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Using pedagogic corpora in ELT


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María Sánchez Tornel & Pascual Pérez-Paredes

Published in: Education, Technology

Using pedagogic corpora in ELT

  1. 1. Pascual Pérez-Paredes María Sánchez Tornel Universidad de Murcia, Spain CorpusCALL: Using pedagogic corpora in ELT EUROCALL 2013 - University of Évora, Portugal 20 years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future
  2. 2. Using pedagogic corpora in ELT EuroCALL Conference, 2013 1. The potential of language corpora in ELT 2. Introducing pedagogic corpora 3. Annotating pedagogy 4. Functions of the pedagogic search tool in SACODEYL & BACKBONE 5. Using the search tool for language learning: Integrating activities in ELT (Secondary Ed. & CLIL) 6. An overview of the tools to create your own corpora (corpus compilation, annotation and pedagogical enrichment) 7. Questions and feedback
  3. 3. 1. The potential of language corpora in ELT Using pedagogic corpora in ELT EuroCALL Conference, 2013
  4. 4. DDL = data-driven learning, i.e. learning driven by data Data Attested uses of language recorded in real communicative contexts Stored in language corpora and accessed mainly through concordancers
  5. 5. From a pedagogic perspective: New learning paradigms → 21st C learning or lifelong learning New roles & attitudes STUDENTS detectives researchers active responsible TEACHERS guides facilitators
  6. 6. From a language learning-oriented perspective: Versatility & learning potential AUTHENTIC 4 SKILLS AWARENESS RAISING
  7. 7. The impact of DDL Despite its potential benefits: & Marginal impact in mainstream language teaching Limited to higher education settings
  8. 8. WHY??? - Direct transfer of CL research methods to the classroom - Scant knowledge of Applied Corpus Linguistics - Lack of user-friendly DDL software - DDL seen as DANGEROUS (Boulton, 2009) Teachers are no longer the only owners of knowledge Challenge to traditional teaching practices
  9. 9. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Tertiary education Non-tertiary education 67 9 CONTEXT Number of empirical studies (1991-2010) Source: Boulton (2010) Scant scholarly attention in non-tertiary settings
  10. 10. CAUTION!
  11. 11. Different contexts different students with different objectives, abilities and needs
  12. 12. Advanced corpus users Research purposes Translation L2 learning at university
  13. 13. Novice corpus users L2 learning at high school CLIL
  14. 14. 2. Introducing pedagogic corpora Using pedagogic corpora in ELT EuroCALL Conference, 2013
  15. 15. 1. Scant attention 2. Learners’ profile 3. Lack of resources PEDAGOGIC CORPORA
  16. 16. An alternative to the direct transfer of CL research-oriented tools and methods is needed INNOVATION & Compilation of pedagogically relevant language data Development of pedagogic corpus tools PEDAGOGIC MEDIATION
  17. 17. Why pedagogic?
  18. 18. Photo: Kordite, Flickr
  19. 19. Homogeneous and systematic Thematic relevance Recontextualisation  Authentication Easy to use query tools and search options Braun (2006)
  20. 20. Design Principles Genuine materials, but… • small, homogeneous corpora • pedagogically relevant genres • multi-modal approach (videos, audios) • exploitation of the transcripts from different angles (full texts, sections, concordances) Data-based learning, but… • pedagogical annotation and selection • enrichment of the corpora (learning materials, web resources) support of the authentication process communicative and exploratory teaching/learning TaLC 2010, Brno, © 2010 J. Widmann/M. Sánchez-Tornel
  21. 21. EU-UMU Initiatives • 2005 – 2008 • Video interviews in 7 EU languages • Teen talk • Corpus compilation & exploitation tools • Learning materials • Corpora & tools freely available • 2009 – 2011 • Video interviews in 6 EU languages + English as lingua franca • Adult speech – professional fields • Corpus compilation & exploitation tools • Learning materials • Corpora & tools freely available
  22. 22. Bambrick-Santoyo (2010) → learner-centered data-driven instruction should focus on assessment, analysis, action, and a data-driven culture Our approach to innovation: -New model → from data to meaningful information -Data in the web 2.0 era: multimodal, searchable, exportable and transformable - SACODEYL and BACKBONE reflect the dimensions for educational innovation at the innovative or most innovative levels outlined by Law et al (2011): learning objectives student’s role teacher’s role ICT use connectedness multiplicity of learning outcomes
  23. 23. 3. Annotating pedagogy Using pedagogic corpora in ELT EuroCALL Conference, 2013
  24. 24. • Pérez-Paredes & Alcaraz (2009) For the time being, the natural corpus playground continues to be tertiary education. Our proposal: XML >>CL in the language classroom. The resulting annotated corpus can be seen as being integrative of language data and annotated pedagogy. The interesting aspect here is that pedagogy can be annotated and, subsequently, accessed by corpus users. 24
  25. 25. 25 Linguistic analysis of interest in FLT ------> Linguistics comes first -------> DDL materials Concordances and corpus Researcher/Linguist End user The possibilities Scenario (Alcáraz and Pérez-Paredes 2008)
