Morgenthau Plan – division/occupation of Germany Hyde Park Agreement – Full collaboration over nuclear research – ended after the war by the USA “McMahon Act” (nukes, including weapons put under civilian control)
The idea was to end Germany’s ability to wage war be eliminating her industry and turning her into a “pastoral” state. The idea was dropped my Truman in 1947 when it was reaslized 25 million would have to be moved or killed to achieve the plan.
The Curzon Line was the Commission on Polish Affairs suggestion for Poland’s eastern border during the Paris Peace Conf. Poles fought Bolsheviks Feb 1919 - Sep 1920 (treaty, Mar 18, 1921) Gen Pilsudski fought for Polish nationalism and increased territory vs Russia. Towards the end, the Poles won wonderful counter-attack to re-take Warsaw - Russians were beaten back and Lenon sued for peace.
Morganthau - US Sec of Treas. - see page 190 (old text) re his plan to strip Ger of her industry and turn her into a “pastoral” setting. He demanded $20 billion in reparations - 1/2 to USSR.
Churchill alone pushed for free elections in Poland. The British leader pointed out that UK &quot;could never be content with any solution that did not leave Poland a free and independent state&quot;. Stalin pledged to permit free elections in Poland, but eventually never honored his promise
Instead of Zulu Time it might have been Moscow time.
Note how many countries Germany touches (affects) - Can the students name them? Note how the bi-polar world of East and West is being established (reinforced?) Note how FDR tried to get the coastal zone to enable the USN to provide support. Note shaded areas do not correspond exactly to FDR’s borders - why did he include the Netherlands in the US zone? The USSR shaded area includes parts of the Czech territory.
Buchenwald, central Germany - view of the crematorium through the electrified fence.
The first conferences were UK/USA (Canada?) They concerned war aims, world order (UN) The Big 3 met at Tehran 43, Yalta 44 near the end of the war The focus changed from war to post-war at Yalta (post-war Poland was discussed at Tehran) Relationships important: Churchill kept USA and USSR cordial (Brit. Had worked hard to gain allies) Compromises re where should focus of war be, how should Germany be managed after war In 1945 the peace was more about
Second World War Conferences
World War Two
• Handbook, pages: 114 - 116
• Text, pages: 134-35, 137, 146-47, 154-55
Note: There were more conferences than those listed in
your references - these are just some of the most
Sometimes called the Atlantic
• Churchill and FDR
• Discuss common war aims
• Create the Atlantic Charter
The U.S. recognizes the threat to Britain
(the Battle of the Atlantic is NOT going well),
• The “14 points” of
WW2 (actually only 8)
• Model for UN
• Start of the GRAND
Churchill’s rough draft
Charter’s 8 Points:
•The USA and Britain agreed to seek no territorial gains as a
result of the outcome of World War II.
•Any territorial adjustments would be made with the wishes of
the affected people taken into consideration.
•Self-determination was a right of all people.
•A concerted effort would be made to lower trade barriers.
•The importance of the advancement of social welfare and
global economic cooperation were recognized as important.
•They would work to establish freedom from fear and want.
•The importance of freedom of the seas was stated.
•They would work towards postwar disarmament and the
mutual disarmament of aggressor nations.
I’m not going to
kiss you, if that’s
what you want!
Churchill and FDR agree thatChurchill and FDR agree that
• Germany must surrender
• Did not want to repeat the errors of WW1
(ie. stab in the back).
• Published the Casablanca Declaration =
outlines the requirement for surrender.
How could this prolong the war?
How would Germany react?
• D-Day (the AlliesD-Day (the Allies’ Priority!) is set for’ Priority!) is set for
May 1, 1944May 1, 1944 (a date not realized).(a date not realized).
• Pacific theatre is reorganized.Pacific theatre is reorganized.
• Discuss A-Bomb progress + share infoDiscuss A-Bomb progress + share info
(Stalin not in on the secret - or so they think…).(Stalin not in on the secret - or so they think…).
• FIRSTFIRST MEETING OF THE BIG 3.
• Churchill ensures cordiality.
• USA/UK agree to open 2nd front (vs.
Churchill’s Med. Strategy - Balkans ⇒ Greece).
• USSR agrees to fight in Pacific (for a
price…after Germany is defeated)
• Post-war Poland buffer is planned.
Curzon Line in the East
Oder-Niesse Line in the West: Poland’s Compensation
Not finalized + the plan for Germany is deferred to another meeting.
Fit for a Tsar
MostMost important of
all theall the
• Zones vs 1944 Morgenthau Plan to break
• USSR in Pacific 3 months after V.E.
• Disarm Germany (details later)
• USSR to allow elections in East (FDR soft on
guarantees - needs Stalin)
• Poland still not finalized - leave that for the
peace treaty (Potsdam).
Remember FDR’s Map?
Spheres of Influence?
• Which two
• Which country
now has zones?
• What about the
• Note: Austria was similarly
Potsdam was not intended to be the
it can be divided into two parts:
• Dismantle her war industries
- split up navy + destroy most subs (some kept for
- rocket program moved to USA
• Reparations (more to USSR)
- no Nazi groups, symbols, leaders
TrialsTrialsfor war criminalsfor war criminals
Only 35,000 of the estimated 150-200,000 responsible were tried and convicted
The Brits had only 3 investigators; the Americans 320 - all work was suspended
in 1948; trouble with the Allies was brewing.
Saying you were ORDERED to
commit a war crime is no
Remember Henry V: “Every subject’s duty is the King’s, but
every subject’s soul is his own.” IV, i, 161-162
Dealing with the USSR
• At the start of the conference the
A-Bomb was unproven; how would its
success affect the way the US dealt
with the USSR? What about Truman’s
hatred for Stalin?
Allied Control Council
• What would happen if denazification
created a leadership void?
• What are the types of things the Council
would have to administer?
How can the conferences be divided:
• Who attended the first ones - what did they
• When did the Big 3 get together - what stage
in the war was this?
• When did the focus change from war to post-
• How important were personalities and
• Were compromises necessary?
• How do the decisions of 1945 compare to
Understanding the outcome of WW2 and the
reasons for the decisions made will help you
to grasp the later outcomes in the bi-polar
world of the Cold War.