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MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN PANGASINAN: AGRICULTURE SECTOR PROGRAM -DISSERTATION ABSTRACT
MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN
      PANGASINAN: AGRICULTURE SECTOR PROGRAM

                ______________________



                       A Dissertation

                       Presented to

             The Faculty of the Graduate School

         LYCEUM – NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

                       Dagupan City

           _______________________________



                    In Partial Fulfillment

             Of the Requirement for the Degree

             Doctor in Public Administration



                             By:


                  MELITON G. DASSUN
                       April 2010
CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL SHEET



This thesis proposal entitled “MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL ON

POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN PANGASINAN: AGRICULTURE SECTOR

PROGRAM”, prepared and submitted by MELITON G. DASSUN in partial

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree DOCTOR IN PUBLIC

ADMINISTRATION” has been prepared and submitted for oral defense.

     The reading committee found the thesis acceptable in accordance

with the requirements and standards in thesis writings.          He is

recommended for Final Oral Examination on his thesis on March 2, 2010.



                             Thesis Committee



                      ROMANA O. FABREGAS, Ph.D.
                               Chairman



JOSEPHILE T. FLORES, DPA                    JOSEFINA B. BITONIO, DPA
        Adviser                                     Member



                   JOSEFINA C. ARMAS, CPA, DBA
                           Member
The Philippines as a member of the United Nations, is a signatory to the

Millennium Declaration and has made the MDGs as the core of development

agenda of its government. Thus, the formulation of the Medium Term Philippine

Development Plan (MTPDP) 2004 -2010 had once again included the over-all goal

to fight poverty and seek the attainment of the MDG and targets by 2015. The

Philippines has consistently posted growth over the years, including last year when

it was one of the few countries that manages to grow despite the global economic

crisis. The Philippines grew by 0.9 per cent in 2009, avoiding a recession. Despite

sustained growth over the years, the Philippines failed to reduce poverty incidence

rate. Latest data from the National Statistics Office showed the proportion of poor

people to the country’s total population stood at 33 percent as of 2006, up from 30

percent in 2003

      Pangasinan which is the setting of the study is no exception to the problem

of poverty confronting the country or worldwide. The province is subdivided into

44 municipalities and 4 cities comprising 1,364 barangays (which means

“villages”) scattered within the six (6) political districts. The capital town is

Lingayen now a first class municipality based on 2007 income classification.

According to a study conducted by the NSCB, Pangasinan has a poverty incidence

of 34.62 percent and rank 59th among the 81 provinces of the country. The

province itself has considerable number of 4th to 6th class municipalities which can
be an interesting study for the province’s poverty alleviation program.

      With the narrative presentations of the related issues and concerns including

the manifestations of every government administrations to deal with it, still, the

problem of poverty persists to date. In fact, UP Professors Lichauco, an economist

and Briones, a writer usually referred poverty as a chronic problem perpetually

disturbing Philippine society.     By sheer observation, poverty situation had

worsened over the years.

      Arguably, there had been various interventions introduced in the country to

advance its development since the post war era. This started with the war

reparation and rehabilitation for the entire archipelago as a condition imposed upon

by the United States of America to Japan to bring back or reactivate the

Philippines’ economy for the general welfare of its citizenry. The preponderance of

development advancement came with the development decade as propounded by a

University Professor and writer Briones, there is no doubt that the identified means

to develop or progress presented above have been in the forefront of development

efforts by almost all administration since then. One document to prove this is the

formulation of a development plan as basis of implementation to address the

problem of poverty for our country. It should be emphasized that almost all

administrations manifested their concern towards poverty alleviation especially in

the countryside over the past several years.
The MTPDP 2004 - 2010 also includes 13 key issues that will guide the

Macapagal administration in its development and peace efforts, such as: 1.ensuring

sustained growth with equity and macroeconomic stability; 2.Promoting full,

decent and productive employment; 3.enhancing capacities through health,

education    and   housing;    4.protecting    vulnerable   groups;    5.accelerating

comprehensive rural development; 6. gearing for international competitiveness in

industry and services; 7. putting the Philippines in the international tourism map; 8.

strengthening private-public partnership in infrastructure development; 9.bridging

the digital divide, information and communication technology; 10.reducing         the

regional disparities and spatial development; 11.creating competitive and livable

cities and urban areas; 12. Pursuing sustained peace and development in Mindanao,

and 13. Improving the quality of life through good governance.

