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Biodiversityconcepts in biodiversity and factors influencing aquatic biodiversity


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Biodiversityconcepts in biodiversity and factors influencing aquatic biodiversity

  2. 2. Introduction The word biodiversity comes from a contraction of biological diversity. ► It refers to the degree of variation of species on a certain location. ► Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. ► Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms , and are often referred to as ecosystems. ► Biodiversity a sum of all the different species of animals, plants, fungi, and microbial organisms living on Earth and the variety of habitats in which they live. ►
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  4. 4. DEFINITIONS ► Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. ► Biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of a region". ► In other words “variation of life at all levels of biological organization.
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  6. 6. Biodiversity Concepts ► Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. ► Biodiversity is generally described at three levels: genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. ► All life forms that make up biodiversity, including humans, are ultimately connected to all other life forms, and to their physical environment.
  7. 7. ► No one living element of any ecosystem can survive independent of the others. ► Connections among living and non-living elements keep the environment functioning and healthy. ► Human impact on the environment, therefore, directly or indirectly affects the function of other living things.
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  9. 9. TYPES OF BIODIVERSITY ►Species diversity ►Ecosystem diversity ►Genetic diversity
  10. 10. Species diversity ► Species diversity is the effective number of different species that are represented in a collection of individuals. ► This refers to the number of equally-abundant species needed to obtain the same mean proportional species abundance ► Species diversity consists of two components, species richness and species evenness. ► Species richness is a simple count of species. ► species evenness quantifies how equal the abundances of the species
  11. 11. Ecosystem diversity ► It refers to the diversity of a place at the level of ecosystems. ► which refers to variation in species rather than ecosystems. ► Ecosystem diversity can also refer to the variety of ecosystems present in a biosphere, the variety of species and ecological processes.
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  13. 13. ►Some examples of ecosystems that are rich in diversity are Deserts Forests Large marine ecosystems Marine ecosystems Old growth forests Rainforests Tundra Coral Reefs
  14. 14. Genetic diversity ► Genetic diversity refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. ► It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary. ► Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments. Those individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. ► The population will continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals.
  15. 15. BIODIVERSITY AND ITS LIMITS ► Physical environments, even healthy ones, can support just so many of any species, including people, indefinitely. ► The carrying capacity for any species changes as the numbers and actions of other life forms and environmental conditions. ► Species can cause changes in environmental conditions, and vice versa. ► Another way to express limits and carrying capacity is through the term ecological footprint. ► An ecological footprint is the amount of productive land and water required to maintain the current lifestyle of a particular individual.
  16. 16. BIODIVERSITY AND ITS VALUE ► Biodiversity has evolutionary, ecological, economic, social, cultural, and intrinsic values. ► Biologically diverse ecosystems offer a variety of natural products, including medical ingredients that enhance human health and standard of living. ► Biodiversity provides ecosystem services: water purification; clean air, fertile soil, climate regulation, flood control, as well as pest regulation and disease resistance.
  17. 17. ► Sustaining biodiversity has economic benefits: world ecosystem ► Biological diversity is key to long term ecosystem sustainability. ► Biodiversity is key in sustaining the natural beauty of National and Provincial Parks
  18. 18. BIODIVERSITY IS IN TROUBLE ► There is growing scientific concern about the major, rapid decline in biodiversity around the world. ► The extinction of each additional species and the loss of variation within species brings the irreversible loss of unique genetic diversity. ► The scientific community has linked human activity to the accelerated rate of recent and current extinctions.
  19. 19. Biodiversity is declining ► Habitat loss ► Invasive species ► Pollution ► Population Growth ► Over-consumption (Unsustainable use) ► Climate change ► wetlands is seen as eroding the protection of our drinking water and leading to further species losses. ► climate change is significantly affecting some northern Ontario ► species. ► Increase of at risk species.
  20. 20. ► Human impacts on biodiversity have been accelerating as population growth and consumption rates have increased. ► industrial actions that may lead to loss of biodiversity. ► The same principle discussed above for industry applies also to agriculture. The consumer wants cheap fresh food. The farmer delivers. ► Loss of species may mean loss of important but as yet unknown resources for humans.
  21. 21. CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY ► Loss of habitat due to climate change is the leading threat to global biodiversity ► Ecosystems fluctuate around a state of equilibrium. In the long run, however, ecosystems and their components always change when climate changes ► Climate change degrades biodiversity ► Stable, biodiverse environments are more capable of adapting to climatic shifts. ► Stable, biodiverse environments are more capable of mitigating the production of GHC’s and thus climate change.
  22. 22. ► Reduction in sources of climate change (excessive fossil fuel use, etc.) will help conserve biodiversity. ► Enhancement/conservation of biodiversity (forest conservation, reduced chemical pollution and other factors not directly related to climate change) will minimize impacts of climate change. ► Temperature increase makes certain environments uninhabitable to previously indigenous species.
  23. 23. Aquatic biodiversity ► It can be defined as the variety of life and the ecosystems that make up the freshwater, tidal, and marine regions of the world and their interactions. ► It encompasses freshwater ecosystems,. ► It also consists of marine ecosystems, ► Aquatic biodiversity includes all unique species, their habitats and interaction between them.
  24. 24. Importance of Aquatic Biodiversity ► Aquatic biodiversity has enormous economic and aesthetic value and supporting overall environmental health. ► Humans have long depended on aquatic resources for food, medicines, and materials as well as for recreational and commercial purposes such as fishing and tourism. ► Aquatic organisms also rely upon the great diversity of aquatic habitats and resources for food, materials, and breeding grounds
  25. 25. ► Factors including overexploitation of species, pollution , urbanization and industralization. ► valuable aquatic resources are becoming increasingly susceptible to both natural and artificial environmental changes. ► Thus, conservation strategies to protect and conserve aquatic life are necessary to maintain the balance of nature and resources for future generations.
  26. 26. Threats to Aquatic Biodiversity ► Human activities are causing species to disappear at an alarming rate. ► Losses of this magnitude impact the entire ecosystem, depriving valuable resources used to provide food, medicines, and industrial materials to human beings. ► Runoff from agricultural and urban areas, the invasion of exotic species, and the creation of dams and water diversion have been identified as the greatest challenges to freshwater environments
  27. 27. ► Overexploitation of aquatic organisms for various purposes is the greatest threat to marine environments . ► Urban development and resource-based industries, such as mining and forestry that destroy or reduce natural habitats . ► Air and water pollution, sedimentation and erosion, and climate change also pose threats to aquatic biodiversity.
  28. 28. References ► Hendrik S. and K. Martens (2005). Aquatic Biodiversity: v. 2: The Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems (Developments in Hydrobiology). Springer Publi. ► Kumar, U. and Asija, M. J. (2009). Biodiversity: Principle and Conservation. Agrobios (India) ► Ormond, Rupert F. G., John D. Gage, and Martin V. A. (Editors), 1997. Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Processes ,Cambridge University Press, New York.
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