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IREC part 02

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This presentation was used in Euro Arab Training Course “SMART GRID AND INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE

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IREC part 02

  1. 1. Smart grids: integration of renewable energy sources and electric mobility into power system Granada, April 28th 2016 www.irec.cat Manel Sanmartçi Electrical Engineering Research Group
  2. 2. 2 1. Advanced energy management tools for power systems 2. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects 3. Life Cycle Assessment of Smart Grid Projects CONTENTS
  3. 3. 3 1. Advanced energy management tools for power systems 2. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects 3. Life Cycle Assessment of Smart Grid Projects CONTENTS
  4. 4. IREMS 4 CA PART I Advanced Microgrids Management System PART II Commercial Aggregator
  5. 5. 5 5 key questions to be answered What is IREMS? How does IREMS work? How can users interact with IREMS? What advantages does IREMS offer? What is our experience? IREMS
  6. 6. 6 What is IREMS? IREMS is an Energy Management System developed by IREC. IREMS is able to optimally manage several kind of generators, loads and storage units under a common goal: to make more cost-effective and efficient your Microgrid. IREMS is a gateway between a Microgrid and an external agent such as Commercial Aggregator.
  7. 7. 7 How does IREMS work? Internet Weather Server Energy Price Server Demand Forecaster IREMS Energy Planning Energy Balance • Optimization Module Considering demand and weather forecast, and energy price Energy Planning Energy Balance Demand Forecaster • Real Time Module Energy balance at real time • Machine Learning module To improve demand and mobility forecast IREMS features • Data logging and event logging • Notifications management • Provide communication channels COMMERCIAL AGGREGATOR
  8. 8. How does IREMS work? The objective is to calculate the optimal energy planning of power consumed or generated by every unit in the microgrid within a 24-hour scope. Energy management relies on two steps 1 The strategy is to minimize the daily cost by making use of the difference among electricity prices and the flexibility of the microgrid elements. Data To perform this operation, the following information is used: •Microgrid configuration and current status. •Real time measurements. •Weather forecasts (wind speed, solar irradiance, temperature). •Demand forecasts. •EV mobility forecasting. •Energy price. Energy Planning (Optimization Module) Execution The Optimization Module runs every 15 minutes.
  9. 9. How does IREMS work? Energy management relies on two steps 2Energy Balance (Real Time Module) The objective is to ensure the power balance for all elements in the microgrid and to send the set-point to each controllable component. The strategy If there is any deviation, this module carries out adjustments over the preliminary set-points calculated by the Optimization Module until to achieve the energy equilibrium. Data To perform this operation, the following information is used: •Microgrid configuration. •Optimization Module results. •Real time measurements and status. Execution The Real Time Module runs every 3 seconds.
  10. 10. External interfaces • Responsible for the proper operation of IREMS • Control the access of other actor to IREMS. • Have total information access. • Remotely interact with IREMS through a thin client with a Graphical User Interface (GUI). • Owns one power unit or more in the microgrid. • Able to access to some information of the element that (s)he owns. • Able to modify some parameters. • Remotely interact with IREMS through a thin client with a GUI. • Requests measurements and forecasts of the microgrid • Limit total power consumed/generated by the microgrid. • Remotely interact with IREMS through a thin client with a GUI. How can users interact with IREMS? e-PEMS Administrator I-1 ADMINISTRATOR CLIENT e-PEMS Client I-2 e - P E M S External Agent I-3 EXTERNAL AGENT IREMS IREMS IREMS
  11. 11. 11 What advantages does IREMS offer? Possibility of operation using the IREMS user interface fully integrated into the client system. IREMS is able to automatically manage energy supply, demand and storage at real time. • It is able to manage the monitored data from grid-connected systems. • It is able to decide the optimal behaviour of the systems at real time based on advanced optimization algorithms. • The final user can choose among different modes of operation:  cost minimization  environmental footprint  peak shaving, among others. Different types of users with different levels of permissions and access Competitive advantages over other products on the market Machine Learning
  12. 12. 12 What advantages does IREMS offer? Advantages for the different agents/clients In case they incorporate the product to their building management company, they will receive a large share of the benefits. Energy companies Power System Society Residential and tertiary buildings IREMS Management of local demand and supply will enable renewable sources penetration as well as the decrease of peaks in the demand curves. That will defer investments required for grid reinforcements and consequent grid losses. Societal and environmental benefits from energy efficiency are well-known including GHG emission abatement. They will be able to incorporate this tool to their existing solutions and equipment to add the real time control and optimization layer.