      The four primary strategies concomitant to the solving of poverty are:

1) Macroeconomic stability and equitable growth, using sound fiscal and monetary

policies to keep inflation low and avoid surges in unemployment; modernize all

sectors through HR development and technology; 2) Comprehensive HR

development, basic education, health, shelter, water, electricity; safety nets for

most vulnerable sectors; encouraging poor to participate in governance;

3) Modernization of agricultural sector with social equity; agrarian reform,

improving rural infrastructure, implementing land reform; and           4) Effective
governance through transparency, reducing graft and corruption, strengthening

partnerships with civil society and the private sector.

        Poverty is conceptualized broadly, taking into account not only income but

its impact in terms of human deprivation, development, and quality of life.

Likewise, in her inaugural address she delivered on June 30, 2004,       President

Gloria Macapagal Arroyo unveiled her administration’s Ten-Point Agenda for

development, as follows: 1. Create 6 to tem millions jobs until 2010; 2. Education

for all children in computer-equipped schools; 3. Balanced budget by 2009;

4. Connecting     the country through transportation networks and     technology;

5.   Providing power and water to every part of the archipelago; 6.       Reduce

congestion in Metro-Manila by creating government centers in Luzon, Visayas and

Mindanao; 7.     Develop Subic and Clark into service and logistics centers in

Southeast Asia; 8. Automation of the electoral process; 9. Reach just conclusion

to separate peace processes with the communists and Muslim rebels; 10. Reach

“just” closure of the divisive issues generated by the people power of 1986 and

2000.


Statement of the Problem

        This study assessed the implementation of the millennium development goal

on poverty alleviation in Pangasinan specifically under the agriculture sector

program of government.
Specifically, the study sought to answer the hereunder sub-problems:

1.    What is the status of the province of Pangasinan relative to the

      Millennium Development Goal on poverty alleviation in terms of:

      a.    Survival Indicators

            1. Access to food

            2. Water

            3. Health services

      b.    Livelihood

            1. Education

            2. Income

            3. Access to electricity

2.    What are the programs and projects being implemented by the

      Provincial Government of Pangasinan to alleviate poverty and hunger

      along the aforecited indicators?

3.    What are the strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of the

      programs and projects by the province of Pangasinan as perceived by

      the following respondents viz:     government organizations, private

      sectors and civil societies?

      3.1   Is there a significant difference among the perceptions of the

            three (3) groups of respondents regarding the strengths and
weaknesses in the implementation of the programs and projects

                  in the province of Pangasinan?

      4.    What are the policy reforms which can be proposed to ensure

            sustainability of the implementation of the programs and projects to

            alleviate poverty and hunger?




           Figure 1.   Paradigm Showing the Schematic Relationship
                         of the Variables in the Study


      The descriptive research method was utilized in the study. Documentary

analysis was conducted based on the data or information contained in the annual

reports of current years 2004 to 2009 being submitted by the Provincial
Government of Pangasinan to the National Economic and Development Authority,

Regional Office I, San Fernando, City, La Union.

  Pangasinan is composed of four (4) cities (1 independent component city and 3

    component cities, and forty four (44) municipalities. It ranks 3rd in terms of

 population and 14th in terms of area among the provinces Only the 4th to 6th class

municipalities are selected for purposes of the study. This is because the mentioned

 lower class municipalities are considered to have a higher degree of poverty and

hunger incidence that those developed or progressive municipalities with the four

 cities of Pangasinan. The study will involve five hundred ten (510) respondents

     equally distributed with ten (10) respondents per sector viz: government

  organizations (GOs), private sector (PS) and civil society organizations (CSOs)

                              Summary of Findings

      Millennium Development Goals. The study revealed that the top five (5)

disbursements made relative to the implemented MDGs for the six (6 year) period

includes the construction, repair and maintenance of provincial, municipal and

barangays roads in the province; construction of new school buildings, repair and

maintenance of old and dilapidated ones; provision for skills training or the

Pangulong Gloria Scholarship Program; maintenance; construction of             multi-

purpose buildings, repair and maintenance of dilapidated ones; and enrolment of

indigents to the health insurance program of the government.
Indicators of the Study. In terms of the disbursements made relative with

the indicators of the study arranged from the highest to the lowest are access to

education -P272,755,092.63; access to food – P176,533,754.13; access to health –

P113,647,122.75; access to income – P11,299,500.00 and access to water –

P11,254,131.53 and zero to access to electricity. The total disbursement made

reflected above is P539,600,403.48 out of the total disbursement of

P950,647,329.96 for all implemented MDGs in the province.

