Second World War Conferences

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A presentation for History 12 students in SD46 on the Sunshine Coast of BC

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  • Jan 14 - 24, 1943
  • Morgenthau Plan – division/occupation of Germany
    Hyde Park Agreement – Full collaboration over nuclear research – ended after the war by the USA “McMahon Act” (nukes, including weapons put under civilian control)
  • The idea was to end Germany’s ability to wage war be eliminating her industry and turning her into a “pastoral” state. The idea was dropped my Truman in 1947 when it was reaslized 25 million would have to be moved or killed to achieve the plan.
  • The Curzon Line was the Commission on Polish Affairs suggestion for Poland’s eastern border during the Paris Peace Conf. Poles fought Bolsheviks Feb 1919 - Sep 1920 (treaty, Mar 18, 1921) Gen Pilsudski fought for Polish nationalism and increased territory vs Russia. Towards the end, the Poles won wonderful counter-attack to re-take Warsaw - Russians were beaten back and Lenon sued for peace.
  • Morganthau - US Sec of Treas. - see page 190 (old text) re his plan to strip Ger of her industry and turn her into a “pastoral” setting. He demanded $20 billion in reparations -
    1/2 to USSR.
  • Churchill alone pushed for free elections in Poland. The British leader pointed out that UK "could never be content with any solution that did not leave Poland a free and independent state". Stalin pledged to permit free elections in Poland, but eventually never honored his promise
  • Instead of Zulu Time it might have been Moscow time.
  • Note how many countries Germany touches (affects) - Can the students name them?
    Note how the bi-polar world of East and West is being established (reinforced?)
    Note how FDR tried to get the coastal zone to enable the USN to provide support.
    Note shaded areas do not correspond exactly to FDR’s borders - why did he include the Netherlands in the US zone? The USSR shaded area includes parts of the Czech territory.
  • Buchenwald, central Germany - view of the crematorium through the electrified fence.
  • The first conferences were UK/USA (Canada?) They concerned war aims, world order (UN)
    The Big 3 met at Tehran 43, Yalta 44 near the end of the war
    The focus changed from war to post-war at Yalta (post-war Poland was discussed at Tehran)
    Relationships important: Churchill kept USA and USSR cordial (Brit. Had worked hard to gain allies)
    Compromises re where should focus of war be, how should Germany be managed after war
    In 1945 the peace was more about
  • Second World War Conferences

