continuous supply during off grid and on grid condition.
  • 9. TYPES OF STORAGE • Electrochemical energy storage – Battery and super capacitors. • Super conducting magnetic storage. • Kinetic energy (inertia) storage. • Thermal storage.
  • 10. ADVANTAGES OF MICROGRID • Energy efficiency • Minimization of overall energy consumption • Improved environmental impact • Improvement of energy system reliability • Network benefits • Cost efficient electricity infrastructure replacement
  • 11. POWER OUTPUT CONTROL OF MICRO SOURCES • Resembles with electrical power system – speed governors and voltage regulators replaced by a central supervisory controller • To keep real and reactive power output constant : P-Q control
  • 12. MODE OF OPERATION • Single master operation (SMO). • Multi master operation (MMO). • Grid connected operation • Stand alone or Islanded mode of operation.
  • 13. SMO • Most of the micro sources connected to the network with a P-Q control type and a single VSI inverter is associated with the storage device- the master which provides frequency reference.
  • 14. MMO • There are several inverters operating as VSI with a predefined frequency/active power and voltage/reactive power droop. Other P- Q controlled inverters may also co- exist.
  • 15. GRID CONNECTED • Micro grid(MG) connected parallel to main grid – to either draw or supply power to grid. • Should not actively regulate voltage at PCC. • Harmonics and DC current injected to grid should be below required levels. • Should satisfy all of its load requirements and contractual obligations with grid.
  • 16. ISLANDED OPERATION • Disconnected from main grid due to abnormal conditions in grid or due to planned switching. • Problem of voltage and frequency management. • Problem of balance between supply and demand • Problem of power quality management • Micro source issues • Communication among MG components. • For multi customer system have to be well organized concerning contractual issues.
  • 17. Cooperation Of Micro Source And Storage Device During Islanding Operation . Pure droop control. • Inverter mode control. • Primary energy source control. • Autonomous control. • Reverse droop control. • Multi agent based PQ control.
  • 19. Micro source controller for inverter modes control.
  • 23. Comparison of above strategies • Inverter mode ,primary energy source and multi agent based control approaches guarantee that voltage and frequency will not vary much from nominal value hence suitable to drive quality sensitive loads • Pure droop reverse droop and autonomous control are suitable for loads which can tolerate fluctuations • Choice also depend on micro source,ownership and storage
  • 24. Literature Review (1) S. Chakraborty, Manoja D. Weiss and Simoes, “Distributed Intelligent Energy Management System for a Single Phase , High frequency AC micro grid”, IEEE transaction on industrial electronics, vol. 54, no.1,Feb.2007 In this paper a single phase high frequency micro grid is shown as a solution for better utilization of micro grid. 1-Φ 500 Hz buses are used to combine renewable sources with loads and grid.Proposed system utilizes an active filter called unified power quality conditioner .Also a unified power flow conditioner is used to control the power flow from/to grid.
  • 25. Continued Both unified power quality conditioner and unified power flow conditioner consist of series and shunt active filters that use instantaneous ‘p-q’ theory to calculate compensating voltage and current, which then are synthesized using pulse width modulation in voltage source inverter(VSI).
  • 26. Optimization of Operating Cost • A distributed integrated energy management system (DIEMS) has been implemented for optimization of operating cost. A neural network is incorporated in DIEMS. • Function of DIEMS is to generate set points for the sources and storage in such a way that economically optimized power dispatch will be maintained to fulfill certain load demands.
  • 27. Salient features of HFAC . Advantages-easy filtering of harmonics,improved luminous efficiency,increased flexibility and reliability of storage,reduction in size of passive circuit components . • Power transmission and distribution- two significant factors affect the suitability of transmission is increased voltage drop and Power loss along the line. • Applications of HFAC-military, aircraft industry,iron steel industry,light and air conditioning.
  • 28. (2)Hannu Laaksonen and Kimmo Kauhaniemi, “Voltage and Current THD in micro grid With Different DG Unit and Load Configurations”, CIRED Seminar on Smart Grids for Distribution, Paper No. 0057 , 2008 This paper studies the voltage and current total harmonic distortion (THD) before and after islanding in the micro grid with different micro grid configurations. • Causes – caused by nonlinear devices. System impedance at each harmonic frequency determines impact of nonlinear load on voltage distortion, higher order harmonics caused by converters may resonate with system impedance.
  • 29. continued • Standards -Various organizations on national and international level have made standards both for individual and total harmonic distortion of voltage, for distributed generator units more tight limits are defined. • When the micro grid transfers from normal operation to islanded operation, micro grid is more sensitive to disturbances, therefore the effect of different filter types, sizes and switching frequencies must be carefully examined.
  • 30. Solutions suggested— (1) L-C-L filters should be used (2) Amount of thyristor connected rectifier loads directly connected to micro grid should be low (15-20% of total load) (3) IGBT based converters must be preferred (4) SVM should be preferred over PWM (5) Use of negative sequence filtering in control system of converters is beneficial
  • 31. References [1] John Baker, “New technology and possible advances in energy storage,” Energy Policy 36, 4368-4373, 2008. [2] Peter J. Hall,Euan J. Bain,” Energy-storage technologies and electricity generation,” Energy Policy 36, 4352- 4355,2008. [3] M. Uzunoglu, O.C. Onar and M.S. Alam,”modelling control and simulation of a PV/FC/UC based hybrid power generation system for stand alone applications”,Renewable energy,doi:10.1016/j.renene,2008. [4] J. Pecas Lopes, etal,”Defining Control Strategies for Micro Grids islanded operation,” IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, vol.21,PP 616924, 2006
  • 32. continued [5] J. Pecas Lopes, etal,”Micro Grid Black start and Islanded Operation,” 15th Power Systems Computation Conference, Belgium,2005. [6]H. Laaksonen, P. Saari and R.Komulainen,”Voltage and Frequency Control of Inverter Based Weak LV Network Micro grid,”International Conference on Future Power Systems, 2005.. [7] J. Oyarzabal, etal,”Agent-based Micro Grid Management System,”International Conference on Future Power Systems, 2005
  • 33. ...continue d [8] D. Georgakis, etal,”Operation of a Prototype Micro Grid System Based on Micro sources Equipped with Fast-acting Power Electronics Interfaces,” 35th annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Vol.4,2521-2526, 2004. [9] P. Chiradeja and R. Ram Kumar, “An approach to quantify the technical benefits of distributed generation,”IEEE trans on Energy Conversion, Vol. 19, No. 4, 764-773, December 2004. [10] Ph. Strauss and A. Engler,”AC coupled pv hybrid systems and micro grid state of art and future trends,” third world conference on photovoltaic energy conversion,Japan, May 2003.