      Areas Covered. In terms of the areas covered during the three year period

of the study, the top five (5) disbursement made in the order from highest to lowest

was given to Lingayen – P44,241,764.00; Asingan – P37,524,606.00; Dagupan

City – P36,500,000.00; Urdaneta City – P27,248,492.00; and Binalonan –

P9,025,740.00. On the other hand, the municipalities of Agno, San Fabian,

Bautista, Sto. Tomas and Villasis during the three year period also had not received

any disbursement relative to the implemented MDGs in the province. Note here,

that no one among those which received the highest disbursement belongs to the 4th

to 6th class municipalities.

      The total disbursement made determinable for the three year period in the 4 th

to 6th class municipalities is P92,853,485.00 only. The disbursement made does not

necessarily relate with the indicators of the study. The largest amount therefore

was disbursed to the four (4) cities and 1st to 3rd class municipalities of the
province. Corollary to this, the top five municipalities belonging to the 4 th to 6th

class municipalities in the order from largest to the smallest disbursement are

Dasol (P13,242,526.94 -15.85%), Balungao (12,244,511.00 – 14.71%), Mabini

(11,415,043.00 – 13.68%), Infanta (9,418,659.00 – 10.95%) and Burgos

(P9,083,635.00 – 10.88%) while the lowest in the ascending order are Sto. Tomas

(0), Bautista (0), Agno (0), San Quintin (P901,444.00 – 1.07% and Anda

(P1,500,00.00 – 1.80%).

      Status of Implementation. Most of the implemented MDGs were

undertaken for several months by contract or direct implementation and some took

more than a year for their completion.

      Strength and Weaknesses. In terms of the strength and weaknesses the

study revealed that the three groups of respondents (GOs, PS, and CS) had an

overall average weighted point of “3.52” for the strengths with a descriptive value

of “moderately agree” while the average weighted point for weaknesses is 2.76

with the same descriptive value of “moderately agree” to that of strengths.

                                   Conclusions

      On the basis of the summary of finding in the study,            the following

conclusions were made.

      Millennium Development Goals. The disbursement for the implemented

MDGs were mostly related to infrastructure, social and economic development, all
of which are related to the indicators of the study but to certain degree the top five

disbursement do not include access to food, access to water and access to

electricity.

         Indicators of the study. On the indicators of the study, the provincial

leaderships concentrated to the disbursement for the top three related poverty

alleviation programs such as education, food and health. A smaller amount of

disbursement related to the indicators of the study was given to water and income.

         Areas Covered. In terms of areas covered the implemented MDGs related

disbursements during the three year period embraces all the cities and

municipalities but the 4th to 6th municipalities got a much smaller disbursements

than the cities and the 1st to 3rd municipalities in the province.

         Status of Implementation. In terms of the status of implementation, most

of the projects undertaken were accomplished through contracting and some are

not. There are similar projects which took a longer period of completion while the

others are updated in their contract commitment.

         Strength and Weaknesses. In terms of strengths and weaknesses, there is

an appreciation by the three groups of respondents that the strength and

weaknesses are just moderate. The three groups of respondents had not indicated a

so much difference in their rating as shown by the descriptive value of “moderately

agree.
Recommendations

      On the basis of the summary of findings and conclusions, the following are

the recommendations.

      1.    There should be a proportionate distribution in the allocation of funds

in the disbursement in terms of projects and activities being for the poverty

alleviation program as called for in the commitment for the MDGs.

       2.   Since food problems affect every sector of the society, it should have

a larger share in fund allocations, followed by education, health, water and income.

Maintain the non-allocation and disbursement related with access to electricity to

the power sector.

      3.    Strict implementation of the period required for undertaking projects

and activities should be observed.

      4.    The policy reforms arrived at in the analysis should be adopted to

strength and improved the implementation of MDGs in the province.

                                 Policy Reforms

      Hereunder are the policy reforms proposed to ensure sustainability of the

implementation of the programs and projects to alleviate poverty and hunger.

