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Sains Terbuka: From Psychology with Love in Science

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Materi paparan #SainsTerbuka di Program Studi Psikologi, FISIP, Universitas Brawijaya, 2019. Beberapa pemantik ke depan:

1. Open Science (atau: Science): membiarkan semua pihak mengetahui dan terlibat dalam proses sains manapun, termasuk tinjauan sejawat pada saat menulis proposal riset. Aneh jika kita tidak tahu tetangga kita mengerjakan riset apa, dan ternyata satu topik dengan kita.
2. Beberapa insentif tingkat institusional: memberikan sabuk untuk jurnal yang menerapkan preregistrasi, atau perguruan tinggi memberikan kriteria angka kredit bagi kenaikan jabatan akademik/jabatan fungsional bagi dosen/peneliti yang melakukan praktik open science.
3. Akses terbuka memungkinkan dilakukannya penggunaan kembali (lihat lisensinya) bahkan meta-analisis, bukan hanya bebas membaca. Stigma terhadap kualitas jurnal dengan akses terbuka, disebabkan karena ulah sejumlah penerbit predator yang juga menampilkan tampang akses terbuka.
4. Open peer review bukan hanya soal 'open'-nya, tetapi juga soal menyeimbangkan sentimen reviewer tertentu. Semua hasil review tidak bisa tidak mesti dipertanggungjawabkan kepada publik, bukan hanya kepada editor jurnal secara single-blind atau double-blind. Manajemen impresi reviewer dapat mendorong review yang lebih konstruktif. Di samping itu, manajemen pengetahuan hasil-hasil open review merupakan 'modal sosial', di samping 'kapital pengetahuan', yang luar biasa. Kualitas open peer review memiliki variasi tingkatan; ScienceOpen menerapkan moderasi dan filter kualifikasi reviewer, misalnya. Lokus open peer review bisa di dalam atau di luar artikel itu sendiri.
5. Falsifikasi tabel atau gambar dapat diperkecil dengan open data.
6. Sudah saatnya bukan hanya publikasi yang dapat dianggap memberikan kontribusi kepada sains, tetapi juga deposisi data dalam depositori dan juga open data serta penerbitan data (lihat juga: data in brief).
7. Gerakan yang lebih 'radikal' adalah open notebook yang berlangsung secara 'real time' juntuk setiap fase dan faset kegiatan penelitian.

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Sains Terbuka: From Psychology with Love in Science

  1. 1. Dr. Juneman Abraham, S.Psi. Universitas Bina Nusantara Dipresentasikan di: Universitas Brawijaya,Malang,November 2019 #TerbukaAtauTertinggal about.me/juneman Sebagian dari materi ini dipresentasikan juga di OpenCon 2018 Jakarta
  2. 2. DI MANA PENGETAHUAN ADA/EKSIS?
  3. 3. Sains Terbuka ?
