Going for Gold and Greener Pastures: Open Access Explained
Presentation by Lisa Kruesi, Helen Morgan and Andrew Heath from The University of Queensland Scholarly Publishing and Digititisation Service for Open Access Week, October 2012.
Going for Gold and Greener Pastures: Open Access Explained Lisa Kruesi, Helen Morgan and Andrew Heath Scholarly Publishing and Digitisation Service Open Access Week, October 2012
Session Objectives• Introduction to open access (OA)• Setting the scene• Situation at UQ – eSpace & green OA – Development of OA research data• Opportunities & pitfalls• Who to contact at UQ Library for helpOpen Access Logo: Art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, andJakobVoss http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_access
Open Access (OA) Definition• OA literature is digital, free of most copyright and licensing restrictions• Focus on peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles via Internet• There are two different ways of obtaining open accessibility to scientific research results: Green and Gold.• OA is also increasingly being provided to data, books and book chapters, conference papers, theses, working papers and preprints.• Open content is similar to OA, but may include the right to modify the work• While open access relies on the consent of copyright holders to share their work, making material open access will not deprive copyright holders of any rights. Copyright laws still apply.1. "Open Access." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 18 June 2012. Web 3 September 2012. available:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_access2. Suber, Peter. Open Access. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
Open Access (OA) Definition• Green Self Archiving - • Gold OA journals provide authors publish in a journal free, immediate access to and archives a freely the articles via publisher available version of the web sites that may or may manuscript in their not carry author fees. The institutions repository, or Public Library of Science in a national repository (for (PLOS) is an example. example, PubMed Central) • There are hybrid OA or post them on other OA journals providing Gold OA sites. Green journal for authors who pay an up- publishers are those that front-fee to publish on their allow self-archiving. journal’s web site.
World’s firstscientific journalSource: ARL Statistics 2006-2007, Association of Research Libraries, Washington, D.C.*includes electronic resources from 1999-2000 onward.
Scholarly Publishing Trends Australian Many Universities set GovernmentAccess shifts from up research Most libraries need to invests $26 millionpersonal subscriptions repositories to record & cancel journals to pay to establish digitaltowards library- store research outputs for new subscriptions repositories inprovided access. by University staff and UniversitiesTenopir, C. students 1970-1990s 1990s+ 2000+ 2001 2008-2009 2012 Sales of large portfolios of e- Open access emerges led by There is a patchy- journals content (‘big-deals’) scholars, to make publicly approach world-wide to to libraries via consortia deals funded research available establishing funding is the predominant way to all. The Budapest Open schemes to pay for OA research content is purchased Access Iniative occurs. author fees at Creative Commons universities founded.
New model Subscriber pays User pays • Publication paid for by the author,• Journals paid for by the author’s institution or readers, libraries and research grant institutions • Payment is via an Author• Payment by annual Processing Charge (APC) subscription / consortia deal / page charges • Payments are transparent• One-off payments for • Publisher can be the author specific issues or a fee for article delivery (pay per view) • No access restrictions• Licensed content • Subject to Copyright Act / Creative Commons• Content is restricted Solomon, D. J., & Björk, B. C. (2012). A study of open access journals using article processing charges. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(8), 1485-1495
Budapest Open Access Initiative“Open access is economically feasible, it gives readers extraordinary power to find and make use of relevant literature, and it gives authors and their works vast and measurable new visibility, readership, and impact.” http://www.soros.org/openaccess/
Set the Scene: Sign HereGo To This Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GMIY_4t-DR0 License: Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed)
How can the UQ Library help?• UQ eSpace – Research outputs including UQ research higher degree theses – Text Queensland – Digilib• Advice & updates (Copyright & Library Lawyer)• The Library’s web site for access• eScholarship: research data, publishing, impact blog• UQ Library Catalogue / http://www.library.uq.edu.au/research- support/open-access-week
Top ten journals from Thomson Reuters JCRWeb,General & Internal Medicine 2011: Myriad of options Medicine, General & Internal 2011 Abbreviated Journal Title ISSN Total Cites Impact Factor Open Access Status OA 1990+ research articles free after 6 mths/ BLUE 1 NEW ENGL J MED 0028-4793 232068 53.298 GREEN 2 LANCET 0140-6736 158906 38.278 WHITE 3 JAMA-J AM MED ASSOC 0098-7484 117668 30.026 WHITE 4 ANN INTERN MED 0003-4819 45683 16.733 *National GOLD 5 PLOS MED 1549-1277 12574 16.269 licence paid GREEN 6 BRIT MED J 0959-535X 74759 14.093 for in Australian WHITE 3 ARCH INTERN MED 0003-9926 37598 11.462 by the WHITE 3 CAN MED ASSOC J 0820-3946 11413 8.217 NHMRC GOLD 9 BMC MED 1741-7015 1835 6.035 BLUE 10 COCHRANE DB SYST REV * 1469-493X 29593 5.715 RoMEO Colour Archiving policy Green Can archive pre-print and post-print or publishers version/PDF Blue Can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing) or publishers version/PDF Yellow Can archive pre-print (ie pre-refereeing) White Archiving not formally supported Gold