  13. 13. 13 What is our experience? Theoretical and experimental development Registration of the intellectual property Implementation and validation in IREC SmartEnergy Lab Adaptation and deployment for two real demo sites in client facilities IREMS
  14. 14. IREMS 14 INDEX PART I Advanced Microgrids Management System PART II Commercial Aggregator CA
  15. 15. 15 The needed of a new agent Commercial Aggregator Functionalities Advantages State of development 5 key questions to be answered CA
  16. 16. Significant change of energy systems 16 The needed of a new Agent
  17. 17. 17 Commercial Aggregator Concept Main role of the Commercial Aggregator (CA) is to gather flexibility products from its prosumers portfolio, who do not have the size to trade directly into wholesale markets, and to optimize its trading in electricity markets aiming to maximize its profits. This new agent would provide direct revenue to the businesses and homeowners, besides ensuring higher stability and efficiency in the grid Commercial Aggregator is the key mediator between the consumers and the markets and the other electricity system participans Key enabler of “FLEXIBILITY”
  18. 18. 18 Commercial Aggregator Concept Key enabler of “FLEXIBILITY” BUY/SELL ELECTRICITY BUY/SELL ELECTRICITY CONTRACTS Network access contract€ SELL ELECTRICITY BUYS ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY CONTRACTS (BUYS) FLEXIBILITY SERVICES FLEXIBILITY SERVICES
  19. 19. • To simulate the behaviour of the average consumers under different price and volume signals. • To obtain the aggregated response for the whole clusters. 19 Functionalities Prosumers portfolio 2 Consumer Segmentation (Clustering) 1 Consumption Forecasting Clusters 4 Market forecasting • To forecast the market price of sold and purchased electricity. These methodologies rely on statistical and financial analyses of the markets where CAs participate. Commercial Aggregator Clients CA Forecasters Markets 3 Flexibility Forecast Tool Outputs 5 The Commercial Optimal Planning Tool To calculate the optimal incentive and bidding policy in order to maximize the profits of the Commercial Aggregator. RESULTS
  20. 20. 20 Responsibility CA are totally responsible for their own imbalances, so they will have to deal with their own energy paybacks when participating in wholesale markets Commercial Aggregation is considered as a key innovation on the power system to face future challenges posed by growing demand and RES integration Procurement of flexibility products The DSO can access and procure flexibility products offered by commercial aggregators to use them for a number of purposes (e.g. distribution network reinforcement deferral, congestion management, etc.). Applications and advantages of the CA Easier to forecast consumption and flexibility Consumers deal with only 1 agent instead of 2 Less contracts and less connections Contracts easier to handle. Billing is easier More efficient solutions Validation of flexibility Products To validate flexibility products prior to its activation, when used by other agents different to the DSO itself.
  21. 21. 21 State of development IREMSTheoretical and experimental development Registration of the intellectual property Implementation and validation in IREC SmartEnergy Lab Adaptation and deployment for two real demo sites in client facilities Theoretical and experimental development Implementation and validation in IREC SmartEnergy Lab
  22. 22. 22 1. Advanced energy management tools for power systems 2. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects 3. Life Cycle Assessment of Smart Grid Projects CONTENTS
  23. 23. Security of supply: • Use of DG as a back-up resource • DG applications for service restoration Sustainability: • RES integration • Emission reduction • Power smoothing Economy: • Gen. costs reduction • Ancillary services • Investment deferral New investments on smart grid technology Cost-benefit assessment required! Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Objectives of the Smart Grid
  24. 24. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS BENEFITS COSTS Costs and Benefits of the Smart Grid (USA Case Study) TOTAL AMOUNT OF COSTS: 338.000 – 476.000 M$ benefit-to-cost ratio range between 2.8 and 6.0 34% 16% 50% 20% 70% 10%
  25. 25. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Europe - Investment in Smart Grid projects 2013
  26. 26. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS  The recent EC Communication on Smart Grid “Smart Grids: From Innovation to Deployment” states that the EC intends to come up with guidelines the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) to be used by Member States for Smart Metering projects and Smart Grid projects.  The Joint Research Center (JRC) has recently published the “Guidelines for conducting a cost-benefit analysis for Smart Grid projects” (http://ses.jrc.ec.europa.eu).