  4. 4. https://cdn.cos.io/media/images/research_lifecycle.original.png
  5. 5. https://www.wur.nl/upload_mm/e/f/c/0527e0fb-5053-4045-8ee0- 95d91f127f76_Creative%20commons%20licences.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Ordering_of_Creative _Commons_licenses_from_most_to_least_permissive.png
  6. 6. SCIENCE AS AN OPEN ENTERPRISE (ROYAL SOCIETY, 2012) ▪ In May 2016 the EU Competitiveness Council issued a mission statement that all scientific articles should be ‘freely accessible’ by 2020 (Enserink, 2016). ▪ ‘The time for talking about Open Access is now past.With these agreements, we are going to achieve it in practice’, the Dutch state secretary for education, culture, and science, Sander Dekker, added in a statement. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10. 1177/0306312718772086
  7. 7. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0306312718772086 Open access to existing scientific publications a different format for future scientific publication open provision of scientific data open peer review openness purports to welcome the participation of non-scientists into the research process (citizen science)
  8. 8. https://www.scienceopen.com/document/review?review=6a6d5dfb-6902-4dfa-903c- 57fcec3e74ae&vid=e0b58e80-98ea-42f5-a07d-da44aa1795b4
  9. 9. https://osf.io/dkcm3/
  10. 10. https://www.zooniverse.org/
  11. 11. PUBLONS: APPRECIATING REVIEWER
  12. 12. https://theconversati on.com/jalan- evolusi-bibliometrik- indonesia-104781
  13. 13. ▪ Distrust of science is rampant in the general population ▪ tobacco science,global warming (climate change), vaccination resistance,drug efficacy,human cloning,and a host of other disputes ▪ The opportunities for transparency, authenticity and timeliness of the record created by open science could both reveal the scientific process in real time and allow claims to be viewed within the context of their underlying data. ▪ Open science thus has the potential to contribute to the substantiation of the relationships which are central both to people’s trust in science and to science’s trust in people. (Grand et al., 2012) ▪ ‘Blogging is also a way to demythologize science. Unlike laws and sausages, the public should see science during its manufacture’ (J.S.Wilkins, quoted in Ritson, 2016: 3). THE INDICTMENT OF THE OLD REGIME (MIROWSKI, 2018) https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0306312718772086
  14. 14. ▪ Science suffers a democracy deficit ▪ The science/industry partnership so spurned by Dewey had become a science/military cartel instead; and the pragmatic logic of inquiry Dewey saw became a foreign ‘language of science’ consisting of formal logic and axiomatization at the hands of the logical empiricists. ▪ The ‘freedom’ of scientists had been won at the cost of the ‘freedom’ of the public to have any say in science. https://encrypted- tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQWUP1JWZrRvRJd83gYh17lk_8TxRRjmPs75U7JMxZUkPhjDNwkXaY94y5T&shttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0306312718772086
  15. 15. The slowdown in scientific productivity The explosion of retractions • RetractionWatch reports that it currently logs between 600-700 retractions per year; this suggests a substantial rate of growth in the first decade and a half of the new millennium. • A second major revelation of the blog was that, once the motives for retractions were evoked from recalcitrant journal editors, they were quite diverse, ranging from honest errors to image manipulation to outright fraud. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0306312718772086
  16. 16. Fang, FC, Casadevall, A, Morrison, R (2011) Retracted science and the retraction index. Infection and Immunity 79(10): 3855–3859.
  17. 17. Baker, M, Penny, D (2016) Is there a reproducibility crisis? Nature 533: 452–453.
  18. 18. https://www.scottdmiller.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/reproduce.png https://nobaproject.com/images/shared/images/000/002/736/original.png
  19. 19. HARGAI REPLIKASIYANG SUNGGUH  Smiling will make you feel happier  Self-control is a limited resource  Cleaning your hands will wash away your guilt  Being reminded of money makes us selfish
  20. 20. ▪1. Collaborative / cooperative way of working together ▪2. Citizen science, participatory research, research- action ▪3. Free and open software and licences ▪4. Alternative organizations aiming to bring closer research and society (Fablabs, makerspaces, science shops) ▪5. Open access to scientific resources https://www.slideshare.net/Florencepiron/fair-open-science-and-cognitive-justice
  21. 21. 1ST PILLAR: COLLABORATIVE WORK Open science encourages students and researchers to work closely together instead of being isolated from fear of being robbed Share one’s bibliographies, notes, papers, findings, data Mutually criticize texts and ideas Multiply co-authors Use web tools to write and think together Use social media Zotero, Framapad (Free version of Google drive),Trello, Authorea https://www.slideshare.net/Florencepiron/fair-open-science-and-cognitive-justice
