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Local Governance in the Philippines


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Local Governance

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Local Governance in the Philippines

  1. 1. Local Governance in the Philippines Leadership, Structure and Process and Political System By Dr. Eusebio F. Miclat, Jr. Wondrous Prints and Publishing May 2012 Presented by: Josefina B. Bitonio, DPA For PA 101 Local Government Administration
  2. 2. Rationale The presentation attempts to account issues problems, developments, achievement encountered and made by local government units as a result of decentralization triggered by the Local Government Code 23 years after its historic passage into law in October 1991
  3. 3. Chapter 1 Local Government in the Philippines  forefront of public service  big government in rural areas  extension of national government  delivers social, economic, political and administrative goods and services
  4. 4. Concepts A. The 1987 constitution calls LGUs as an integral parts of a country below the central government
  5. 5. B. Local Government in the Philippines is divided into four levels: Autonomous regions Provinces and cities independent from a province Component cities and municipalities Barangays
  6. 6. Type Head of Administration Number Region Regional governor* 17 Province Governor 80 Municipality Mayor 1,494 City Mayor 140 Village /neighborhood Barangay Chairman /Barangay Captain 42,027 *only for autonomous regions 30 June 2012
  7. 7. as of 30 September 2014
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  13. 13. Rationale for Local Government  a strategy of national government for dividing or delegating power by area or level  vehicle of local democracy, providing services responsive to local needs and conditions
  14. 14. Rationale for Local Government Constitute local branch of the national government apparatus in articulating, aggregating and executing state policies in key areas
  15. 15. Ecology of Local Government  Pre – Colonial Culture - rich indo- malay culture influenced by China, India, Arabia and Japan  Pre – Spanish Period, Before 1521  Spanish period 1565-1898  The 1st Philippine republic 1898 -1902  The American Period (1898-1935)
  16. 16. Ecology of Local Government  The Commonwealth Period (1935 – 1946)  Japanese Philippine Occupation (1942 -1945)  The Second Republic (1946-1972)  The Martial Law Period (1972 -1986)  The Third Republic (1987 to Present)
  17. 17. Prehistoric Philippines Datus, Rajahs and Sultans Spanish colony Crown Colony
  18. 18. Philippine Revolution La Liga Filipina Jose Rizal Marcelo H. del Pilar Graciano López Jaena Mariano Ponce La Solidaridad
  19. 19. Katipunan Andres Bonifacio Gregorio del Pilar Melchora Aquino
  20. 20. Spanish - American War First Philippine Republic Emilio Aguinaldo Apolinario Mabini Pedro Paterno Mariano Trias
  21. 21. Philippine - American War American territory US Military Governor: Arthur MacArthur, Jr.
  22. 22. Commonwealth of the Philippines Quezon, Manuel L.
  23. 23. Republic of the Philippines Third Republic of the Philippines Manuel Roxas Elpidio Quirino Ramon Magsaysay Carlos P. Garcia Diosdado Macapagal
  24. 24. Mar tial Law Era Ferdinand Marcos Benigno Aquino, Jr. EDSA Revolution
  25. 25. Fif th Republic of the Philippines Corazon Aquino Fidel Ramos Joseph Estrada EDSA II Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Benigno Aquino III
  26. 26. Philippine System of Government and Politics From the time when the Philippines declared itself a sovereign state in 1898, the nation has had four major constitutions: (1) the 1899constitution, which established the first republic in Asia; (2) the 1935 constitution, which served as the basic law during the period of self-government while the Philippines was still under American rule and after it became independent in 1946; (3) the 1973 constitution, which allowed Ferdinand Marcos to continue to hold office as president; and (4) the 1987 constitution, upon which the present government is based, which essentially restored institutions and processes dismantled by Marcos during his regime
  27. 27. The Executive Branch As chief executive, the president has the power to execute laws. The president is assisted by a cabinet, which currently comprises twenty-three departments. Among the more important departments are Foreign Affairs, National Defense, Finance, Interior and Local Government, Justice, and Trade and Industry. Both president and vice president are elected at large for a six-year term with no possibility of reelection. The executive branch consists of the President and his Cabinet. The Senate and the House of Representatives make up the bicameral legislature. The Supreme Court heads the systems of courts under the judicial branch.
  28. 28. The Legislative Branch The Philippine Congress is a bicameral body, the upper house being the Senate and the lower house being the House of Representatives. These two houses possess equal power, although budgetary bills must originate in the lower house, while treaty ratification rests exclusively with the upper house. Congress consists of a 24-member Senate and a 250-member House of Representatives. The voters of the entire nation elect senators to six-year terms. Voters from different districts elect 200 of the representatives to three-year terms. The remaining 50 representatives are selected from lists drawn up by the political parties to ensure representation of women, ethnic minorities, and certain economic and occupational groups. The number selected from each party's list is about one-fourth of the number of the party's elected representatives. All Philippine citizens who are at least 18 years old may vote.