Independent of OA• Journals can be more open or less open. But there degree of openness is independent from their: *Impact, *Prestige, *Quality of Peer Review, *Peer Review Methodology *Sustainability, *Effect on Tenure & Promotion *Article QualityTaken from: HowOpenIsIt: http://www.library.uq.edu.au/research-support/what-open-access-publishing
Where to publishIdentifying publishing opportunities • Decide early (before drafting the paper). Look for a journal and then write the paper • Look for journals that have published in your discipline area • Consider journals that have published work you cite • Audience – who will read your article? • Prestige – does the journal appear on the ERA journal listings? • Predatory Publishers List • Checklist for evaluation • Access – will you publish in an open access journal? • Impact – refers to how often a journal’s content is cited by other authors, thereby giving an indication of the influence of a publication. • Likelihood of acceptance – top tier v’s less prestigious journals • Does it cost to publish in the journal? • More details: Where to Publish Your Journal Article and the Open Access Spectrum (OAS) HowOpenIsIt Guide
Open Access - Evolving• BioMed Central (BMC)• Of the 265 journal titles listed within BMC, 192 (72%) appear on the ERA 2012 Journal List Processing fee 15% payable Amount by UQ payable by author AUS $1841 AUS $275 AUS $1566• The Wellcome Trust has teamed up with the Max Planck Society in Germany and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in the US to set up a new open-access journal called eLife.• According to the new editor: the journal will take on the very top end of the scientific publishing industry, as a visible high- profile competitor to Nature and Science“• PLOS Medicine is number five in the top Medicine, General & Internal – JCRWeb, 2011 – Impact Factor 16.3• More details: Open Access
Addendum• All OA journals and 70% non-OA journal allow authors to self archive their peer reviewed post prints - for the remaining journals an authors addendum can be used to vary the terms of a publication agreement• UQ Addendum on the UQ Library OA website
Mandates• UK Wellcome Trust and the Research Councils (2006)• US National Institute of Health (2007)•• Australia National Health and Medical Research Council (2012) – The Australian Government makes a major investment in research to support its essential role in improving the wellbeing of our society. To maximise the benefits from research, publications resulting from research activities must be disseminated as broadly as possible to allow access by other researchers and the wider community. NHMRC acknowledges that researchers take into account a wide range of factors in deciding on the best outlets for publications arising from their research.• And More
Policy transforming open access• Stronger version of the UK Research Councils OA policy• Most of the OA Finch Report recommendations accepted UK government• Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) plan to require OA research be submitted to the next Research Excellence Framework in 2014• European Commission make OA general principle for their Horizon Plans 2014-20• Australian Research Council 2012
What is UQ eSpace?• A place to record and showcase UQ research publications, raising visibility and accessibility• An institutional repository for: – open access publications – other digitised materials such as photographs, audio, videos, manuscripts and other original works – UQ Research Higher Degree Theses + some others• The single authoritative source for the publication outputs of UQ systems internal systems such as Q-Index and UQ Researchers (and those currently under development)• Provides data for reporting requirements such as ERA and HERDC
What is in eSpace?Document type Total records OA recordsJournal Article 94965 4245ConferencePapers 36486 2608Book Chapters 10127 431Theses * 9681 550Images 5515 5515Books 5343 575* 7484 theses - UQ staff and students onlyOther documents types include: Research Reports, Preprints, WorkingPapers, Creative Works, Designs, Audio and Videos
How do records get into eSpace? • Weekly downloads from Web of Science – publications with UQ as the nominated institution • Automatic downloads from Researcher ID accounts • Manual entry via the My UQ eSpace page (by staff and Unit Public • RHD Theses – electronic upload is compulsory
MY UQ eSpace• My Research – lists publications linked to the author’s Aurion ID• Possibly My Research? – lists records not yet linked to an id but where there is a name match• Add Missing Publication – allows researcher to add publications not yet in eSpace
Flow of records to other systems• Q – Index – updated daily from eSpace (this includes records not yet published in eSpace)• UQ reSEARCHers – updated daily; only includes published records• Used in HERDC and ERA submissions as required
Benefits of UQ eSpace• UQ eSpace Data is harvested by major search engines• Page views and Download statistics recorded• Access Scopus and WOS citation counts• Supported and ongoing access to your research publications• Researcher homepage (http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/e1mlu)• ResearcherID integration (updates and links)• Unique Author ID• Accurate data for reporting and individual research reporting (e.g. Q-Index)
UQ eSpace – future developments• OA support – Sherpa/Romeo integration – UQDI project (800 items to be added) – NHMRC OA mandate• Automated Scopus downloads• Author ID linking (ORCID, Scorcid, ResearcherID)• Development of UQ OA policy and considerations for OA theses
