Assessing Work Attitudes in the WorkplaceThe SAS Institute is a leaderin the art of treatingemployees well. The privatelyowned software companyheadquartered in Cary, NorthCarolina, is famous for its freemedical care, sports facilities,subsidized on-site child care,flexible work hours, and truededication to work lifebalance.
Assessing Work Attitudes in the Workplace Attitude Exit Surveys Interview Systematic Attitude Tracking
Discussion• What is the difference between job satisfaction and organizational commitment? Which do you think would be more strongly related to turnover?• Do you think making employees happier at work is a good way of motivating people? When would high satisfaction not be related to high performance?• How important is pay in making people attached to a company and making employees satisfied?• Do you think younger and older people are similar in what makes them happier at work and committed to their companies? Do you think there are male-female differences?
Work Behaviors Job Performance OrganizationalTurnover Citizenship Behavior Absenteeism
Turnover Job Performance dissatisfactionEmployees leavetheir jobs for manyreasons, including: Personality Age Company tenure
Factors That Have the Strongest Influence Over Work BehaviorsJob Citizenship Absenteeism TurnoverPerformanceGeneral mental Treatment at Health problems Poorabilities work performanceHow we are Personality Work/life Positive worktreated at work balance issues attitudes (-)Stress Positive work Positive work Stress attitudes attitudes (-)Positive work Age of the Age of the Personalityattitudes employee employee (-)Personality Age and tenure of the employeeNote: Negative relationships are indicated with (-) (-)
Discussion• Are citizenship behaviors always beneficial to the company? If not, why not? Can you think of any citizenship behaviors that employees may perform with the intention of helping a company but that may have negative consequences overall?• In some companies, managers are rewarded for minimizing the turnover within their department or branch. A part of their bonus is tied directly to keeping the level of turnover below a minimum. What do you think about the potential effectiveness of these programs? Do you see any downsides to such programs?
Job Attitudes, Behavior, and Ethics Ethical work Happier environment employees Employees less Strong likely to recognize organizational and report commitment unethical behavior
Performance at Trader Joe’s What’s different? Upbeat, helpful employees Best paid employees in the industry Promotes from within Employees & managers “pitch-in” http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/27/Traderjoes_facade.JPG What is Trader Joe’s? Quarterly performance evaluation and feedbackUnique shopping experience Employee autonomyLocated in 22 states Employees areChain food store with a niche market knowledgeable of the store’s products
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological http://www.bnet.com/2422-13724_23-182940.html
Reaction to UnfairnessReactions to Inequity ExampleDistort perceptions Changing one’s thinking to believe that the referent actually is more skilled than previously thought.Increase referent’s inputs Encouraging the referent to work harder.Reduce own input Deliberately putting forth less effort at work. Reducing the quality of one’s work.Increase own outcomes Negotiating a raise for oneself or using unethical ways of increasing rewards such as stealing from the company.Change referent Comparing oneself to someone who is worse off.Leave the situation Quitting one’s job.Seek legal action Suing the company or filing a complaint if the unfairness in question is under legal protection.
Differences in Equity Perception Equity Sensitivity Entitleds Benevolents
JusticeProcedural Interactional Distributive Justice Justice JusticeThe degree to The degree to The degree to which fair which people which decision- are treated outcomes making with respect, received from procedures kindness, and the are used to dignity in organization arrive at a interpersonal are fair decision interactions
Expectancy Theory Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Effort Performance Rewards1) Will my effort 2) Will performance 3) Do I find the lead to high lead to outcomes? outcomes performance? desirable?
Influencing Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence Expectancy Instrumentality Valence• Make sure • Reward • Find rewards that employees have employee are desirable to proper skills, performance employees abilities, and • Inform people in • Make sure that knowledge advance about the rewards are• Ensure that the rewards viewed as fair environment • Try to eliminate • Give employees facilitates non-performance choice over performance influence over rewards• Encourage rewards employees so they believe their effort makes a difference
Reinforcement Theory Positive NegativeManager Reinforcement Reinforcement Managerpraises the • Positive behavior • Positive behavior stops naggingemployee followed by followed by positive removal of the employee consequences negative consequences Punishment Extinction • Negative behavior • Negative behavior ManagerManager followed by followed bydemotes the negative removal of ignores the consequences positive behavioremployee consequences
Organizational Behavior Modification (OB Mod)Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5• Identify • Measure • Analyze its • Intervene • Evaluate behavior the antecedents & to be baseline and outcomes maintain modified level
Motivation and Ethics Reinforcement theory has been particularly successful in explaining ethical behavior.Unethical MoreBehavior Reward Unethical Behavior
Motivation and Culture Financial satisfaction was aDeveloping stronger predictor of overall Nations life satisfaction (compared to industrialized nations) Satisfaction with esteemIndustrialized needs was a more powerful Nations motivator (compared to developing nations)
Scientific Management and Job Specialization Scientific Job Management Specialization • Based on ideas • Break down jobs from Frederic into their simplest Taylor’s 1911 book, components “Principles of • Assign tasks so Scientific each employee Management” performs a select • Among the most number of tasks in influential books of a repetitive the 20th century manner
Alternatives to Job Specialization Job JobJob Rotation Enrichment Enlargement Allowing Moving Expanding the workers moreemployees from tasks performed control over job to job at by employees to how theyregular intervals add more variety perform tasks
Empowerment Structural EmpowermentDecision Leadership Organizational Access to Organizationalauthority styles Structure information climate Felt Empowerment Meaningful Feeling Having discretion Ability to work confident and autonomy at influence how about work the company performing operates the job
Why Do SMART Goals Motivate? Make You Think Energize Outside the Box SMART Goals Provide Give Challenge Direction
When Are Goals More Effective? Goal Feedback Ability Commitment
Downsides to Goal Setting Learning decreases Adaptability declines Narrow thinking may develop Ethical problems increase
Discussion1. A call center is using the metric of average time per callwhen rewarding employees. In order to keep their averagetime low, employees are hanging up on customers whenthey think that the call will take too long to answer.2. In a department store, salespeople are rewarded basedon their sales volume. The problem is, they are givingsubstantial discounts and pressuring customers to makeunnecessary purchases.What are the reasons for the negative consequences ofthese bonus schemes? Modify these schemes to solve theproblems.
Management by Objectives Use corporate strategy to set company wide goals Periodically review Determine team- performance and and department- revise goals level goals Collaboratively set Develop an action individual-level plan goals that align with corporate strategy
Performance Appraisal Questions What is How the often? purpose? What Who is makes the an rater? effective system?
Absolute versus Relative Ranking Appraisals • Rating based on a standard that is applied equally toAbsolute everyone • Scores are based solely on individual performance • Rating is based on rank within all ratings • Final score is dependent onRelative individual performance measured against another individual’s performance Viewed more negatively by employees
Bias in Performance Appraisals Unfair Appraisal Stereotypes Leniency Liking
Performance Incentives Piece Rate Individual Merit Pay System Bonuses Sales Awards Team BonusesCommissionsGainsharing Profit Sharing Stock Options