  27. 27. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS
  28. 28. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Characterize the project:  Step 1: Review and describe the technologies, elements and goals of the project  Step 2: Map assets onto functionalities Estimate benefits:  Step 3: Map functionalities onto benefits  Step 4: Establish the baseline  Step 5: Monetise the benefits and identify the beneficiaries. Compare costs and benefits:  Step 6: Identify and quantify the costs  Step 7: Compare costs and benefits 1 2 3 Source: http://ses.jrc.ec.europa.eu, 2012.
  29. 29. Main objective: The REVE project (Wind Regulation through Electric Vehicles) aimed to perform a study thoroughly assessing the key technical challenges and the most relevant economic aspects in order to create a network infrastructure so that electric cars may act as energy storing facilities in the electric network while they are not circulating, thus contributing to an improvement of the load factor of the electric system as a whole. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS CASE STUDY: THE REVE PROJECT 2009-2010
  30. 30. Daily electricity demand profile Hores MW Rest of renewable resources and convenctional power plants Necessary for maintaining the control of the system During off-peak periods the risk of wind energy disconnection is hight Rest of generation Electric Vehicle Wind Energy Minimum technical requirement SHORT TERM EXAMPLE “REVE PROJECT” THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS CASE STUDY: THE REVE PROJECT 2009-2010
  31. 31. Offer bids Purchase bids Nuclear Power Plants Wind Power Plants Rest of conventional generation Market Price In some cases, when demand is low and there is a high wind generation, spot prices can fall to zero. For the Spanish case, in such moments, wind generation has to be disconnected. Amount of disconnected wind generation THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects
  32. 32. Amount of disconnected wind generation: ~ 2.000 MW Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS
  33. 33. SHORT TERM EXAMPLE “REVE PROJECT” … BUT, IF PRICE IS ZERO, WHY CONSUMERS DON’T CONSUME? BECAUSE THEY CAN’T SEE THE REAL COST OF ENERGY DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT The modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as financial incentives and education. Usually, the goal of demand side management is to encourage the consumer to use less energy during peak hours, or to move the time of energy use to off-peak times such as nighttime and weekends. THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS
  34. 34. SHORT TERM EXAMPLE “REVE PROJECT” THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS CASE STUDY: THE REVE PROJECT 2009-2010 By using demand side management tools, electric vehicle energy consumption would be concentrated during off-peak periods, increasing demand around 5.000 MW in 2020. 2020 PROSPECTIVE WITHOUT EVs 2020 PROSPECTIVE WITH EVs 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 GW 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 GW
  35. 35. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Characterization of REVE project:  Step 1: The project was focused on analyzing the effect on the power system of plug-in electric vehicles charged by means of smart chargers and energy management systems.  Step 2: The usage of the electric vehicles reduces fossil fuel consumption and emissions. Smart chargers and energy management systems allow EV users to respond to price signals. Characterize the project:  Step 1: Review and describe the technologies, elements and goals of the project  Step 2: Map assets onto functionalities 1 http://www.evwind.es/
  36. 36. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Estimate benefits:  Step 3: Map functionalities onto benefits  Step 4: Establish the baseline  Step 5: Monetise the benefits and identify the beneficiaries. 2 Estimate benefits of REVE project:  Step 3: Fossil fuel savings improves Spanish trade balance and need for CO2 bonuses. Demand response shifts EV load to off-peak periods and increase power system capacity for wind power.  Step 4: Estimation of energy sector evolution without EVs.  Step 5: Comparison of the 2020 10% EV penetration scenario with the baseline.