      1.    More financial resources should be allotted for the 4th to 6th class

municipalities to support the delivery of the minimum basic needs of the

marginalized members of the society.
2.     Create more jobs by encouraging the business community to establish

their business in the province to allow job seekers the opportunity to improve their

living conditions.

      3.     Institutionalization of lending assistance to micro enterprises such as

women’s clubs, associations, cooperatives and small medium scale enterprises.

      4.     Proportionate allocation of resources on a mandatory basis based on

the classification of the 4th to 6th class municipalities.

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MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN PANGASINAN: AGRICULTURE SECTOR PROGRAM -DISSERTATION ABSTRACT

  • 2. MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN PANGASINAN: AGRICULTURE SECTOR PROGRAM ______________________ A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the Graduate School LYCEUM – NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Dagupan City _______________________________ In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement for the Degree Doctor in Public Administration By: MELITON G. DASSUN April 2010
  • 3. CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL SHEET This thesis proposal entitled “MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN PANGASINAN: AGRICULTURE SECTOR PROGRAM”, prepared and submitted by MELITON G. DASSUN in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree DOCTOR IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION” has been prepared and submitted for oral defense. The reading committee found the thesis acceptable in accordance with the requirements and standards in thesis writings. He is recommended for Final Oral Examination on his thesis on March 2, 2010. Thesis Committee ROMANA O. FABREGAS, Ph.D. Chairman JOSEPHILE T. FLORES, DPA JOSEFINA B. BITONIO, DPA Adviser Member JOSEFINA C. ARMAS, CPA, DBA Member
  • 4. The Philippines as a member of the United Nations, is a signatory to the Millennium Declaration and has made the MDGs as the core of development agenda of its government. Thus, the formulation of the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) 2004 -2010 had once again included the over-all goal to fight poverty and seek the attainment of the MDG and targets by 2015. The Philippines has consistently posted growth over the years, including last year when it was one of the few countries that manages to grow despite the global economic crisis. The Philippines grew by 0.9 per cent in 2009, avoiding a recession. Despite sustained growth over the years, the Philippines failed to reduce poverty incidence rate. Latest data from the National Statistics Office showed the proportion of poor people to the country’s total population stood at 33 percent as of 2006, up from 30 percent in 2003 Pangasinan which is the setting of the study is no exception to the problem of poverty confronting the country or worldwide. The province is subdivided into 44 municipalities and 4 cities comprising 1,364 barangays (which means “villages”) scattered within the six (6) political districts. The capital town is Lingayen now a first class municipality based on 2007 income classification. According to a study conducted by the NSCB, Pangasinan has a poverty incidence of 34.62 percent and rank 59th among the 81 provinces of the country. The province itself has considerable number of 4th to 6th class municipalities which can
  • 5. be an interesting study for the province’s poverty alleviation program. With the narrative presentations of the related issues and concerns including the manifestations of every government administrations to deal with it, still, the problem of poverty persists to date. In fact, UP Professors Lichauco, an economist and Briones, a writer usually referred poverty as a chronic problem perpetually disturbing Philippine society. By sheer observation, poverty situation had worsened over the years. Arguably, there had been various interventions introduced in the country to advance its development since the post war era. This started with the war reparation and rehabilitation for the entire archipelago as a condition imposed upon by the United States of America to Japan to bring back or reactivate the Philippines’ economy for the general welfare of its citizenry. The preponderance of development advancement came with the development decade as propounded by a University Professor and writer Briones, there is no doubt that the identified means to develop or progress presented above have been in the forefront of development efforts by almost all administration since then. One document to prove this is the formulation of a development plan as basis of implementation to address the problem of poverty for our country. It should be emphasized that almost all administrations manifested their concern towards poverty alleviation especially in the countryside over the past several years.
