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Ss11 canada1920s


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A look at Canada's growing autonomy and domestic issues.

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Ss11 canada1920s

  1. 1. Canada in the ’20s J. Marshall, 2007
  2. 2. 1919 - The War is Over <ul><li>Paris peace talks (in effect 1920) </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers return to few jobs with NO social safety net (NO pensions/medicare) </li></ul><ul><li>Years of labour unrest bubbling - many strikes: </li></ul><ul><li>(labour is organized and wants a better deal - </li></ul><ul><li>March 1919 = Western Labour Conference = </li></ul><ul><li>formation of OBU) </li></ul><ul><li>Russia is in a civil war after the 1917 Bolshevik revolution (socialism is an active topic in Canada, especially in the West) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Winnipeg General Strike, 1919 <ul><li>IWW meeting in Calgary in March </li></ul><ul><li>OBU = solidarity for ALL Cdn workers (give workers some control via peaceful means: pay, shorter work week, COLLECTIVE BARGAINING) </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens’ Committee of One Thousand (vs. communist conspiracy) </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 strikers (population 200,000) </li></ul><ul><li>City Police strike - they are fired </li></ul>
  4. 4. Forces acting AGAINST the strikers <ul><li>Citizens’ Committee of 1000 (scabs hired) </li></ul><ul><li>War vets (march in opposition to “Bolsheviks” and in favour of “king and country”) </li></ul><ul><li>Mayor (force behind leaders’ arrest, “Specials”, read Riot Act, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Specials” (2000 club weilding special constables hired by the mayor) </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration Act ammended to allow immigrant leaders to be deported - Ottawa fears of a spread to other cities </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal code ammended by Meighen to broaden definition of “SEDITION” </li></ul><ul><li>RNWMP (mounted police and troops bought in to “maintain order” </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers biased against “Bolshevik” strikers </li></ul>
  5. 5. The strikers decide what stays open…at first <ul><li>May 20, metal and building workers strike </li></ul><ul><li>Winnipeg Trades and Labour Council calls for general strike </li></ul><ul><li>June 4, first Vets march in opposition to strikers </li></ul><ul><li>June 9, Mayor appoints “Specials,” fires many civic workers, arrests leaders (no real order in city after this point) </li></ul><ul><li>June 21, 10 leaders (including J.S. Woodsworth) arrested </li></ul><ul><li>June 25, Mayor reads riot act, assembly in Market Square turns into Bloody Saturday </li></ul><ul><li>June 26, as a result, after 43 days, the strike ends </li></ul>
  6. 6. Streetcar run by C of 1000 First World War vets march “ Specials” block parade route Strikers protest their leaders’ 2 DEAD Mounted Police charge = “Bloody Saturday”
  7. 7. Outcome of the Strike <ul><li>Royal Commission &quot;if Capital does not provide enough to assure Labour a contented existence...Government might find it necessary [to intervene] and let the state do these things at the expense of Capital” - no evidence of a conspiracy by foreigners is found </li></ul><ul><li>Organized Labour remains hostile to the Tories for the way they put down the strike (farmers are hostile to high 1919 Tory tariffs a.k.a. the National Policy - a throw back from John A. in 1878) </li></ul><ul><li>King’s Liberals promise reforms to labour laws after they are elected in 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>J.S. Woodsworth starts C.C.F. (Co-operative Commonwealth Federation - 1st socialist party in Cda) in 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Fired workers rehired </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>King’s Liberals had a minority gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>King got the Progressives to support him: AGNES MACPHAIL 1st woman MP </li></ul><ul><li>Meighen’s Tories became the official opposition </li></ul><ul><li>(They didn’t win a single seat in the West!) </li></ul>Outcome for the Conservatives in the 1921 Election OUCH!
  9. 9. <ul><li>1919 Paris Peace Talks </li></ul><ul><li>1922 Chanak Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>1923 Halibut Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>1926 King-Byng Affair </li></ul><ul><li>1926 Balfour Report </li></ul>Canadian Autonomy
  10. 10. Chanak - Turkey Greek defeat put Turks near British and French garrison in neutral zone - call for war against Turkey - British people didn’t support = fall of Lloyd George Mackenzie King insisted that the issue be debated, by the time it was, the crisis was over. How is this different than other Calls to arms for Canada? Mustafa Kemal Ataturk David Lloyd George
  11. 11. Halibut Treaty <ul><li>1923 USA/Canada joint management model to address declining stocks </li></ul><ul><li>International Pacific Halibut Commission (four members 2 Cdn/2 US) </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST international treaty negotiated independent of Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Mackenzie King threatened to go directly to Washington is Britain meddled (the Brits wanted to have a signature on the treaty) </li></ul>
  12. 12. The King-Byng Affair/Crisis <ul><li>See pp. 54 (cartoon) and 55 of your text </li></ul><ul><li>1925 election </li></ul><ul><li>Progressives pull support in 1926 after liquor scandal and Tories call for vote of censure. </li></ul><ul><li>King asks Byng to call election, instead. </li></ul><ul><li>Byng refuses and asks Meighen to form gov’t - he does, but soon loses vote in House of Commons. </li></ul><ul><li>Meighen asks for election and one is granted. </li></ul><ul><li>King campaigns 1926 election against undemocratic process and wins a majority gov’t! </li></ul>Liberals 101 Conservatives 116 Progressives 24 This is a MUST KNOW
  13. 13. 1926 Balfour Report (the second one) <ul><li>Give the Dominions their independence. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Persons Case and the Famous Five <ul><li>Emily Murphy - Alta. magistrate - appt was challenged </li></ul><ul><li>BNA Act - women are not “persons” in the eyes of the law </li></ul><ul><li>1928 Murphy’s challenge to Mackenzie King re: Senate seat </li></ul><ul><li>1928 Supreme C of Cda - women ARE NOT persons </li></ul><ul><li>1929 British Privy Council - women ARE persons </li></ul><ul><li>4 months later Cairine Wilson 1st female senator </li></ul>
  15. 15. Victorians - out; Flappers - in!
  16. 16. Art: the Group of Seven
  17. 17. Sports: The NHL is born Ace Baile of the Leafs George Vezina
  18. 18. USA vs. Canada: Primary vs. Secondary Industry
  19. 19. 1920s’ B r a n c h P l a n t s and the New Canadian Economy 40% 60%