  29. 29. The Judiciary Judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court and in the lower courts. Members of the judiciary are chosen by the president from a list of nominees provided by the Judicial and Bar Council, a constitutional body composed of representatives from the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government, the legal profession, and the private sector. Once appointed, judges have secure tenure and can serve until the age of seventy or until they become incapacitated.
  30. 30. Constitutional Commissions The constitution also provides for independent constitutional commissions, namely: Civil Service Commission Commission on Elections Commission on Audit.
  31. 31. Local Governments The lowest political unit in the Philippines is the barangay (village). The barangay is administered by a council headed by a punong barangay (chairperson). Several barangays make up a city or municipality.
  32. 32. Administrative Subdivisions The Philippines is divided into a hierarchy of local government units (LGUs) with the province as the primary unit. As of 2007, there are 81 provinces in the country.
  33. 33. International organization participation The Philippines is a founding and active member of the UN since its inception on October 24, 1945 and is a founding member of the ASEAN.
  34. 34. Islam Influence on the Political System Islam has a great influence on the political system of the natives in the Southern Philippines. The sultan of the Muslim community is still the sultan of Muslim provinces.
  35. 35. Bansa Moro March 27, 2014, the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro (CAB) will be signed. The CAB incorporates agreements between the Philippine Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front signed in the past two years: the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro (signed December 2012), the Addendum on Bangsamoro Waters (signed in January 2013), and four annexes to FAB—the Annex on Transitional Arrangements and Modalities (signed in February 2013), the Annex on Revenue Generation and Wealth-Sharing (signed in August 2013), the Annex on Power-Sharing (signed in December 2013), and the Annex on Normalization (signed in January 2014).
  36. 36. Map showing the possible extent of Bangsamoro according to the framework agreement
  37. 37. The Philippine Administrative System The administrative system of the Republic of the Philippines is comprised of a central government and its territorial and political subdivisions, which enjoy local autonomy: the provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays
  38. 38. PA and Governance
  39. 39. Chapter 2 Legal Framework RA 7160 known as the Local Government Code of 1991 was passed into law in October 1991 and implemented in January 1992
  40. 40. Significant Contents and Provisions Devolved Basic Services A. On Health and Social Services: 1. include the implementation of programs and projects on primary health care, maternal and child care, and communicable and non communicable disease control services; 2. Health services which access to secondary and tertiary health services; 3. Purchase of medicines, medical supplies, and equipment needed to carry out the services 4. Social welfare services which include programs and projects on child and youth welfare, family and community welfare, women's welfare, welfare of the elderly and disabled persons;
  41. 41. B. On Environmental Management: 1. Solid waste disposal system; 2. Services or facilities related to general hygiene and sanitation; 3. Implementation of community-based forestry projects which include integrated social forestry programs and similar projects; 4. Management and control of communal forests;
  42. 42. C. On Agriculture: 1. Inter -Barangay irrigation system; 2. Water and soil resource utilization and conservation projects; 3. Enforcement of fishery laws in municipal waters including the conservation of mangroves;
  43. 43. D. On Infrastructure: 1. Maintenance and Rehabilitation of the following; a. roads and bridges b. school buildings and other facilities for public elementary and secondary schools; c. clinics, health centers and other health facilities d. small water impounding projects e. fish ports; artesian wells, spring development, rainwater collectors and water supply systems; f. seawalls, dikes, drainage and sewerage, and flood control; g. traffic signals and road signs; and similar facilities;
  44. 44. Significant Contents and Provisions
  45. 45. E. On Tourism: 1.Tourism facilities and other tourist attractions, 2.Acquisition of equipment 3.Regulation and supervision of business concessions, 4.Security services for such facilities
  46. 46. Local Taxation and Fiscal Matters
  47. 47. Local Taxation and Fiscal Matters A. National Government • Internal Revenue Allotment • Share from taxes, fees and charges collected form the development and utilization of national wealth • Other Grants and Subsidies • Debt Relief Program
  48. 48. B. Locally Generated • Real Property Taxes • Business Taxes • Other Local Taxes • Regulatory Fees • Operation of Local Economic Enterprises • Tolls and Users Charges
  49. 49. C. Other Sources • Sales/Lease of Assets • Credits • BOT-BT Scheme
