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OPEN SCIENCE /
RESEARCH
CONTENT
• What is Open Science / Research?
• Initiative by die European Union (EU)
• Elements of Open Science:
• Open Research Process / Cycle
• Open Access (open repositories)
• Open Data ( open repositories)
• Open Source software (open repositories)
• Open Notebook (Virtual Research Environments – VRE’s)
• Open Workflows
• Open reputation systems (scientific social media)
• Citizen Science
• Relationship between Open Research and e-Research
• Open Science in Africa & South Africa
I was recently asked to define what Open Science
means. It would have been relatively easy to fall back on
a litany of “Open Source, Open Data, Open Access,
Open Notebook”, but these are just shorthand for four
fundamental goals:
• Transparency in experimental methodology,
observation, and collection of data.
• Public availability and reusability of scientific data.
• Public accessibility and transparency of scientific
communication.
• Using web-based tools to facilitate scientific
collaboration. http://www.openscience.org/blog/?p=269
WHAT, EXACTLY, IS OPEN SCIENCE?
https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/
In June 2015, the EU Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation
Carlos Moedas defined three strategic priorities: Open Innovation, Open
Science and Openness to the World.
• Open Science describes the on-going transitions in the way research is
performed, researchers collaborate, knowledge is shared, and science
is organised. It is enabled by digital technologies, and driven by: the
enormous growth of data, the globalisation and enlargement of the
scientific community to new actors (e.g. citizen science), and the need
to address societal challenges.
• The way in which scientific results are disseminated and assessed is
changing. This is reflected in the rise of new scientific disciplines,
innovative pathways in publishing (among them a substantial rise of
open access journals), new scientific reputation systems, and changes
in the way the quality and impact of research are evaluated.
• In the short term, Open Science is expected to lead to more
transparency, research integrity, openness, inclusiveness and
networked collaboration. In the long term, it should increase the impact
and quality of science, making science more efficient, reliable and
responsive to the grand challenges of our times as well as foster co-
creation and Open Innovation. http://ec.europa.eu/research/openscience/index.cfm
https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/resources
Semantic tree (FOSTER)
Project management
Proposal writingReal time
communication
Open
communication
Training / mentoringOpen eLearning
system for
researchers e.g.
MOOCs
Identification of
funding sources
Identification of
research area
Literature review &
indexing
Identification of
collaborators
Dissemination &
artifacts
Open Access:
journal articles,
data sets,
presentations /
papers, social
media
Scientific workflow
Open Electronic Lab /
Note book
Open source software
Web-based tools
for collaboration
Transparency in methodology,
observation, collection of data
and results
Open Research: Research Cycle
Citizen science
Open workflows e.g.
MyExperiment
Open reputation
systems
OPEN ACCESS
OPEN DATA
• Open data is the idea that some data should be freely
available to everyone to use and republish as they wish,
without restrictions from copyright, patents or other
mechanisms of control.[1] The goals of the open data
movement are similar to those of other "open"
movements such as open source, open hardware, open
content, and open access. The philosophy behind open
data has been long established (for example in the
Mertonian tradition of science), but the term "open data"
itself is recent, gaining popularity with the rise of the
Internet and World Wide Web and, especially, with the
launch of open-data government initiatives such as
Data.gov and Data.gov.uk. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_data
OPEN SOURCE
Open source software is software whose source
code is available for modification or enhancement by
anyone. "Source code" is the part of software that
most computer users don't ever see; it's the code
computer programmers can manipulate to change
how a piece of software—a "program" or
"application"—works.
OPEN SCIENCE SOFTWARE
OPEN NOTEBOOK
Open notebook science is the practice of making the
entire primary record of a research project publicly
available online as it is recorded. This involves placing the
personal, or laboratory, notebook of the researcher online
along with all raw and processed data, and any associated
material, as this material is generated. The approach may
be summed up by the slogan 'no insider information'. It is
the logical extreme of transparent approaches to research
and explicitly includes the making available of failed, less
significant, and otherwise unpublished experiments; so
called 'dark data'.[1]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_notebook_science
FROM PAPER TO ELECTRONIC LAB
NOTEBOOKS (ELN)
OPEN COLLABORATION
Open collaboration is the principle underlying peer
production, mass collaboration, and wikinomics.[1] It was
observed initially in open source software, but can also be
found in many other instances, such as in Internet
forums,[2] mailing lists,[3] Internet communities,[4] and many
instances of open content, such as creative commons. It
also explains some instances of crowdsourcing,
collaborative consumption, and open innovation.[7]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_collaboration
16
Analysis
Publication
ReviewConceptualisation
Data
gathering
Open
access
Scientific
blogs Collaborative
bibliographies
Alternative
Reputation
systems
Citizens
science
Open
code
Open
workflows
Open
annotation
Open
data
Pre-
print
Data-
intensive
Sci-starter.com
Runmycode.o
rg
ArXiv
Roar.eprints.