  37. 37. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Estimate benefits (1/2): Wind energy curtailment2 Wind energy curtailment 2020 (*) Daily period Night time Lost production Economic losses Lost production Economic losses Without EVs 0.95 % 57 M€/year 1.60 % 96 M€/year With EVs 0.28 % 17 M€/year 0.55 % 34 M€/year Savings 40 M€/year 62 M€/year TOTAL SAVINGS PER YEAR 102 M€ / year 2020 (*) Conventional generation minimum output: 12.000 MW
  38. 38. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Estimate benefits (2/2): Fossil fuels imports and emissions2 Emissions (MtCO2)* 2012 2016 2020 Average emissions from conventional vehicles (grCO2/km) 170 160 150 Emissions avoided by transport 1,5 3,5 9,9 Emissions increased from power generation 0,4 0,9 2,7 Emissions avoided (MtCO2) 1,1 2,6 7,2 Energy cost (M€) 2012 2016 2020 Reduced raw material imports from transport (M€) 0 1.263,46 4.255,77 Increased imports of raw materials for power generation (M€) 0 193,85 538,11 Oil price (€/barrel) 120 150 180 Savings in raw material imports (M€) 0 1.069 3.717 *Average daily driving distance 60 km/day
  39. 39. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Compare costs and benefits of REVE project:  Step 6: Perform a cost estimation for the electric vehicle surplus cost vs. conventional ICE vehicles, for the smart charger and for the energy management system.  Step 7: Compare costs and benefits in a yearly basis. Compare costs and benefits:  Step 6: Identify and quantify the costs  Step 7: Compare costs and benefits 3
  40. 40. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Compare costs and benefits:3 -1,800 -1,600 -1,400 -1,200 -1,000 -800 -600 -400 -200 0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 M€ EMS Smart chargers EV cost surplus
  41. 41. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Compare costs and benefits:3 -2,000 -1,000 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 M€ Fossil fuel savings Wind energy curtailment CO2 emmissions EMS Smart chargers EV cost surplus Present value Net Present Value: NPV = 365 M€
  42. 42. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS Real examples: Smart meters roll out CBA (Electricity and Gas)
  43. 43. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects THE CONTEXT JRC METHODOLOGY CONCLUSIONS 1. Given the economic potential of the Smart Grid and the substantial investment required, there is a need for a methodological approach to estimate the costs and benefits. 2. Previous results for the United States identify the main benefits at the environmental, economical and security of supply domains. Most of the investment will have to be done at distribution network level. 3. The JRC has published the “Guidelines for conducting a cost-benefit analysis for Smart Grid projects” that could be the first step for a European harmonization in CBA estimation for Smart Grid projects.
  44. 44. 44 1. Advanced energy management tools for power systems 2. Cost benefit analysis of Smart Grid Projects 3. Life Cycle Assessment of Smart Grid Projects CONTENTS
  45. 45. 45 LCA - CONTENT · Introduction to the Life Cycle Thinking · What LCA stands for? · Background LCA references · Case study
  46. 46. 46 LCA - CONTENT · Introduction to the Life Cycle Thinking · What LCA stands for? · Background LCA references · Case study
  47. 47. INTRODUCTION TO THE LCT 47 Target: Achieving Sustainable Development Methodologies: • Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) • Life Cycle Costing (LCC) • Social Life Cycle Assessement (SLCA) LIFE CYCLE THINKING
  48. 48. 48 Definitions of Sustainable Development ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIESINTRODUCTION TO THE LCT
  49. 49. Objectives for environmental protection based on the concept of sustainable development. Topics to be addressed: - Prioritize between these objectives - Quantification of the social 49 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES Ecology • Respect the natural environment itself • Biodiversity • Preservation of resources • Protection of ecosystems Social aspects • Health • Security • Equal opportunities • Work • Preserving resources for future generations Economy • Increasing competition between companies • Macro-economic stability • Economic welfare of the population. INTRODUCTION TO THE LCT
  50. 50. Life Cycle Thinking Responds to the problem avoiding creating a new problem INTRODUCTION TO THE LCT Source: PE International
  51. 51. 51 LCA - CONTENT · Introduction to the Life Cycle Thinking · What LCA stands for? · Background LCA references · Case study
  52. 52. 52 LCA: Life Cycle Assessment The Integrated Product Policy (COM (2003)302) identified Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as the “best framework for assessing the potential environmental impacts of products”. It can also be applied to any process or service. WHAT LCA STANDS FOR?
  53. 53. According to ISO 14040, LCA is: "Compilation and evaluation of inputs, outputs and potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle." definition Inventory analysis Impact assessment Interpretation Goal and scope definition Inventory analysis Impact assessment Interpretation 53 INTRODUCTION TO LCAWHAT LCA STANDS FOR?
  54. 54. Integrated assessment of environmental problems - Global warming - Acidification - Ozone layer depletion - Smog - Eutrophication - Toxicity - Others… ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 3. PARTS AND COMPONENTS MANUFACTURIN G 9. COLLECTION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT LANDFILL INCINERATION 5. DISTRIBUTION 4. INSTALLATION AND ASSEMBLY 7. MAINTENANCE / REPAIR 2. TRANSPORT AND RAW MATERIALS PROCESSING 1. RAW MATERIAL EXTRACTION RECYCLING 8. REUSING 6. USE WHAT LCA STANDS FOR?