  50. 50. Administrative Capability Effectiveness Efficiency Responsiveness Sustainability Scabillty and Replicability 1 Devolved Services a. Health and Social Services b. Environmenal Management c. Agriculture d. Infrastructure 2 Regulatory Functions 3 Governmental and Corporate Powers BGO-LGU Role in 4 Governance 5 Human Resource Planning 6 Tourism Local taxation and Fiscal 7 matters 8 structure and Processes 1-5 rating 1 as the lowest and 5 as the highest Explain your score
  51. 51. Chapter 3 Structure and Process A. Restructuring of the Organizational Structure B. The Planning, Programming, Budgeting, Monitoring and Evaluation Processes
  52. 52. Philippine Local Government
  53. 53. National Government ARMM 5 Provinces 117 Municipalities 2490 Barangays MMDA 16 Cities 1 Municipalities Barangay Barangay 1 City
  54. 54. Structure of local government system in the Philippines. Source: Based on LGC of 1991; Department of the Interior and Local Government
  55. 55. National Government Province Highly Urbanized City Municipality Component City Barangay Barangay Barangay Structure of Philippine Local Government Padilla: 1998 Structure of Philippine Local Government Padilla: 1998
  56. 56. A R M M
  57. 57. NEDA Board RDC CDC BDC PDC MDC DILG: 1992 The Government DILG: 1992 The Government P Plalannnniningg H Hieierraarrcchhyy
  58. 58. Excerpts from the Article of: STEPHEN R. COVEY 1990
  59. 59.  Dr. STEPHEN RICHARDS COVEY – the founder and chairman of the Covey Leadership Center and the Institute for Principle-Center Leadership in the US. (October 24, 1932 – July 16, 2012) was an American educator, author, businessman, and keynote speaker. Source:
  60. 60.  Dr. Covey earned a Bachelor of Science degree in business administration from the University of Utah, an MBA from Harvard University, and a Doctor of Religious Education (DRE) from Brigham Young University. He was a member of Pi Kappa Alpha International Fraternity. He was awarded ten honorary doctorates.
  61. 61.  “ When managing in the wilderness of the changing times, a map is of limited worth. What’s needed is a moral compass.”  A compass represents or points to the “true north”.  “True north” – the magnetic principle of respect for people and property.
  62. 62.  “Principles are like a compass. A compass has a true north that is objective and external, that reflects natural laws or principles; as opposed to values that are subjective and internal. - “We must develop our value system with deep respect for “true north” principles.
  63. 63.  “Principles are proven, enduring guidelines for human conduct” - e.g. “you reap what you sow”; “actions speak louder than words”.  “Principles empower people to create a wide variety of practices to deal with different situations”. - We must center our lives on “correct principles” which are the key to developing rich internal power in our lives. Whatever lies at the center of our lives become the primary source of our life-support system.
  64. 64.  Life-support system is represented by four fundamental dimensions and cultivates these internal sources of strength: • Security • Guidance • Wisdom • Power  “Focusing on alternative centers – work, possessions, friends, family, and others – weakens and disorients us”
  65. 65.  PCL is practiced at different levels: 1. Personal – relationship with oneself; 2. Interpersonal – relationship and interactions with others; 3. Managerial – responsibility to get a job done with others; and, 4. Organizational – need to recruit, train, and compensate people, build teams, solve problems, and create aligned structure, strategy and systems.
  66. 66.  Eight (8) Characteristics of People who are PC Leaders: 1. They are continually learning; 2. They are service-oriented; 3. They radiate positive energy – hope and enthusiasm; 4. They believe in other people; 5. They lead balanced lives; 6. They see life as an adventure; 7. They complement their weaknesses with the strengths of others; and, 8. They exercise for self-renewal.
  67. 67.  “ If you want to make slow incremental improvement, change your attitude or behavior. But if you want to improve in revolutionary ways, either as an individual or organization, change your paradigm, your scheme for understanding and explaining certain aspects of reality.”
  68. 68. 1. The Scientific Management Paradigm - People are seen primarily as STOMACHS – motivated primarily by their quest for economic security. - Management style is authoritarian. 2. The Human Relations Paradigm - People are acknowledged not only as STOMACHS but also HEARTS, social beings who need to be liked and respected. - Management is in charge, but at least people are treated with kindness and courtesy.
  69. 69. 3. The Human Resource Paradigm - People are seen with MINDS, with latent talent and capacity, in addition to STOMACHS and HEARTS. - As managers, the goal is to identify and develop the capacities to accomplish the objectives of the organization. 4. Principle-Centered Leadership - People are seen as SPIRITUAL BEINGS who want meaning, they are the most valuable organizational assets – stewards of certain resources. - Work must be made challenging and fulfilling.
  70. 70. 1. People – it is based on the effectiveness of the people; it recognizes the value of people because people produce everything else. 2. Self – change and improvement must begin with ones self. 3. Style – participative styles of management create more innovation, initiative and commitment, but also more unpredictable behavior. 4. Skills - skills such as delegation, communication, negotiation, and self-management are fundamental to high performance.