org
Impact Story
Altmetric.com
Mendeley.com
Academia.edu
Researchgate.com
Openannotation.org
Datadryad.org
Myexperiment.org
Figshare.com
An emerging
ecosystem of
services and
standards
It's real!
OPEN REPUTATION SYSTEMS (AND
OTHER INTERNET RESEARCH TOOLS)
http://101innovations.wordpress.com
CITIZEN SCIENCE
Citizen science (also known as crowd science,
crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer
monitoring or networked science) is scientific
research conducted, in whole or in part, by
amateur or nonprofessional scientists.
Citizen science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizen_science
Zooniverse is a citizen science web portal owned and operated by the Citizen
Science Alliance. It is home to the internet's largest, most popular and most
successful citizen science projects.[3] The organization grew from the original
Galaxy Zoo project and now hosts dozens of projects which allow volunteers
to participate in crowdsourced scientific research. It has headquarters at
Oxford University and the Adler Planetarium.[4] Unlike many early internet-
based citizen science projects (such as SETI@home) which used spare
computer processing power to analyse data, known as volunteer computing,
Zooniverse projects require the active participation of human volunteers
to complete research tasks. Projects have been drawn from disciplines
including astronomy, ecology, cell biology, humanities, and climate
science.[5]
As of 14 February 2014[update], the Zooniverse community consisted of more
than 1 million registered volunteers.[6] The volunteers are often collectively
referred to as "Zooites".[7][8] The data collected from the various projects has
led to the publication of more than 70 scientific papers.[9] A daily news
website called 'The Daily Zooniverse' provides information on the different
projects under the Zooniverse umbrella, and has a presence on social media.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zooniverse_(citizen_science_project
MyShake is a free app for Android phones
that has the ability to recognize earthquake
shaking using the sensors in every
smartphone. The app runs “silently” in the
background on your phone using very little
power – just like the step-tracking fitness
apps. When the shaking fits the vibrational
profile of an earthquake, the app sends the
anonymous information to our central
system that confirms the location and
magnitude of the quake.
Our goal is to build a worldwide seismic
network and use the data to reduce the
effects of earthquakes on us as individuals,
and our society as a whole. MyShake also
provides users with information about
recent earthquakes around the world and
significant global historical earthquakes.
We hope to have an iPhone version in the
future.
http://myshake.berkeley.edu/
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OPEN
RESEARCH AND E-RESEARCH
Open Research
eResearch
African Open Data Platform Initiative
ICSU-CODATA
• Proposals for Open Data Platform initiatives, Africa
and Latin America and Caribbean.
• Holistic ‘science systems’ approach: policies,
procedures, incentives, data infrastructure, scholarly
communications, skills and training.
• Keystone is to establish an Open Data Platform
with a coordinating role.
• Pilot initiative funded by Department of Science and
Technology in South Africa: nearly 500K euros over
three years.
• Will pilot approach in a number of African
countries.
• Implemented by staff from South African Academy of
Sciences, under direction from ICSU-CODATA.
• Currently undertaking preparatory study chart
the data landscape and build partnerships
simon@codata.org
OPEN SCIENCE / RESEARCH IN SA
Feedback: SA-EU Open Science Workshop Programme held 30 November - 1
December 2017
The most important feedback is that the DST plans to finalise an Open Science Policy for South Africa
in September 2018. This workshop will be followed by several other workshops / dialogue sessions in
2018 in order to create the Open Science Policy. These follow-up workshops will be smaller and more
exclusive in order to get the work done. The EU is playing a huge role in the policy formulation.
The first morning's presentations are available on
dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/pldwte3y56b2i20/AADRVhHlWgF8lQcEhyTfUCu6a?dl=0
The rest of the two days were used for eleven different workshops on the following themes: Open Data;
Open Science and Open Innovation; Open Science Governance and Regulation; Skills and Training;
Infrastructure; Funding; Metrics and Incentives; Citizen Science; Intellectual Property Rights, and Africa
and SADC Region.