  26. 26. 26 • Pedagogical analysis (and annotation) of language corpora ------> Pedagogy comes first -------> Pedagogy-driven DDL Material developer/Teacher/ Learner End user The feasibility Scenario (Alcáraz and Pérez-Paredes 2008)
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. It is certainly possible to use language corpora and CL methodology in the language classroom. This possibilities scenario (Alcaraz and Pérez-Paredes, 2008) takes the research tools and methodology of the CL research paradigm straightaway to the language classroom. In other words, in the specific contexts of the language learning it seemed appropriate to do so. However, other considerations affecting pedagogic issues were simply neglected. The methodological transfer from the CL research area to the applied ring of language learning and teacher underwent no adaptation, and thus learners were presented with the same tools, corpora and analytical tasks as well-trained and professional linguists. Pérez-Paredes, P. (2010). Corpus Linguistics and Language Education in Perspective: Appropriation and the Possibilities Scenario. In T. Harris & M. Moreno Jaén (Eds.), Corpus Linguistics in Language Teaching (pp. 53-73). Peter Lang.
  29. 29. 29 • What is BACKBONE/ SACODEYL Annotator? • How can I install BACKBONE/ SACODEYL Annotator? • Overview – Corpus Management – Category Management – Annotation Management – Metadata Management
  30. 30. 30 What is SACODEYL Annotator? • SACODEYL Annotator … • Is a free and open source tool for annotating texts • Has been developed from the pedagogical perspective (not morpho-sintactic tagging oriented) • Offers support for pedagogical annotation in texts • Supports the customization of the annotated tags according to the necessities of the teacher.
  31. 31. 31 Annotation Aim • Why are you annotating? • What is the purpose of your annotation? • What use are you giving to your annotation? We assume you are annotating a text for your own students’ language learning purposes
  32. 32. 32 What is the output of SACODEYL Annotator? • A corpus stored in XML TEI format that contains: – Texts (one text in our case) – Annotations over the text – The category tree (shared by all the texts) – Resources linked to the texts – Metadata associated to texts
  33. 33. 33 What is XML TEI format? – TEI  Text Encoding Initiative – This is a format for storing corpora – Has been promoted by OTA (Oxford Text Archive) – Is a continuously growing format (more than 50 versions released yet, currently TEI P5) – Is rapidly spreading among the available tools
  34. 34. 34 TEI Tools (Research) • TeiPublisher “This tool is a XML-based repository that allows the publication of TEI corpora to the public community and offers a search tool.” • Dexter “This is other annotator tool that used TEI as the format for the annotated files.”
  35. 35. 35 TEI Tools (Research) • Oxygen XML Editor and XMLSpy “These are XML Editors that allows the modification of the TEI files without any limitation” (These are complex for non-advanced users)
  36. 36. 36 TEI Tools (Research) • TAPoR ( “The Text Analysis Portal for Research (TAPoR) is a gateway to tools for sophisticated analysis and retrieval, along with representative texts for experimentation.”
  37. 37. 37 TEI Tools (Research) • WordHoard “Is a tool for annotating or tagging texts by morphological, lexical, prosodic, and narratological criteria and for determining frequency information”
  38. 38. 38 TEI Tools (Research) • XAIRA XAIRA (XML Aware Information Retrieval Architecture) is an open source tool for constructing high-quality linguistically- motivated search interfaces to large collections of XML documents.
  39. 39. 39 • The XAIRA search with our SACODEYL corpus!!!!
  40. 40. 40 Discussion and debate • Pedagogical annotation vs. Morphological tagging paradigm • Learner-centered vs. Researcher-oriented • Indirect applications of language corpora vs. Direct applications • Constraints of traditional CL in the language classroom
  41. 41. 41 Discussion and debate • Cognitive demands of traditional CL in the language classroom: learner as a reseacher and as a traveller • Is CL an extra hassle in language classrooms? (Mauranen 2004) • Customization of language corpus/collection of texts • Mediation role of corpus-based resources in the FLT classroom • Authenticity issues (Widdowson)
  42. 42. 4. Functions of the pedagogic search tool in SACODEYL & BACKBONE Using pedagogic corpora in ELT EuroCALL Conference, 2013
  43. 43. The main learning space Access to corpora + learning materials Four search modes: - Browse - Section search - Concordances -Co-occurrences Wordlists
  44. 44. The browse mode
  45. 45. The section search mode
  46. 46. The section search mode
  47. 47. The co-occurrences search mode
  48. 48. The concordances search mode
  49. 49. The word lists view
  50. 50. Moodle integration
  51. 51. 5. Using the search tool for language learning: Integrating activities in ELT (Secondary Ed. & CLIL) Using pedagogic corpora in ELT EuroCALL Conference, 2013
  52. 52. -Learning packages search2/faces/corpora/resources/EnglishCorpus_packages.html -Exploratory activities search2/faces/corpora/resources/EnglishCorpus_exploratory.html
  53. 53. 6. An overview of the tools to create your own corpora (corpus compilation, annotation and pedagogical enrichment) Using pedagogic corpora in ELT EuroCALL Conference, 2013
  54. 54.