Green Repositories http://www.oclc.org/oaister/ 23 million recordsPubMedCentral 2.4 millionarXiv (physics) 766,772 (230 records added daily)RePEC (Research Papers in Economics) 1 million documents (333 addeddaily)Social Sciences Research Network (350,000 fulltext docs)doab (directory of open access books) http://www.doabooks.org/doabThere are more: Registry of Open Access RepositoriesVideo – Green versus Gold + Benefits of OA
Development of OA Research DataOpen Data is the idea that certain data should be freely available to everyoneto use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patentsor other mechanisms of control.The concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally establishedwith the formation of the World Data Centre system in 1957-1958.World Data Centres were established by the International Council for Science tominimize the risk of data loss and to maximize data accessibility.While the open-science-data movement long predates the Internet, theavailability of fast, ubiquitous networking has significantly changed the context,since publishing and obtaining data has become much less expensive andtime-consuming."Open Data." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 18 June 2012. Web 28 August 2012. available:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_data
Why make research data OA?The Denton Declaration, An Open Data Manifesto• Open access to research data is critical for advancing science, scholarship, and society.• Research data, when repurposed, has an accretive value.• Publicly funded research should be publicly available for public good.• Transparency in research is essential to sustain the public trust.• The validation of research data by the peer community is an essential function of the responsible conduct of research.• Managing research data is the responsibility of a broad community of stakeholders including researchers, funders, institutions, libraries, archivists, and the public.The Denton Declaration, An Open Data Manifesto, The University of North Texas. Web 23 Oct 2012. available http://openaccess.unt.edu/denton_declaration
Why make research data OA?Benefits to researchers - • Increase how visible your research is • Preserve your data • Meet funding requirements • Stop duplication of effort • Further the advance of science • Support Open Access• Data sharing has the potential to increase citations of your work. The authors of one study1 established that publicly available data was associated with a 69% increase in citations, independent of journal impact factor, date of publication, and author country of origin.1. Piwowar HA, Day RS, Fridsma DB, 2007 ‘Sharing Detailed Research Data is Associated with Increased Citation Rate’. PLoS ONE 2(3): e308. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0000308
OA research data Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research “Policies are required that address the ownership of research materials and data, their storage, their retention beyond the end of the project, and appropriate access to them by the research community.” Funding bodiesThe NHMRC revised policy for the dissemination of research findings came into effect on 1 July 2012. The NHMRC requires that any publications arising from an NHMRC supported research project must be deposited into an open access institutional repository within a twelve month period from the date of publication. Journal requirements Publishing in a Nature journal? “… authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers.” Nature Publishing Group
Open DataFrom a Nature News special on Data Sharing: “Research cannot flourish if data are not preserved and made accessible. All concerned must act accordingly.” “Data management should be woven into every course in science, as one of the foundations of knowledge.”Editorial: Datas Shameful Neglect" (10 September 2009). Nature 461, 145 doi:10.1038/461145a; Published online 9 September 2009; Corrected 23September 2009
Present situation• Taxpayers’ fund research• New knowledge not available to all• Researchers do the intellectual work – writing & peer review• Publishers make huge profits• Established journals, often have prestige (high impact factor)• Small number of dominant publishers• Evidence OA results in increased impact• Significant increase in OA journals• Mandates & policy developments
Opportunities, Pitfalls & Way Forward• Prof Matthew Brown’s videos: Part 1: Importance of Open Access to Discovery http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R0PWU_VRxoA• Series of Scholarly Publishing Videos including Open Access http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL00C07719206487B3&feature=plcp• Vanity Publishing & Predatory Publishers List – OMICS case example• Summed up: Whither Science Publishing http://the- scientist.com/2012/08/01/whither-science-publishing/• Open Access Week Oct 22-28 2012• Academic Paper
Inescapable conclusions• Argued an open access publishing system would be less costly than the current system, less time- consuming and cumbersome for users, since complicated authentication systems can go and users could be assured a full-text copy of whatever research they need.• Open access would not only guarantee access to current scholarship, but would also safeguard the long term archiving of the existing body of scholarly research literature.
The FutureIt is predicted that Gold OA will accountfor 50 percent of the scholarly journalarticles sometime between 2017 and2021, and 90 percent of articles as soonas 2020 and more conservatively by2025.Lewis, D. W. (2012) The Inevitability of Open Access, College & Research Libraries, 73(5),493-506
Who to contact• UQ Library’s Research Information Service• Copyright questions• eSpace questions• General enquiries• Lisa Kruesi, Andrew Heath & Helen Morgan