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Vygotsky Theory

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Vygotsky Theory

  1. 1. By: Courtney Noble, Josh Kravit, and Lawrence Braswell
  2. 2. About the Theory Vygotsky placed more emphasis on social contributions to the process of development He focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences. According to Vygotsky, humans use tools that develop from a culture, such as speech and writing, to mediate their social environments. Initially children develop these tools to serve solely as social functions, ways to communicate needs.
  3. 3. Discovered By: Lev Vygotsky was born November 17, 1896 in Orsha, a city in the western region of the Russian Empire. He attended Moscow State University, where he graduated with a degree in law in 1917. His formal work in psychology did not begin until 1924 when he attended the Institute of Psychology in Moscow and began collaborating with Alexei Leontiev and Alexander Luria. His interests in Psychology were quite diverse, but often centered on topics of child development and education. He also explored such topics as the psychology of art and language development.
  4. 4. 3 Major Themes Social Interaction The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) Zone of Proximal Development
  5. 5. Social Interaction Vygotsky felt social learning anticipates development. He states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).” He believes that young children are curious and actively involved in their own learning and the discovery and development of new understandings.
  6. 6. The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) MKO refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. For example: Teachers, Other adults, Advanced students, sometimes even computers. Many times, a child's peers or an adult's children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience. For example: Who would know more about the latest teen music group, how to be the newest black ops game, or what is the latest dance moves, a child or their parent?
  7. 7. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) This is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner. According to Vygotsky learning occurs here. Vygotsky sees the ZPD as the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given, allowing the child to develop skills they will then use on their own, developing higher mental functions.
  8. 8. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Cont’d An example would be reading a book with a child. They are reading the words of the book out loud to you as you follow along. They come across a word that in unfamiliar to them and ask for help. Instead of directly telling them the word, show them pictures of ask them questions about what they just read. They will figure the word out on their own and come to understand what the word means on their own. They will later learn to do it themselves first before asking for help.
  9. 9. Vygotsky's theory differs from that of Piaget in a number of important ways: 1: Vygotsky places more emphasis on culture affecting/shaping cognitive development - this contradicts Piaget's view of universal stages and content of development. (Vygotsky does not refer to stages in the way that Piaget does). 2: Vygotsky places considerably more emphasis on social factors contributing to cognitive development (Piaget is criticized for underestimating this). 3: Vygotsky places more emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development (again Piaget is criticized for lack of emphasis on this). http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html
  10. 10. Teachers and Social Development Theory with Technology Technology can be used to facilitate learning within the ZPD. Online activities and projects can encourage the co- operation of students even when not in the classroom. Teachers can use videos and interactive worksheets to engage their students and assist them through scaffolding.
  11. 11. Teachers and Social Development Theory without Technology Even without technology, the basic ideas are the same. Students work better in groups according to Vygotsky, so group projects from art all the way to presentations on the latest math systems learned are a great way to get kids learning. Scaffolding can be done with real world objects and interactions, not just technological ones.
  12. 12. Students and Social Development Theory with Technology Technology provides internet, library databases, and chat rooms, technology resources students will be able to use an endless amount of resource's. Being able to share information provides classroom opinions. The classroom, based on Vygotsky provides groups for peer instruction, collaboration, and small group instruction. The environment of the classroom, the design of material to be learn would promote and encourage student interaction and collaboration. Leading into a classroom community.
  13. 13. Students and Social Development Theory without Technology No Technology classes Less opportunity for educational search engines Classroom community is only able to excel with “in- class” searches such as books, fellow peers, and classroom curriculum. Still possible for a classroom community Unable to provide the class needs for certain topics.
  14. 14. Practical Application A group project on the major themes in Dracula in which students would work in teams exploring one of a list of possible themes. Each group would be required to use the teacher and trusted websites for expert support The teacher would be hands on, helping students to grasp the concept of themes woven throughout a narrative, utilizing examples, handouts, and practice examples.
  15. 15. Works Cited http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html [Learning in a Structured Environment. Photo]. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from: http://www.hadd.ie/classroom.htm [Zone of Proximal Development. Photo]. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from: http://www.innovativelearning.com/educational_psychology/development/zone-of- proximal-development.html [Children in a Circle. Photo]. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from: http://www.voicesnow.org/ [Math Teacher Helping Student. Photo]. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from: http://www.teachersalary.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Teacher-Salary-Math- Chalkboard.jpg [Students and social Development theory with/without tech]. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from: http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm

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