  55. 55. 55 What categories does this default category tree contain ? Topics Grammatical Lexical Style CEF Level ….
  56. 56. 56 How can I add a new document to the current corpus? 1. Press in … 2. Select the text format/encoding 3. Select the new document
  57. 57. 57 What does the text format mean? • This is the manner in which the text is laid out in the file. • Mainly 3 text formats are supported: – Plain text (written) .txt – Oral text in SACODEYL Transcriptor format – XML text in TEI standard format (text in special XML files)
  58. 58. 58 This is the form in which the text is stored (related to the Multilanguage). (In Windows ANSI by default) What does the text encoding mean?
  59. 59. 59 Adding our example • Our example file is en17.txt –This file has a SACODEYL Transcriptor format –Has been encoded with multilingual support encoding format (UTF-16) • Save the changes!!!!
  60. 60. 60 Selecting the text to work with • Now we can insert a great amount of texts in the same corpus. • We can select one and annotate it. 1. Press … 2. Select the document
  61. 61. 61 Friendly Appearance • Pedagogical orientation
  62. 62. 62 Information showed in the working document • Section Number • Applied Categories to this section (Annotations) • Speaker (only in oral text) • Transcription
  63. 63. 63 What is a section? • Is a stretch of text that is pedagogically motivated. • A fragment that could be useful in a classroom • A section can be established in any kind of text (oral and written) with the insertion of the special char (#) for division of texts into sections.
  64. 64. 64 Intuitive Annotation Process • Drag and Drop to Annotate a Section
  65. 65. 65 Keywords • SACODEYL Annotator supports the annotation of keywords at any kind of level • Just select text and apply a category by right- clicking
  66. 66. 66 What is a Keyword? • “… [a] keyword is a stretch of language (a word, more than one word or a whole paragraph) that the annotator associates to a category…” Pérez-Paredes and Alcaraz, ReCALL, Jan. 2009 Vol 21. (1) (Forthcoming)
  67. 67. 67 Selective View • Offers a selective view of the information in order to facilitate the organization.
  68. 68. 68 Annotating a Title • Drag and Drop the special “Title” category to the desired section. • The title is rendered by a tool tip when placing the cursor on the section. (No tool tip = No title)
  69. 69. 69 Multilanguage • Supports a real multilingual annotation • May use texts in any language
  70. 70. 70 Extensible • Supports customization of the annotation • User can add his/her own annotation taxonomy or remove any annotation category
  71. 71. 71 How can I add a new category? – Select the parent category. (i.e. Topics) – Press Add Cat. Button. – Fill the dialog
  72. 72. 72 How can I remove a category? Select the category to remove (i.e. Topic) Be careful … All the associated children will be removed also All the annotation with the tags will be removed also Press Delete Cat. Button.
  73. 73. 73 How can I reorder the categories? Select the category to reorder (i.e. Topic) Press Up Cat or Down Cat. to move it.
  74. 74. 74 How can I customize a category? Select the category to customize (i.e. Topic) Press double click
  75. 75. 75 Can I manage metadata for the working text?
  76. 76. 76 What if I find mistakes? • Supports edition of the inserted texts. • Uses XML TEI standard for encoding corpora.
  77. 77. 77 Multilingual Interface • Available in many languages • You could also add your language for the interfaces
  78. 78. 78 Integration • SACODEYL Annotator has been integrated with: – SACODEYL Transcriptor – SACODEYL Search – SACODEYL VRP
  79. 79. 79 Resource Management Offers enrichment of text with external resources i.e. html links, videos, audios, etc.
  80. 80. 80 Where is the information stored? • Remember: All the information is store in one file. The corpus file which you have created. Corpus Language Data Annotation Language Metadata Pedagogy
  81. 81. Pascual Pérez-Paredes María Sánchez Tornel Universidad de Murcia, Spain CorpusCALL: Using pedagogic corpora in ELT EUROCALL 2013 - University of Évora, Portugal 20 years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future