Hudson's Bay Company and Northwest Company and the Fur Trade in Canada


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Hudson's Bay Company and Northwest Company and the Fur Trade in Canada

  1. 1. The Northwest to 1870 PART 1 Competition in the Fur Trade (pp 125 - 138 of Horizons) J Marshall, 2014
  2. 2. Timeline: 167 • _______HBC created • • • • • • • 0 178 _______NW Co created 3 181 _______Selkirk Settlement founded 2 181 _______Pemmican Proclamation 4 _______Selkirk’s treaty with the Cree 181 7 182 _______HBC/NW Co merge 1 _______Govt of Canada gets Ruperts Land 186 9 _______Red River troubles 186 9 1700 1800 1900
  3. 3. Drainage Basin Hinterland: back country that provides resources Heartland: settled regions that use resources to create goods
  4. 4. The Hudson’s Bay Company Terms Factor Clerk Factory “Stay at the Bay” Made beaver Trade Goods
  5. 5. BC H • The Factor was like a god – the Governor was even worse! • Marriages were not encouraged • Traded with various First Nations groups • Strict trade standards – everything translated into “made beaver” • Strict timelines (H Bay open July – Mid-Sept only • All in-country workers were salaried • Forced inland as resources shrank
  6. 6. The Northwest Company Montreal, 1783 Terms Montreal Partners Hivernants/Wintering Partners Voyageurs Portage Canots du nord (7m/6 crew) Canots du maitre (11m/12 crew) Pieces (40kg)
  7. 7. NW Co • New France fell 1763; 1783 NW Co established (about a century after the HBC) • Initially outside HBC territory/then in competition • Hivernants went to hinterland to establish trade and would negotiate prices • Hivernants were partners, not salaried employees • Canoe brigades moved pieces from Ft William to Lachine
  8. 8. York Boat
  9. 9. Canoe
  10. 10. to access the websites on York boats and canoes York Boat Pros Cons Canoe
  11. 11. NW Co: Advantages  Trappers accessed NW Co posts easier  Hierarchy was less rigid than HBC  Montreal partners managed overseas business  Hivernants could stay in the bush  Hivernants had a vested interest in profits  Explorers found new routes/mapped  Trade prices were more flexible than HBC  Willing to trade alcohol IN WHAT ORDER WOULD YOU RANK THE IMPORTANCE OF EACH?
  12. 12. HBC Problem Solving: • Create a plan to win the fur trade competition with the NW Co. • Think about the pros and cons of your decisions. • Consider the short term and longer term effects of your choices.
  13. 13. Canoe: click to access website
  14. 14. end