  • 6. The MTPDP 2004 - 2010 also includes 13 key issues that will guide the Macapagal administration in its development and peace efforts, such as: 1.ensuring sustained growth with equity and macroeconomic stability; 2.Promoting full, decent and productive employment; 3.enhancing capacities through health, education and housing; 4.protecting vulnerable groups; 5.accelerating comprehensive rural development; 6. gearing for international competitiveness in industry and services; 7. putting the Philippines in the international tourism map; 8. strengthening private-public partnership in infrastructure development; 9.bridging the digital divide, information and communication technology; 10.reducing the regional disparities and spatial development; 11.creating competitive and livable cities and urban areas; 12. Pursuing sustained peace and development in Mindanao, and 13. Improving the quality of life through good governance. The four primary strategies concomitant to the solving of poverty are: 1) Macroeconomic stability and equitable growth, using sound fiscal and monetary policies to keep inflation low and avoid surges in unemployment; modernize all sectors through HR development and technology; 2) Comprehensive HR development, basic education, health, shelter, water, electricity; safety nets for most vulnerable sectors; encouraging poor to participate in governance; 3) Modernization of agricultural sector with social equity; agrarian reform, improving rural infrastructure, implementing land reform; and 4) Effective
  • 7. governance through transparency, reducing graft and corruption, strengthening partnerships with civil society and the private sector. Poverty is conceptualized broadly, taking into account not only income but its impact in terms of human deprivation, development, and quality of life. Likewise, in her inaugural address she delivered on June 30, 2004, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo unveiled her administration’s Ten-Point Agenda for development, as follows: 1. Create 6 to tem millions jobs until 2010; 2. Education for all children in computer-equipped schools; 3. Balanced budget by 2009; 4. Connecting the country through transportation networks and technology; 5. Providing power and water to every part of the archipelago; 6. Reduce congestion in Metro-Manila by creating government centers in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao; 7. Develop Subic and Clark into service and logistics centers in Southeast Asia; 8. Automation of the electoral process; 9. Reach just conclusion to separate peace processes with the communists and Muslim rebels; 10. Reach “just” closure of the divisive issues generated by the people power of 1986 and 2000. Statement of the Problem This study assessed the implementation of the millennium development goal on poverty alleviation in Pangasinan specifically under the agriculture sector program of government.
  • 8. Specifically, the study sought to answer the hereunder sub-problems: 1. What is the status of the province of Pangasinan relative to the Millennium Development Goal on poverty alleviation in terms of: a. Survival Indicators 1. Access to food 2. Water 3. Health services b. Livelihood 1. Education 2. Income 3. Access to electricity 2. What are the programs and projects being implemented by the Provincial Government of Pangasinan to alleviate poverty and hunger along the aforecited indicators? 3. What are the strengths and weaknesses in the implementation of the programs and projects by the province of Pangasinan as perceived by the following respondents viz: government organizations, private sectors and civil societies? 3.1 Is there a significant difference among the perceptions of the three (3) groups of respondents regarding the strengths and
  • 9. weaknesses in the implementation of the programs and projects in the province of Pangasinan? 4. What are the policy reforms which can be proposed to ensure sustainability of the implementation of the programs and projects to alleviate poverty and hunger? Figure 1. Paradigm Showing the Schematic Relationship of the Variables in the Study The descriptive research method was utilized in the study. Documentary analysis was conducted based on the data or information contained in the annual reports of current years 2004 to 2009 being submitted by the Provincial
  • 10. Government of Pangasinan to the National Economic and Development Authority, Regional Office I, San Fernando, City, La Union. Pangasinan is composed of four (4) cities (1 independent component city and 3 component cities, and forty four (44) municipalities. It ranks 3rd in terms of population and 14th in terms of area among the provinces Only the 4th to 6th class municipalities are selected for purposes of the study. This is because the mentioned lower class municipalities are considered to have a higher degree of poverty and hunger incidence that those developed or progressive municipalities with the four cities of Pangasinan. The study will involve five hundred ten (510) respondents equally distributed with ten (10) respondents per sector viz: government organizations (GOs), private sector (PS) and civil society organizations (CSOs) Summary of Findings Millennium Development Goals. The study revealed that the top five (5) disbursements made relative to the implemented MDGs for the six (6 year) period includes the construction, repair and maintenance of provincial, municipal and barangays roads in the province; construction of new school buildings, repair and maintenance of old and dilapidated ones; provision for skills training or the Pangulong Gloria Scholarship Program; maintenance; construction of multi- purpose buildings, repair and maintenance of dilapidated ones; and enrolment of indigents to the health insurance program of the government.