An EC report on 'Providing researchers with the skills and competenciesthey need to practise Open
Science' (https://ec.europa.eu/research/openscience/pdf/os_skills_wgreport_final.pdf) could be very useful
for SA researchers.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
• Crouzier, Thomas. 2015. Science Ecosystem 2.0: how
will change occur?. http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/expert-
groups/rise/science_ecosystem_2.0-how_will_change_occur_crouzier_072015.pdf#view=fit&pagemode=none

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Open science / open research

  • 2. CONTENT • What is Open Science / Research? • Initiative by die European Union (EU) • Elements of Open Science: • Open Research Process / Cycle • Open Access (open repositories) • Open Data ( open repositories) • Open Source software (open repositories) • Open Notebook (Virtual Research Environments – VRE’s) • Open Workflows • Open reputation systems (scientific social media) • Citizen Science • Relationship between Open Research and e-Research • Open Science in Africa & South Africa
  • 3. I was recently asked to define what Open Science means. It would have been relatively easy to fall back on a litany of “Open Source, Open Data, Open Access, Open Notebook”, but these are just shorthand for four fundamental goals: • Transparency in experimental methodology, observation, and collection of data. • Public availability and reusability of scientific data. • Public accessibility and transparency of scientific communication. • Using web-based tools to facilitate scientific collaboration. http://www.openscience.org/blog/?p=269 WHAT, EXACTLY, IS OPEN SCIENCE?
  • 5. In June 2015, the EU Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation Carlos Moedas defined three strategic priorities: Open Innovation, Open Science and Openness to the World. • Open Science describes the on-going transitions in the way research is performed, researchers collaborate, knowledge is shared, and science is organised. It is enabled by digital technologies, and driven by: the enormous growth of data, the globalisation and enlargement of the scientific community to new actors (e.g. citizen science), and the need to address societal challenges. • The way in which scientific results are disseminated and assessed is changing. This is reflected in the rise of new scientific disciplines, innovative pathways in publishing (among them a substantial rise of open access journals), new scientific reputation systems, and changes in the way the quality and impact of research are evaluated. • In the short term, Open Science is expected to lead to more transparency, research integrity, openness, inclusiveness and networked collaboration. In the long term, it should increase the impact and quality of science, making science more efficient, reliable and responsive to the grand challenges of our times as well as foster co- creation and Open Innovation. http://ec.europa.eu/research/openscience/index.cfm
  • 7. Project management Proposal writingReal time communication Open communication Training / mentoringOpen eLearning system for researchers e.g. MOOCs Identification of funding sources Identification of research area Literature review & indexing Identification of collaborators Dissemination & artifacts Open Access: journal articles, data sets, presentations / papers, social media Scientific workflow Open Electronic Lab / Note book Open source software Web-based tools for collaboration Transparency in methodology, observation, collection of data and results Open Research: Research Cycle Citizen science Open workflows e.g. MyExperiment Open reputation systems
  • 9.
  • 10. OPEN DATA • Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.[1] The goals of the open data movement are similar to those of other "open" movements such as open source, open hardware, open content, and open access. The philosophy behind open data has been long established (for example in the Mertonian tradition of science), but the term "open data" itself is recent, gaining popularity with the rise of the Internet and World Wide Web and, especially, with the launch of open-data government initiatives such as Data.gov and Data.gov.uk. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_data
  • 11. OPEN SOURCE Open source software is software whose source code is available for modification or enhancement by anyone. "Source code" is the part of software that most computer users don't ever see; it's the code computer programmers can manipulate to change how a piece of software—a "program" or "application"—works.
  • 13. OPEN NOTEBOOK Open notebook science is the practice of making the entire primary record of a research project publicly available online as it is recorded. This involves placing the personal, or laboratory, notebook of the researcher online along with all raw and processed data, and any associated material, as this material is generated. The approach may be summed up by the slogan 'no insider information'. It is the logical extreme of transparent approaches to research and explicitly includes the making available of failed, less significant, and otherwise unpublished experiments; so called 'dark data'.[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_notebook_science
  • 14. FROM PAPER TO ELECTRONIC LAB NOTEBOOKS (ELN)
  • 15. OPEN COLLABORATION Open collaboration is the principle underlying peer production, mass collaboration, and wikinomics.[1] It was observed initially in open source software, but can also be found in many other instances, such as in Internet forums,[2] mailing lists,[3] Internet communities,[4] and many instances of open content, such as creative commons. It also explains some instances of crowdsourcing, collaborative consumption, and open innovation.[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_collaboration
  • 17. OPEN REPUTATION SYSTEMS (AND OTHER INTERNET RESEARCH TOOLS) http://101innovations.wordpress.com
  • 18.
