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Chest Cavity


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Chest Cavity

  1. 1. Chest Cavity<br />By:<br />Dr Mohammed Faez<br />
  2. 2. Chest Cavity<br />Chest cavity enclosed by the 12 pairs of ribs and sternum anteriorly, vertebral column posteriorly and inferiorly by the diaphragm.<br />
  3. 3. Chest Cavity<br />It contains the lungs and bronchi, part of the esophagus and trachea, and the heart and major blood vessels.<br />
  4. 4. Chest Cavity<br />The chest cavity can be divided into a median partition, called the mediastinum, and the laterally placed pleurae and lungs.<br />
  5. 5. Mediastinum(Interpleural Space)<br />The mediastinum lies between the right and left pleurae in and near the median sagittal plane of the chest. <br />It extends from the sternum in front to the vertebral column behind, and contains all the thoracic viscera excepting the lungs.<br />Itextends superiorly to the thoracic outlet and the root of the neck and inferiorly to the diaphragm.<br />
  6. 6. Mediastinum(Interpleural Space)<br />it is divided into superior and inferiormediastinal regions by an imaginary plane(line) passing backwards horizontally from the angle of Louis (manubriosternal joint) to the vertebral column (T4/5 intervertebral disc).<br />
  7. 7. Mediastinum(Interpleural Space)<br />
  8. 8. Mediastinum<br />The inferior mediastinum is subdivided into :<br />Middle mediastinum<br /> Anterior mediastinum<br /> Posterior mediastinum<br />
  9. 9. Superior Mediastinum<br />The superior mediastinum is bounded in front by the manubriumsterni and behind by the first four thoracic vertebrae.<br />
  10. 10. Superior Mediastinum Contents<br />Retrosternal:<br />Great vessels branches<br /> Thymus<br />Prevertebral:<br />Trachea<br /> Esophagus<br /> Thoracic duct<br /> Sympathetic trunks<br />Vagus nerves<br />
  11. 11. Inferior Mediastinum<br />The inferior mediastinum is bounded in front by the body of the sternum and behind by the lower eight thoracic vertebrae .<br />
  12. 12. Inferior Mediastinum<br />The inferior mediastinum is subdivided into :<br /> • Anterior mediastinum: the region in front of the pericardium.<br /> • Middle mediastinum: consists of the pericardium and heart.<br /> • Posterior mediastinum: the region between the pericardium and vertebrae<br />
  13. 13. Inferior Mediastinum Contents<br />Anterior mediastinum :<br />Thymus<br /> Fat<br /> Lymph nodes<br />Middle mediastinum:<br />Pericardium<br />Phrenic nerves<br />Pericardiacophrenic artery<br /> Heart and great vessels<br />
  14. 14. Inferior Mediastinum Contents<br />Posterior mediastinum:<br />Esophagus<br /> Thoracic duct<br /> Aorta <br /> Branches<br />Vagus nerves<br /> Sympathetic trunks<br />Azygos system of veins<br />
  15. 15. Pleurae (Pleural cavity)<br />Pleurae is a thin covering serous membrane that protects the lungs.<br />It is lining for the chest cavity.<br />
  16. 16. Pleurae (Pleural cavity)<br />Each pleura consists of two layers:<br />Avisceral layer which is adherent to the lung and a parietal layer which lines the inner aspect of the chest wall, diaphragm and sides of the pericardium and mediastinum.<br />
  17. 17. Pleurae (Pleural cavity)<br />• The parietal and visceral layers of pleura are separated from one another by a slitlike space, called pleural cavity <br />• The pleural cavity contains a small amount of pleural fluid which acts as a lubricant decreasing friction between the pleurae.<br />
  18. 18. Pleurae (Pleural cavity)<br />
  19. 19. Pleurae (The parietal layer)<br />The costal pleura lines the inner surfaces of the ribs, the costal cartilages, the intercostal spaces, the sides of the vertebral bodies, and the back of the sternum<br />
  20. 20. Pleurae (The parietal layer)<br />The diaphragmatic pleura covers the thoracic surface of the diaphragm<br />The mediastinal pleura covers and forms the lateral boundary of the mediastinum<br />
  21. 21. Pleurae Blood Supply <br />Visceral pleura--- Artery supplied by bronchial and pulmonary arterial systems. <br />The parietal pleura--- Artery supply is from various systemic arterial supply the chest wall, diaphragm, and mediastinum.<br />
  22. 22. Pleurae venous drainage <br />Visceral pleura--- Veins drain is pulmonary vein.<br />The parietal pleura--- Vein is to the superior vena cava.<br />
  23. 23. Pleurae Nerve Supply <br />The parietal pleura is sensitive to pain, temperature, touch, and pressure<br />The parietal pleura is innervated by both somatic and sympathetic and parasympathetic fiber via the intercostal nerve. <br />
  24. 24. Pleurae Nerve Supply <br />The parietal pleura is supplied as follows:<br />The costal pleura is segmentally supplied by the intercostal nerves.<br />The mediastinal pleura is supplied by the phrenic nerve.<br />The diaphragmatic pleura is supplied over the domes by the phrenic nerve and around the periphery by the lower six intercostal nerves.<br />
  25. 25. Pleurae Nerve Supply <br />The visceral pleura covering the lungs is sensitive to stretch but is insensitive to common sensations such as pain and touch.<br />It receives an autonomic nerve supply from the pulmonary plexus.<br />
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  27. 27. THANK YOU <br />