  • 11. Indicators of the Study. In terms of the disbursements made relative with the indicators of the study arranged from the highest to the lowest are access to education -P272,755,092.63; access to food – P176,533,754.13; access to health – P113,647,122.75; access to income – P11,299,500.00 and access to water – P11,254,131.53 and zero to access to electricity. The total disbursement made reflected above is P539,600,403.48 out of the total disbursement of P950,647,329.96 for all implemented MDGs in the province. Areas Covered. In terms of the areas covered during the three year period of the study, the top five (5) disbursement made in the order from highest to lowest was given to Lingayen – P44,241,764.00; Asingan – P37,524,606.00; Dagupan City – P36,500,000.00; Urdaneta City – P27,248,492.00; and Binalonan – P9,025,740.00. On the other hand, the municipalities of Agno, San Fabian, Bautista, Sto. Tomas and Villasis during the three year period also had not received any disbursement relative to the implemented MDGs in the province. Note here, that no one among those which received the highest disbursement belongs to the 4th to 6th class municipalities. The total disbursement made determinable for the three year period in the 4 th to 6th class municipalities is P92,853,485.00 only. The disbursement made does not necessarily relate with the indicators of the study. The largest amount therefore was disbursed to the four (4) cities and 1st to 3rd class municipalities of the
  • 12. province. Corollary to this, the top five municipalities belonging to the 4 th to 6th class municipalities in the order from largest to the smallest disbursement are Dasol (P13,242,526.94 -15.85%), Balungao (12,244,511.00 – 14.71%), Mabini (11,415,043.00 – 13.68%), Infanta (9,418,659.00 – 10.95%) and Burgos (P9,083,635.00 – 10.88%) while the lowest in the ascending order are Sto. Tomas (0), Bautista (0), Agno (0), San Quintin (P901,444.00 – 1.07% and Anda (P1,500,00.00 – 1.80%). Status of Implementation. Most of the implemented MDGs were undertaken for several months by contract or direct implementation and some took more than a year for their completion. Strength and Weaknesses. In terms of the strength and weaknesses the study revealed that the three groups of respondents (GOs, PS, and CS) had an overall average weighted point of “3.52” for the strengths with a descriptive value of “moderately agree” while the average weighted point for weaknesses is 2.76 with the same descriptive value of “moderately agree” to that of strengths. Conclusions On the basis of the summary of finding in the study, the following conclusions were made. Millennium Development Goals. The disbursement for the implemented MDGs were mostly related to infrastructure, social and economic development, all
  • 13. of which are related to the indicators of the study but to certain degree the top five disbursement do not include access to food, access to water and access to electricity. Indicators of the study. On the indicators of the study, the provincial leaderships concentrated to the disbursement for the top three related poverty alleviation programs such as education, food and health. A smaller amount of disbursement related to the indicators of the study was given to water and income. Areas Covered. In terms of areas covered the implemented MDGs related disbursements during the three year period embraces all the cities and municipalities but the 4th to 6th municipalities got a much smaller disbursements than the cities and the 1st to 3rd municipalities in the province. Status of Implementation. In terms of the status of implementation, most of the projects undertaken were accomplished through contracting and some are not. There are similar projects which took a longer period of completion while the others are updated in their contract commitment. Strength and Weaknesses. In terms of strengths and weaknesses, there is an appreciation by the three groups of respondents that the strength and weaknesses are just moderate. The three groups of respondents had not indicated a so much difference in their rating as shown by the descriptive value of “moderately agree.
  • 14. Recommendations On the basis of the summary of findings and conclusions, the following are the recommendations. 1. There should be a proportionate distribution in the allocation of funds in the disbursement in terms of projects and activities being for the poverty alleviation program as called for in the commitment for the MDGs. 2. Since food problems affect every sector of the society, it should have a larger share in fund allocations, followed by education, health, water and income. Maintain the non-allocation and disbursement related with access to electricity to the power sector. 3. Strict implementation of the period required for undertaking projects and activities should be observed. 4. The policy reforms arrived at in the analysis should be adopted to strength and improved the implementation of MDGs in the province. Policy Reforms Hereunder are the policy reforms proposed to ensure sustainability of the implementation of the programs and projects to alleviate poverty and hunger. 1. More financial resources should be allotted for the 4th to 6th class municipalities to support the delivery of the minimum basic needs of the marginalized members of the society.
  • 15. 2. Create more jobs by encouraging the business community to establish their business in the province to allow job seekers the opportunity to improve their living conditions. 3. Institutionalization of lending assistance to micro enterprises such as women’s clubs, associations, cooperatives and small medium scale enterprises. 4. Proportionate allocation of resources on a mandatory basis based on the classification of the 4th to 6th class municipalities.