  22. 22. 2ND PILLAR : CITIZEN SCIENCE In citizen science, non-scientists are invited to participate in research projects (without being paid) for the sake of science. Very popular in environmental surveys and observational activities. Numerous projects on sci-starter website In Participatory research-action in social science, research subjects are invited to participate in the design and the interpretation of the project. https://www.slideshare.net/Florencepiron/fair-open-science-and-cognitive-justice
  23. 23. https://www.slideshare.net/Florencepiron/fair-open-science-and-cognitive-justice
  24. 24. ▪ Analisa statistik, analisa numerik, visualisasi: Microsoft R Open, RStudio, Shiny Rstudio ▪ Reference manager: Zotero, Mendeley, dll. Mendeley termasuk pengguna terbanyak di Indonesia.Walaupun sebenarnya gratis, tapi M e n d e l e y t i d a k o p e n s o u r c e. ▪ Pengembangannya akan sangat bergantung kepada tim internalnya. Pengolah kata dan tabel: LibreOffice, OpenOffice, atau bagi peneliti bidang tertentu penggunaan LATEX dan Markdown sangat tinggi. https://zenodo.org/record/802699/files/MS_openscience_ID_ver3_3.docx?download=1
  25. 25. ▪Fablabs, makerspaces, living lab, co-working spaces : where scientists, entrepreneurs, students, teachers, etc. can come in the same place and try ideas, concepts, machines. ▪Science shops : a mediation service within a university linking civil society organization and students/professors. https://www.slideshare.net/Florencepiron/fair-open-science-and-cognitive-justice
  26. 26. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lPF7zDSf-LA
  27. 27. ▪Thanks to the web, more and more scientific publications are on the web ▪● Some of these documents are accessible only by subscription or by payment with a credit card: they are « closed ». ▪● Some documents are accessible without any barrier : they are in open access. https://www.slideshare.net/Florencepiron/fair-open-science-and-cognitive-justice
  28. 28. https://canterbury.libguides.com/sharepublish/openaccess
  29. 29. ▪ There are 2 ways authors can provide open access to their work: Open Access One way is to publish an article and then self-archive it in a repository where it can be accessed for free, such as their institutional repository, this is known as Green Open Access or Green Model.The repository allows search engines such as Google to crawl their content so the articles are accessible on the Internet. Most publishers (called green publishers) allow their authors to self-archive their publications in this way, though most only allow archiving of the “accepted version” of the article.This version is the final manuscript that has been peer reviewed, not the final formatted version published by the journal. Some publishers require delays, or a 6-12 embargo, before the article can be available in the open repository. NTU supports this route. Gold Open Access A second way authors can make their work open access is by publishing it in either a pure open access journal, or a hybrid open access journal.This is known as Gold Open Access or Gold Model. Pure open access journals do not charge subscription fees, however, many do charge an article processing charge (APC) before it proceeds to publish it. The latter is a journal whose business model is at least partially based on subscriptions, and only provide Gold open access for those individual articles for which their authors (or their author's institution or funder) pay an APC. The APC varies but can go as high as US$3000-4000. Some publishers say they will waive this fee in certain circumstances. If you wish to go this model, you need to use your own source of funding (e.g. research funds, school funds, etc.) to pay for the APC.The Library does not provide funding for this so it is recommended that Principal Investigators factor in this cost into their grant proposals. ▪ http://www.ntu.edu.sg/Library/Pages/open-access.aspx#2
  30. 30. https://theconversation.com/how-the-open-access- model-hurts-academics-in-poorer-countries-113856 “Publishers continue to make money even though they no longer charge readers to access their journals….. More altruistic publishers could even donate vouchers to universities in the developing world.”
  31. 31. Another possible solution is pressuring open access journals to waive charges for researchers in developing countries. Academics could also be encouraged to write first for journals that are affiliated to societies. Profits from these kinds of journals go back into supporting science through research grants, travel grants and meeting support. https://theconversation.com/how-the-open-access-model-hurts- academics-in-poorer-countries-113856
  32. 32. https://forbetterscience.com/2019/06/11/researchers-reject-apc- based-oa-publishing-as-promoted-by-plan-s/ Another interesting new point is: cOAlition S expects every grant receiving institution to subscribe to DORA Assessment, i.e. to promise not to evaluate researchers based on journal impact factor or other journal metrics.