  55. 55. 55 What would happen if ... I do not consider the whole life cycle? Example 1: For the design of a vehicle, I choose materials (option B) with a low environmental impact in their production compared to option A materials. However, they are less durable and need to be replaced more often (use), generating more waste (end of life). Which is the best option? Example 2: In the design of a car, it uses a large amount of aluminum. This material requires much energy to produce, but to be lighter car uses less energy during use. INTRODUCTION TO LCAWHAT LCA STANDS FOR?
  56. 56. 56 What would happen if ... I do not consider different environmental impacts? Example 1: In the design steel or aluminum can be chosen. Which material is better from an environmental point of view? INTRODUCTION TO LCA Global Warming Potential vs Acidification Potential WHAT LCA STANDS FOR?
  57. 57. 57 LCA - CONTENT · Introduction to the Life Cycle Thinking · What LCA stands for? · Background LCA references · Case study
  58. 58.  ISO 14.040: 2006 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Principles and framework  ISO 14.044:2006 Environmental management -- Life cycle assessment -- Requirements and guidelines Relevant organizations  LIFE CYCLE UNEP – SETAC INITIATIVE http://lcinitiative.unep.fr/  EUROPEAN PLATFORM ON LCA http://eplca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ Standards 58 BACKGROUND LCA REFERENCES
  59. 59. Most relevant LCA related scientific journals  International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment www.scientificjournals.com  Journal of Cleaner Production www.sciencedirect.com  Environmental Science and Technology http://pubs.acs.org/journals/esthag International LCA meetings  SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry) www.setac.org  LCM (Life Cycle Management) www.lcm2013.org/  RED ESPAÑOLA ACV (CIEMAT) http://www.energy.imdea.org/events/2013/i- simposio-de-red-espanola-de-analisis-de-ciclo-de-vida-acv-bioenergia 59 BACKGROUND LCA REFERENCES
  60. 60. 60 Software 1. GaBi 6 (PE International) 2. SIMAPRO (Pre Consultants) 3. UMBERTO (ifu Hamburg) 4. TEAM (Ecobilan – PricewaterhouseCoopers) 5. WISARD (Ecobilan- PricewaterhouseCoopers) 6.  Others: http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/toolList.vm BACKGROUND LCA REFERENCES
  61. 61. 61 Most relevant databases 1. GaBi 6 Professional (PE International) (www.pe-international.com) 2. Ecoivent 3.0 (www.ecoinvent.org) 3. ELCD (http://eplca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ELCD3/) 4. Plastics Europe 5. Other: http://eplca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ResourceDirectory/databaseList.vm BACKGROUND LCA REFERENCES
  62. 62. 62 LCA - CONTENT · Introduction to the Life Cycle Thinking · What LCA stands for? · Background LCA references · Case study
  63. 63. Goal and scope definition LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE Provide policy and decision makers with “FACTS” for decisions on EV related issues Objectives Improve “END OF LIFE MANAGEMENT” by promotion of best available technologies&practices Improve “DESIGN” for optimal recyclability and minimal resource consumption 1
  64. 64. Goal and scope definition LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE 1 Environmentaleffects e.g.GHG-emissions Time Operation Production Dismantling Vehicle B B Vehicle C C Vehicle A A clip
  65. 65. The study’s main objective is to carry out a Life Cycle Assessment from cradle to grave of the following products with the aim of comparing the different environmental impacts:  Ion-lithium battery electric vehicle  Diesel vehicle  Petrol vehicle All the analysed vehicles belong to the Spanish Segment C (length from 4.20 to 4.50 m) Goal and scope definition1 LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE
  66. 66. LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE 2 Inventory analysis Electricity supply Petrol / Diesel supply Raw materials and production In-Use Disposal Electric vehicles Diesel/Gas vehicles
  67. 67. Functional Unit = Ion-lithium battery life = 100.000 km Li-ion Battery (312 kg) Electric motor (52 kg) Bodywork Golf A4Internal combustion engine (62,2 % EURO 3 / 37,8 % EURO 4) + LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE 2 Inventory analysis
  68. 68. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+DLCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE 2 Inventory analysis 10,58 % 1,00 % 20,80 % 8,57 % 0,07 % 25,71 % 15,84 % 2,70 % 14,73 % Hydro-electric power Pumped hydro-electric power Nuclear power Coal Gas/Fuel Combined cycle Wind energy Solar energy Other renewable energies 55,54 %21,31 % 18,15 % 0,11 % 0,13 % 1,93 % 2,83 % 64,72 % 30,10 % 0,09 % 3,37 % 1,73 % Data source: REE, 2010.
