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Trachea + Lungs


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Trachea + Lungs

  1. 1. TRACHEA AND LUNGS ANATOMY<br />By:<br />Dr Mohammed Faez<br />
  2. 2. Trachea<br />The trachea is a cartilaginous and membranous tube, extending from the cricoid cartilageof the larynx, on a level with C6 vertebra, to the level of the angle of Louis (T4/5) vertebra, where it divides into the two bronchi, one for each lung.<br />
  3. 3. Trachea<br />Structure: <br />The trachea is a rigid fibroelastic structure. Incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage continuously maintain the patency of the lumen. <br />The trachea is lined internally with ciliated columnar epithelium.<br />
  4. 4. Trachea<br />
  5. 5. Trachea<br />It measures about 11 cm. In length.<br /> Its diameter, from side to side, is from 2 to 2.5 cm.<br />It has 18-22 cartilaginous rings<br />It is greater in the male than in the female.<br />
  6. 6. Trachea<br />Relations:<br />Anteriorly:<br />Neck:<br />The isthmus of the thyroid gland (2nd, 3rd and 4th tracheal rings )<br />The inferior thyroid veins<br />The sternothyroid and sternohyoid muscles<br />The cervical fascia<br />Thorax: <br />The manubriumsterni<br />The remains of the thymus<br />The left innominate vein<br />The aortic arch<br />Left common carotid arteries<br />The deep cardiac plexus.<br />
  7. 7. Trachea<br />Relations:<br />Posteriorly : the esophagus<br />Laterally:<br />Neck:<br />Common carotid arteries<br />Right and left lobes of the thyroid gland<br />Inferior thyroid arteries<br />The recurrent nerves<br />
  8. 8. Trachea<br />Relations:<br />Laterally:<br />Thorax: it lies in the superior mediastinum.<br /> Right<br />The pleura <br />Right vagus, <br />The innominate artery<br /> Left <br />Left recurrent nerve<br />The aortic arch<br />The left common carotid <br />Subclavian arteries<br />
  9. 9. Inferior thyroid a.<br />Vagus n.<br />Recurrent laryngeal n.<br />Thoracic duct<br /> Sympathetic trunk<br />Trachea<br />
  10. 10. Trachea<br />The trachea divides into two main bronchi : the left and the right bronchi, at the level of the sternal angle at the anatomical point known as the carina. <br />
  11. 11. Bronchi<br />The right bronchus:<br />Wider, shorter, and more vertical in direction than the left. <br />It is about 2.5 cm. Long, <br />It enters the right lung nearly opposite the T5 vertebra.<br />
  12. 12. Bronchi<br />The Left Bronchus <br />It is smaller in caliber but longer than the right<br />It is about 5 cm. long.<br />It enters the root of the left lung opposite the T6 vertebra.<br />
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  14. 14. Wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left<br />trachea<br />Right Primary Bronchus<br />Left primary bronchus<br />
  15. 15. Bronchi<br />The primary bronchi divide to form Secondary Bronchi (lobar bronchi).<br />There is one secondary bronchus for each lobe of the lungs.<br />There are 2 lobes on the left lung.<br />There are 3 lobes on the right lung.<br />
  16. 16. Bronchi<br />The left main bronchus enters the hilum and divides into a superior and inferior lobar bronchus. <br />The right main bronchus gives off the bronchus to the upper lobe prior to entering the hilum(superior lobar bronchus)and once into the hilumdivides into middle and inferiorlobar bronchi.<br />
  17. 17. Bronchi<br />Each lobar bronchus divides within the lobe into(Tertiary Bronchi) segmental bronchi.<br />Each segmental bronchus enters a bronchopulmonary segment.<br />Each bronchopulmonary segment is pyramidal in shape with its apex directed towards the hilum.<br />
  18. 18. Bronchi<br />Each bronchopulmonarysegment has its own segmental bronchus, artery and lymphatics.<br />The veins draining each segment are intersegmental.<br />
  19. 19. Bronchi<br />
  20. 20. Trachea blood supply<br />the trachea receives its blood supply from branches of the inferior thyroid and bronchial arteries.<br />
  21. 21. Lungs<br />The two lungs are organs of respiration and lie on either side of the mediastinum surrounded by the right and left pleural cavities.<br />Right and left lungs.<br />
  22. 22. Lungs<br />The right lung is normally a little larger than the left lung because the middle mediastinum, containing the heart, bulges more to the left than to the right.<br />
  23. 23. Lungs<br />Each lung has a half-cone shape, with a base, apex, two surfaces and three borders:<br />The base sits on the diaphragm. <br />The apex projects above 1st rib and into the root of the neck. <br />
  24. 24. Lungs<br />The two surfaces-the costal surface lies immediately adjacent to the ribs and intercostal spaces of the thoracic wall. <br />The mediastinal surface lies against the mediastinumanteriorly and the vertebral column posteriorly and contains the comma-shaped hilum of the lung through which structures enter and leave. <br />
  25. 25. Lungs<br />The three borders-the inferior border of the lung is sharp and separates the base from the costal surface. The anterior and posterior borders separate the costal surface from the medial surface. <br />Unlike the anterior and inferior borders, which are sharp, the posterior border is smooth and rounded.<br />
  26. 26. Lungs<br />Root and hilum of lung:<br />The root of each lung is a short tubular collection of structures that together attach the lung to structures in the mediastinum .<br />The hilum, where structures enter and leave.<br />
  27. 27. Lungs<br />Structures within each root and located in the hilum:<br />A pulmonary artery <br />Two pulmonary veins<br />A main bronchus<br />Bronchial vessel <br />Nerves<br />Lymphatics<br />
  28. 28. Lungs<br />Structure<br /> the right lung:<br />It is divided into upper, middle and lower lobes by oblique and horizontal fissures.<br /> The left lung:<br />It has two lobes, upper and lower lobes. They are separated by the oblique fissure.<br />
  29. 29. Lungs<br />Read about right and left lungs relations and lungs impressions.<br />
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  32. 32. Bronchial Tree<br />The trachea is divided into 2 bronchi<br />The main bronchus divides within the lung into lobar bronchi.<br />The lobar bronchi divide into segmental bronchi which supply bronchopulmonary segments.<br />Each bronchopulmonary segment, the segmental bronchi divide into bronchioles, which further subdivide and supply the respiratory surfaces.<br />
  33. 33. Bronchopulmonary Segment<br />There are ten bronchopulmonary segments in each lung<br />Each bronchopulmonary segment is shaped like an irregular cone with the apex at the origin of the segmental bronchus and the base projected peripherally onto the surface of the lung.<br />
  34. 34. Bronchopulmonary Segment<br />A bronchopulmonary segment is the smallest, functionally independent region of a lung and the smallest area of lung that can be isolated and removed without affecting adjacent regions.<br />
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  38. 38. Blood supply of the lung<br />The bronchi and parenchymal tissue of the lungs are supplied by bronchial arteries a branches of the descending thoracic aorta.<br />Bronchial veins, which also communicate with pulmonary veins, drain into the azygos and hemiazygos.<br />
  39. 39. Lymphatic drainage of the lungs<br />lymph returns from the periphery towards the hilartracheobronchial groups of nodes and from here to mediastinallymph trunks.<br />
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  41. 41. Nerve supply of the lungs<br />A pulmonary plexus is located at the root of each lung. <br />The plexus is composed of sympathetic fibres (from the sympathetic trunk) and parasympathetic fibres (from the vagus).<br />
  42. 42. THANK YOU <br />