  33. 33. https://i0.wp.com/sfdora.org/wp- content/uploads/2018/06/Dorabadge5.png?resize=200 %2C200&ssl=1
  34. 34. https://osf.io/download/5d8c8641c8a75d0017614dcf/?version=1&displayName=Beh%20Scienc e%20in%20Open%20Science%20Editorial_Pre-Print-2019-09-26T09%3A33%3A51.926Z.pdf
  35. 35. https://osf.io/download/5d8c8641c8a75d0017614dcf/?version=1&displayName=Beh%20Sc ience%20in%20Open%20Science%20Editorial_Pre-Print-2019-09- 26T09%3A33%3A51.926Z.pdf
  36. 36. ▪Paper Ilmiah - Apa yang terlintas?
  37. 37. ▪A geopolitical issue (competition, ratings, etc.) ▪An economic issue : For-profit publishers (Elsevier, Sage, Nature PG, etc.) make a lot of profit in publishing (online) and selling articles that scientists funded by public money give them voluntarily at no cost ▪A professional issue : quantity of publications is essential to academic careers (quality??) ▪An industrial issue : how to combine industrial secret and publication? https://www.slideshare.net/Florencepiron/fair-open- science-and-cognitive-justice
  38. 38. FIRST PURPOSE OF OPEN ACCESS ▪ Improve the productivity of research and researchers ▪ Eysenbach (2006) : Since open access maximises the number of quotations, it « is likely to benefit science by accelerating dissemination and uptake of research findings ». ▪ The quicker the results are disseminated, the quicker research advances, the more scientists publish and the morer their career prosper ▪ Journals are (now) managers of this incessant flux of results and papers. http://unescochair- cbrsr.org/pdf/presentation/Open_access_and_research_action.pdf
  39. 39. A mainly economic purpose : « Open Access to science and data = cash and economic bonanza », according to Neelie Kroes (2013),Vice-president of the European community en 2013 OECD is for open access since it increases the potentialities for innovation : « avoiding duplication while facilitating replication, accelerating discovery, and driving innovation ». Innovation that can be tranformed into merchandise, markets. http://unescochair- cbrsr.org/pdf/presentation/Open_access_and_research_action.pdf
  40. 40. Democratization of access to scientific knowledge for people without an affiliation to a university: K-12 teachers Non-professional science lovers Civil society organizations Journalists Public administrations Graduates wishing to continue to learn and think From a fiscal justice viewpoint, open access gives back to tax-payers what they funded through their tax. http://unescochair- cbrsr.org/pdf/presentation/Open_access_and_research_action.pdf
  41. 41. ▪Two possibilities for researchers: ▪Publish in an open access journal (Gold way) ▪Archive one’s papers in an institutional repository (website) (green way) ▪Conditions : ▪Researchers must commit themselves to open access ▪They must not fear journals ▪They must have electricity and web access ▪They must have a basic digital literacy, not considering that what is on the web is of less quality than what is printed. https://zenodo.org/record/231331/files/fairopenscience- decolonisingconference-161104135344%282%29.pptx?download=1
  42. 42. ▪ Our roots in innovation run deep; from mobilizing scientists’ desire for free and Open Access to the literature and building PLOS ONE to the journal it is today, to pioneering Article-Level Metrics as an alternative to journal impact factors ▪ One of our top priorities this coming year is to improve the author experience since our authors are at the center of everything we do. Among their top concerns are ‘time to first decision’ and ‘time to publication’.We share their concerns and are committed to reducing this time as much as possible across all our journals. ▪ The progress made with Aperta will not be wasted effort: we are currently exploring how to best leverage its unique strengths and capabilities to support core PLOS priorities like preprints and innovation in peer review. https://blogs.plos.org/plos/2017/12/ceo-letter-to-the-community-mudditt/