    1. 1. TheConferencesof World War Two
    2. 2. References: • Handbook, pages: 114 - 116 • Text, pages: 134-35, 137, 146-47, 154-55 Note: There were more conferences than those listed in your references - these are just some of the most significant ones.
    3. 3. The leaders: The Big3
    4. 4. Time Line 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Nfld Conf. (Atlantic Charter) Que Conf. #1 Casablanca Conf. Cairo Conf. Yalta Conf. Potsdam Conf. TehranConf. DumbartonOaksConf. Bretton W oodsConf. Que Conf. #2
    5. 5. 1. NEWFOUNDLAND: Aug, 1941
    6. 6. Sometimes called the Atlantic Conference • Churchill and FDR • Discuss common war aims • Create the Atlantic Charter The U.S. recognizes the threat to Britain (the Battle of the Atlantic is NOT going well), sooooo…
    7. 7. • The “14 points” of WW2 (actually only 8) • Model for UN • Start of the GRAND ALLIANCE Churchill’s rough draft
    8. 8. Charter’s 8 Points: •The USA and Britain agreed to seek no territorial gains as a result of the outcome of World War II. •Any territorial adjustments would be made with the wishes of the affected people taken into consideration. •Self-determination was a right of all people. •A concerted effort would be made to lower trade barriers. •The importance of the advancement of social welfare and global economic cooperation were recognized as important. •They would work to establish freedom from fear and want. •The importance of freedom of the seas was stated. •They would work towards postwar disarmament and the mutual disarmament of aggressor nations.
    9. 9. I’m not going to kiss you, if that’s what you want!
    10. 10. The Charter was a natural progression…
    11. 11. 2. CASABLANCA: Jan, 1943
    12. 12. Churchill and FDR agree thatChurchill and FDR agree that • Germany must surrender UNCONDITIONALLY. • Did not want to repeat the errors of WW1 (ie. stab in the back). • Published the Casablanca Declaration = outlines the requirement for surrender. How could this prolong the war? How would Germany react?
    13. 13. 3. QUEBEC (One): Aug, 1943
    14. 14. Why is he always moving into my space?
    15. 15. • D-Day (the AlliesD-Day (the Allies’ Priority!) is set for’ Priority!) is set for May 1, 1944May 1, 1944 (a date not realized).(a date not realized). • Pacific theatre is reorganized.Pacific theatre is reorganized. • Discuss A-Bomb progress + share infoDiscuss A-Bomb progress + share info (Stalin not in on the secret - or so they think…).(Stalin not in on the secret - or so they think…).
    16. 16. 4. CAIRO: Nov, 1943
    17. 17. Zones of Occupation? FDR’s musings of post-war Europe while on the ship to Cairo… UUSSAA ZoneZone BritBrit ZoneZone USSRUSSR ZoneZone
    18. 18. Later this came out at Yalta
    19. 19. A bunch of other guys… Chiang FDR Churchill Madam Chiang WHO WAS WHO WASABSENT? ABSENT?
    20. 20. • Planned operations for China. • Post-war: a) Manchuria to China; b) Korea to be free (who had controlled Korea since 1910?).
    21. 21. 5. Quebec (Two): Sep, 1944
    22. 22. • Churchill presses for Mediterranean • Phase 2 Lend-lease $ to UK • FDR still won’t recognize DeGaulle • Morgenthau Plan given tentative approval: • Hyde Park Agreement
    23. 23. 6. TEHRAN: Nov-Dec, 1943
    24. 24. BEST FRIENDS?
    25. 25. • FIRSTFIRST MEETING OF THE BIG 3. • Churchill ensures cordiality. • USA/UK agree to open 2nd front (vs. Churchill’s Med. Strategy - Balkans ⇒ Greece). • USSR agrees to fight in Pacific (for a price…after Germany is defeated) • Post-war Poland buffer is planned. FDR’S NOTES
    26. 26. Curzon Line in the East USSR regains land lost to Poland in Treaty of Riga 1921. (Remember the UK Foreign Secretary from 1919?)
    27. 27. Oder-Niesse Line in the West: Poland’s Compensation Not finalized + the plan for Germany is deferred to another meeting.
    28. 28. 7. YALTA: Feb, 1945
    29. 29. Livadia Palace: Fit for a Tsar MostMost important of important of all theall the conferences? conferences?
    30. 30. • Zones vs 1944 Morgenthau Plan to break apart Germany • Nuremburg • USSR in Pacific 3 months after V.E. • Disarm Germany (details later) • USSR to allow elections in East (FDR soft on guarantees - needs Stalin) • Poland still not finalized - leave that for the peace treaty (Potsdam).
    31. 31. Churchill’s Plan
    32. 32. Roosevelt’s Paln
    33. 33. Morgenthau Plan:
    34. 34. Final Decision
    35. 35. • Approved 1944 Dumbarton Oaks re: U.N. (also 1944 Bretton Woods - IMF/World Bank). • Plan 1945 San Fran. in April to draft Charter.
    36. 36. 8. Potsdam: Jul-Aug 1945
    37. 37. The Reichstag: fall of Berlin 02 May, 1945 Local time → ← Zulu tim e
    38. 38. Potsdam Declaration • Truman, Chiang and Churchill define terms for Japanese surrender with threat of “prompt and utter destruction” (w/o mention of the Bomb).
    39. 39. How would new leaders from the democracies change the treaty negotiations? I beat that Tory, Churchill. FDR died; I was VP. I “man of steel;” l always be here!
    40. 40. Generally, who rule the conquered right after a war? E B C
    41. 41. Germany had divided: what goes around…
    42. 42. Remember FDR’s Map? 11 22 44 33 55 66 77 88 Who appears to get the best zone? Spheres of Influence?
    43. 43. • Which two countries switched spots? • Which country now has zones? • What about the capital, Berlin? • Note: Austria was similarly divided
    44. 44. Potsdam was not intended to be the peace treaty; it can be divided into two parts:
    45. 45. CHANGE GERMANY • Dismantle her war industries - split up navy + destroy most subs (some kept for research) - rocket program moved to USA • Reparations (more to USSR) • Denazification - no Nazi groups, symbols, leaders • and
    46. 46. TrialsTrialsfor war criminalsfor war criminals G Only 35,000 of the estimated 150-200,000 responsible were tried and convicted The Brits had only 3 investigators; the Americans 320 - all work was suspended in 1948; trouble with the Allies was brewing. Saying you were ORDERED to commit a war crime is no defense! Remember Henry V: “Every subject’s duty is the King’s, but every subject’s soul is his own.” IV, i, 161-162
    47. 47. Dealing with the USSR • At the start of the conference the A-Bomb was unproven; how would its success affect the way the US dealt with the USSR? What about Truman’s hatred for Stalin?
    48. 48. Allied Control Council • What would happen if denazification created a leadership void? • What are the types of things the Council would have to administer?
    49. 49. Making Sense How can the conferences be divided: • Who attended the first ones - what did they concern? • When did the Big 3 get together - what stage in the war was this? • When did the focus change from war to post- war? • How important were personalities and relationships? • Were compromises necessary? • How do the decisions of 1945 compare to 1919?
    50. 50. Remember Understanding the outcome of WW2 and the reasons for the decisions made will help you to grasp the later outcomes in the bi-polar world of the Cold War. end

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