  71. 71. 5. Shared Vision and Principles – a win-win performance agreement, where both parties share a common vision based on common principles. 6. Structure and System – in organizations, relationships and interactions requires some kind of structure and certain kinds of system, just like the ”human body”. 7. Strategy – should be congruent with the professed mission, with available resources, and with market conditions. 8. Streams – these are the environments (inside and outside) which needs to be monitored to ensure that everything are in alignment with the organization’s vision, systems and the rest vis-à-vis external realities.
  72. 72.  “Ineffective people try to manage their time around priorities. Effective people lead their lives according to principles”.  “The key to quality products and services is a quality person”.
  73. 73. Leadership and Ethics Concept
  74. 74. Leadership Theories The Classical Organizational Theory School comprising the works of Henri Fayol’s views on administration, and Max Weber’s idealized bureaucracy, among others; Behavioral School comprising the work of Elton Mayo and his associates; the Management Science School; and Recent Developments in Management Theory comprising works such as Systems Approach, Situational or Contingency theory, Chaos theory, and Team Building approach.
  75. 75. Leadership Styles
  76. 76. Leadership and Ethics Five D. Types Levels of Leadership
  77. 77. Leadership Competencies E. Competencies  Passion  Humor  Courage  Integrity & Trust  Energy/Vitality/Enthusiasm  Building a Team  Priorities  Creativity  Vision
  78. 78. Ethics It can be concluded that mere knowledge of management technologies and competencies would not be enough qualification of a leader or manager if he is not virtuous. Virtue is developed in a person in a leader through his family upbringing, culture and society
  79. 79. “Man is moral not because he is taught to be one, but essentially because goodness is the essence of his nature” Montemayor, 1983
  80. 80. Best Practices in Local Governance A. Galing Pook Foundation 1. Galing Pook Awardees  Social Development Sector  Health, Nutrition and Water  Education  Socialized Housing  Youth, Sports,Tourism and Culture
  81. 81. Best Practices in Local Governance Agriculture and fishery Development Livelihood and Income Generation Environmental Protection and Solid Waste Management Physical Infrastructure Development Sector General Administration and Finance Computerization, Management and Justice
  82. 82. Best Practices in Local Governance Peace and Security Disaster and Risk Reduction
  83. 83. Local Government Code of 1991: 20 Years After A. Accomplishments • The past 20 years of experimentation under the Local Government Code are replete with well-intentioned and successful practices
  84. 84. Paradigm Shift: Political System and Structure
  85. 85. Local Government Code in Action: Naga City’s Empowerment Ordinance A success story in the implementation of the Local Government Code Naga City’s enactment of its Empowerment Ordinance in 1995 which led to the design and implementation of several initiatives involving partnership between local government and civil society. The City chose to develop its own “Empowerment Ordinance” to establish the structure to achieve active partnership between the city government and the people of Naga City.
  86. 86. Local Government Code in Action: Naga City’s Empowerment Ordinance The Ordinance spells out the norms of accreditation of NGOs and their rights and privileges. Accredited NGOs are deemed eligible for joint ventures with the city government to engage in various municipal tasks like infrastructure delivery, capacity- building and livelihood projects, and other activities that enhance the economic and social well-being of the people (see Section 7).
  87. 87. The Ordinance institutionalizes all accredited NGOs under an autonomous People’s Council (the Naga City People’s Council or NCPC). Among the powers of the NCPC are: 1. Vote and participate in the deliberation, conceptualization, implementation and evaluation of projects, activities and programs of the city government; 2. Propose legislation; 3.Participate and vote at the committee level of the city legislature; and 4.Act as people’s representative in the exercise of their constitutional rights to information on matters of public concern and of access to official records and documents (Section 11)
  88. 88. The Ordinance mandates sectoral representation in the Sangguniang Panlungsod (city legislature) from each of the non-agricultural labor, women, and urban poor sectors of the city that shall be elected from among the members of the accredited NGOs and POs in each sector (Section 15). With external capacity-building support, Naga City initiated a series of successful projects in partnership with civil society: The Naga City River Watershed Plan; The Naga City Solid Waste Management Plan; and the City Health Development Plan.
  89. 89. Urban government What urban government does, who does it, and with what resources vary from country to country, and from town to town.6 Generally, however, urban public services in most countries comprise TO SERVE AND TO PRESERVE • garbage collection/waste management; • water supply/sewerage; • environmental services, streetlight maintenance, parks and recreation; • primary health care and education (in some countries only, usually to complement central government services); • some social welfare (e.g., shelters for the homeless); • internal transport; • urban planning and regulatory enforcement; • local public works and housing; • firefighting and other emergency services; • traffic regulation;