  43. 43. ▪Plan S is an initiative for open-access science publishing that was launched by Science Europe on 4 September 2018.[1] It is an initiative of "cOAlition S",[2] a consortium launched by the European Research Council and major national research agencies and funders from twelve European countries.The plan requires scientists and researchers who benefit from state-funded research organisations and institutions to publish their work in open repositories or in journals that are available to all by 2020.[3] ▪https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_S
  44. 44. ▪ authors should retain copyright on their publications, which must be published under an open license such as Creative Commons; ▪ the members of the coalition should establish robust criteria and requirements for compliant open access journals and platforms; ▪ they should also provide incentives for the creation of compliant open access journals and platforms if they do not yet exist; ▪ publication fees should be covered by the funders or universities, not individual researchers; ▪ such publication fees should be standardized and capped; ▪ universities, research organizations, and libraries should align their policies and strategies; ▪ for books and monographs, the timeline may be extended beyond 2020; ▪ open archives and repositories are acknowledged for their importance; ▪ hybrid open-access journals are not compliant with the key principle; ▪ members of the coalition should monitor and sanction compliance. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_S
  45. 45. https://data.lipi.go.id/dataverse/lipi/
  46. 46. PRAKTIK OS BAGI PENGELOLA DIK-TI ▪ current ‘academic freedoms’ are somewhat of a myth, because the existing entrenched system of deciding on funding, promotions and tenure depends more on where you publish, than on what you publish and how your work has value to others. Hence, authors have to try to publish their work in the small subset of journals that are most likely to help their careers. ▪ This scramble to publish the ‘best’ results in the ‘best’ journals causes many problems, including the high cost of such a selective process in these ‘high-impact’ journals, the repeated cost (both actual and time cost) of multiple resubmissions trying to find the ‘right place’ for the publication in the journal hierarchy, and the high opportunity cost. ▪ What we should do, instead, is actually read the article.We should also reward academics for publishing in venues that are most likely to reach and impact their intended audiences and for writing in ways that are clearly understandable to non-specialists, when those non- specialists are the intended audience. Instead, we are often too quick to dismiss such publications as non- rigorous. https://jbrittholbrook.com/2018/09/21/on-the-myth-of- academic-freedom/
  47. 47. ▪ First, I want a tool that will allow me to compare h-indexes across different fields. I understand that several researchers have discussed ways to make such comparisons. Although they undoubtedly understand the math, what I (a philosopher) want is a button I can press so that I can fairly compare my h-index with those of scientists and engineers at the same career stage. Ideally, I’d be able to use it on Scopus,Web of Science, and Google Scholar citation databases. And please make it free. ▪ The same applies to other members of society, who could make good use of tools developed for them to make academic research more accessible. Here, I mean something that goes beyond an open-access repository. Maybe someone might be interested in a ‘de-jargon’ tool, or a search engine that makes it easy for someone without extensive technical knowledge to find articles related to their problems. How could they use their own words, rather than unfamiliar technical academic terms to find what they are looking for? https://www.natureindex.com/news-blog/the-right-tools-to-empower-researchers
  48. 48. ▪Kudos points out that explaining your research in non- technical language increases accessibility to non-experts and helps you get that plain-language explanation out into the world. Kudos is also free, and its terms and conditions are simple and friendly to academics. https://www.natureindex.com/news-blog/the-right- tools-to-empower-researchers