  • 19. CITIZEN SCIENCE Citizen science (also known as crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring or networked science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur or nonprofessional scientists. Citizen science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizen_science
  • 20. Zooniverse is a citizen science web portal owned and operated by the Citizen Science Alliance. It is home to the internet's largest, most popular and most successful citizen science projects.[3] The organization grew from the original Galaxy Zoo project and now hosts dozens of projects which allow volunteers to participate in crowdsourced scientific research. It has headquarters at Oxford University and the Adler Planetarium.[4] Unlike many early internet- based citizen science projects (such as SETI@home) which used spare computer processing power to analyse data, known as volunteer computing, Zooniverse projects require the active participation of human volunteers to complete research tasks. Projects have been drawn from disciplines including astronomy, ecology, cell biology, humanities, and climate science.[5] As of 14 February 2014[update], the Zooniverse community consisted of more than 1 million registered volunteers.[6] The volunteers are often collectively referred to as "Zooites".[7][8] The data collected from the various projects has led to the publication of more than 70 scientific papers.[9] A daily news website called 'The Daily Zooniverse' provides information on the different projects under the Zooniverse umbrella, and has a presence on social media. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zooniverse_(citizen_science_project
  • 21.
  • 22. MyShake is a free app for Android phones that has the ability to recognize earthquake shaking using the sensors in every smartphone. The app runs “silently” in the background on your phone using very little power – just like the step-tracking fitness apps. When the shaking fits the vibrational profile of an earthquake, the app sends the anonymous information to our central system that confirms the location and magnitude of the quake. Our goal is to build a worldwide seismic network and use the data to reduce the effects of earthquakes on us as individuals, and our society as a whole. MyShake also provides users with information about recent earthquakes around the world and significant global historical earthquakes. We hope to have an iPhone version in the future. http://myshake.berkeley.edu/
  • 23. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OPEN RESEARCH AND E-RESEARCH Open Research eResearch
  • 24. African Open Data Platform Initiative ICSU-CODATA • Proposals for Open Data Platform initiatives, Africa and Latin America and Caribbean. • Holistic ‘science systems’ approach: policies, procedures, incentives, data infrastructure, scholarly communications, skills and training. • Keystone is to establish an Open Data Platform with a coordinating role. • Pilot initiative funded by Department of Science and Technology in South Africa: nearly 500K euros over three years. • Will pilot approach in a number of African countries. • Implemented by staff from South African Academy of Sciences, under direction from ICSU-CODATA. • Currently undertaking preparatory study chart the data landscape and build partnerships simon@codata.org
  • 25. OPEN SCIENCE / RESEARCH IN SA Feedback: SA-EU Open Science Workshop Programme held 30 November - 1 December 2017 The most important feedback is that the DST plans to finalise an Open Science Policy for South Africa in September 2018. This workshop will be followed by several other workshops / dialogue sessions in 2018 in order to create the Open Science Policy. These follow-up workshops will be smaller and more exclusive in order to get the work done. The EU is playing a huge role in the policy formulation. The first morning's presentations are available on dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/pldwte3y56b2i20/AADRVhHlWgF8lQcEhyTfUCu6a?dl=0 The rest of the two days were used for eleven different workshops on the following themes: Open Data; Open Science and Open Innovation; Open Science Governance and Regulation; Skills and Training; Infrastructure; Funding; Metrics and Incentives; Citizen Science; Intellectual Property Rights, and Africa and SADC Region. An EC report on 'Providing researchers with the skills and competenciesthey need to practise Open Science' (https://ec.europa.eu/research/openscience/pdf/os_skills_wgreport_final.pdf) could be very useful for SA researchers.
  • 26. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Crouzier, Thomas. 2015. Science Ecosystem 2.0: how will change occur?. http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/expert- groups/rise/science_ecosystem_2.0-how_will_change_occur_crouzier_072015.pdf#view=fit&pagemode=none