  69. 69. LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE Energy consumption:  Total energy consumption (MJ-Eq / km)  Renewable energy consumption (MJ-Eq / km) Emissions:  PM particulates (g of PM / km)  Nitrogen oxides (g of NOx / km)  Carbon dioxide (g of CO2 / km)  HC emissions (g of HC / km) Impact assessment3
  70. 70. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Impact assessment3 LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE
  71. 71. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Impact assessment3 LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE
  72. 72. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Impact assessment3 LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE
  73. 73. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Impact assessment3 LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE
  74. 74. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Impact assessment3 LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE
  75. 75. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Impact assessment3 LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE
  76. 76. 0.00 € 500.00 € 1,000.00 € 1,500.00 € 2,000.00 € 2,500.00 € 3,000.00 € 3,500.00 € Mainland EV Balearic EV Canarian EV Diesel Petrol CO2 NOX Particulate matter NMHC LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE Interpretation (environmental)4 86%
  77. 77. 0.00 € 2,000.00 € 4,000.00 € 6,000.00 € 8,000.00 € 10,000.00 € 12,000.00 € 14,000.00 € 16,000.00 € 18,000.00 € Mainland EV Balearic EV Canarian EV Diesel Petrol Energy Imports CO2 NOX Particulate matter NMHC Interpretation (energy & environment)4 61% 59% LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE
  78. 78.  Results confirm that energy and environmental impacts of the EV are highly dependent on the electricity generation mix  Presumably the growth of renewable energies in the different generation mixes will play in favour of the EV and widen the distance with the combustion engine technologies  The EV shows a reduction in the global energy consumption for the total life cycle. However, embedded energy from production will increase, due to the addition of components such as advanced battery packs, electric motors and power electronics.  The EV almost eliminates the problem of local pollutants (NOx, PM10, HCs) in urban areas  The Mainland EV shows a relative reduction of energy and environmental externalities of 59% compared to the diesel vehicle and of 61% compared to the petrol one ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Conclusions and recommendations5 LCA USE CASE: ELECTRIC VEHICLE
  79. 79. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Ongoing projects FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF THE LCA METHODOLOGY Project Acronym: SAPIENS (SOFC Auxiliary Power In Emissions/Noise Solutions) Project reference: 303415 Contract type: Collaborative Project Start date: 01 November 2012 End date: 31 October 2015 Duration: 36 months Project status: ongoing Project cost: € 2.37 milion (2,370,257.20 euro) Project funding: € 1.59 milion (1,592,341.40 euro) Programme Acronym: FP7-FCH-JU Programme type: Seventh Framework Programme
  80. 80. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Ongoing projects FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF THE LCA METHODOLOGY Project Acronym: LED4ART (High quality and energy efficient LED illumination for art) Project reference: 297262 Contract type: Collaborative Project Start date: 01 January 2012 End date: 31 December 2014 Duration: 36 months Project status: ongoing Project cost: € 1.91 milion (1,907,110.00 euro) Project funding: 867,000.00 euro Programme Acronym: CIP-ICT-PSP-2011-5 Programme type: Competitiveness and innovation framework programme
  81. 81. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Ongoing projects FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF THE LCA METHODOLOGY Project Acronym: HELIS (High energy lithium sulphur cells and batteries) Project reference: 666221 Contract type: Collaborative Project Start date: 01 June 2015 End date: 31 May 2019 Duration: 48 months Project status: ongoing Project cost: € 7.97 milion (7,975,152.00 euro) Project funding: 7,975,152.00 euro Programme Acronym: NMP-17-2014 Programme type: research adn Innovation action
  82. 82. ACTIVIDADES INICIALES DE I+D Other applications… FUTURE APPLICATIONS OF THE LCA METHODOLOGY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PWncrFwhaiE
  83. 83. Sponsors: Financed by:

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