  49. 49. ▪ Even when sources exist on-line, external hyperlinks offer only data access, not analytic or process transparency.We learn what a scholar cited but not why or how. ▪ A new and innovative approach is required. Scholars are converging to the view that the most promising and practical default standard for enhancing qualitative transparency is Active Citation (AC): a system of digitally-enabled citations linked to annotated excerpts from original sources. https://thepoliticalmethodologist.com/2015/01/01/one- norm-two-standards-realizing-transparency-in- qualitative-political-science/#_edn18
  50. 50. ▪ In the AC format, any citation to a contestable empirical claim is hyperlinked to an entry in an appendix appended to the scholarly work (the “Transparency Appendix” (TRAX)).[xviii] Each TRAX entry contains four elements, the first three required and the last one optionally: ▪ a short excerpt from the source (presumptively 50-100 words long); ▪ an annotation explaining how the source supports the underlying claim in the main text (of a length at the author’s discretion); ▪ the full citation; ▪ optionally,a scan of or link to the full source. https://thepoliticalmethodologist.com/2015/01/01/one- norm-two-standards-realizing-transparency-in- qualitative-political-science/#_edn18
  51. 51. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Juneman_Abraham
  52. 52. DATA TRANSPARENCY, OBLIGES SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO PUBLICIZE THE EVIDENCE ON WHICH THEIR RESEARCH RESTS. ANALYTIC TRANSPARENCY, OBLIGES SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO PUBLICIZE HOW THEY MEASURE, CODE, INTERPRET, AND ANALYZE THAT DATA. PROCESS TRANSPARENCY, OBLIGES SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO PUBLICIZE THE BROADER SET OF RESEARCH DESIGN CHOICES THAT GAVE RISE TO THE PARTICULAR COMBINATION OF DATA, THEORIES, AND METHODS THEY EMPLOY. HTTPS://THEPOLITICALMETHO DOLOGIST.COM/2015/01/01/O NE-NORM-TWO-STANDARDS- REALIZING-TRANSPARENCY- IN-QUALITATIVE-POLITICAL- SCIENCE/
  53. 53. ▪ Open Science (atau: Science): membiarkan semua pihak mengetahui dan terlibat dalam proses sains manapun, termasuk tinjauan sejawat pada saat menulis proposal riset. Aneh jika kita tidak tahu tetangga kita mengerjakan riset apa, dan ternyata satu topik dengan kita. ▪ Beberapa insentif tingkat institusional: memberikan sabuk untuk jurnal yang menerapkan preregistrasi, atau perguruan tinggi memberikan kriteria angka kredit bagi kenaikan jabatan akademik/jabatan fungsional bagi dosen/peneliti yang melakukan praktik open science. ▪ Akses terbuka memungkinkan dilakukannya penggunaan kembali (lihat lisensinya) bahkan meta-analisis, bukan hanya bebas membaca. Stigma terhadap kualitas jurnal dengan akses terbuka, disebabkan karena ulah sejumlah penerbit predator yang juga menampilkan tampang akses terbuka. https://f1000.com/resources/F1000R_Guide_OpenScience.pdf
  54. 54. ▪ Open peer review bukan hanya soal 'open'-nya, tetapi juga soal menyeimbangkan sentimen reviewer tertentu. Semua hasil review tidak bisa tidak mesti dipertanggungjawabkan kepada publik, bukan hanya kepada editor jurnal secara single-blind atau double-blind. Manajemen impresi reviewer dapat mendorong review yang lebih konstruktif. Di samping itu, manajemen pengetahuan hasil-hasil open review merupakan 'modal sosial', di samping 'kapital pengetahuan', yang luar biasa. Kualitas open peer review memiliki variasi tingkatan; ScienceOpen menerapkan moderasi dan filter kualifikasi reviewer, misalnya. Lokus open peer review bisa di dalam atau di luar artikel itu sendiri. ▪ Falsifikasi tabel atau gambar dapat diperkecil dengan open data. ▪ Sudah saatnya bukan hanya publikasi yang dapat dianggap memberikan kontribusi kepada sains, tetapi juga deposisi data dalam depositori dan juga open data serta penerbitan data (lihat juga: data in brief). ▪ Gerakan yang lebih 'radikal' adalah open notebook yang berlangsung secara 'real time' juntuk setiap fase dan faset kegiatan penelitian. https://f1000.com/resources/F1000R_Guide_OpenScience.pdf
  55. 55. ▪ https://sainsterbuka. carrd.co/ ▪ https://sainsterbuka. readthedocs.io/en/l atest/ ▪ Demokratisasi Pengetahuan: https://osf.io/kt7f6/ download ▪ https://mhs.blog.ui. ac.id/juneman/2019 /02/28/democratizin g-knowledge-for- our-dream/

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