Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

U6. interwar years & ww2

3,063 views

Published on

U6. interwar years & ww2

Published in: Education
  • This is Amazing! He Won the Lotto Jackpot 7 Times, and Doesn't Mind Revealing His Secrets?  http://t.cn/Airf5UFH
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

U6. interwar years & ww2

  1. 1. Unit 6: INTERWAR YEARS & WW2 4ºESO IES Camilo José Cela Teacher: Rocío Bautista
  2. 2. • 1917: Russian Revolution • 1918: End of WW1 • 1919-20: Paris Peace Conference • 1920’s  economic prosperity (“The Roaring 20’s”) 1930’s  economic crisis (“The Great Depression”) INTERWAR PERIOD 1918 - 39 WW2 1939 - 45 Rise of Totalitarism: Fascism & Nazism
  3. 3. THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION & THE CREATION OF THE USSR
  4. 4. Russia had become a very extensive empire: •Limits in the West: Baltic Sea & Black Sea •Limits in the East: Pacific Ocean Russia before the Revolution
  5. 5. It had a huge population (170 million people), the biggest of Europe, and it was formed by multiple nationalities (over 200 ethnic groups). Russia before the Revolution
  6. 6.  It had an agrarian economy:  Industry was scarce  3 million proletariats.  Most of the population (80%) were peasants  little changes since the Middle Ages, so the agrarian production was very low: not enough to feed its huge population. Compared to Western Europe, Russia was economically, socially & politically backwards Russia before the Revolution
  7. 7.  Most of the population were illiterate & many were still serfs under the control of wealthy landowners. Russia before the Revolution Compared to Western Europe, Russia was economically, socially & politically backwards
  8. 8. Russia before the Revolution Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, last emperor of Russia  Politically, it was an autocratic state  it was an absolute monarchy (≠ liberalism: no constitution, parliament, separation of powers, elections…). It was ruled by the TSARS (“Zares”) of the Romanov dynasty. The term “tsar” is derived from the Latin word “Caesar”, which meant "Emperor“. Compared to Western Europe, Russia was economically, socially & politically backwards
  9. 9. Causes of the Russian Revolution HUGE ECONOMIC & SOCIAL INEQUALITIES: - Minority  a rich aristocracy that owned most of the land & factories. - Majority  extremely poor peasants & proletariats that lived in very bad conditions. POLITICAL DISCONTENT DUE TO THE AUTOCRATIC GOVERNMENT OF THE TSARS. These 2 factors led to a double opposition to the tsarist regime Bourgeoisie  wanted moderate reforms: liberal monarchy. Peasants & proletariat  wanted more radical reforms: dictatorship of the proletariat (communist revolution). Represented by the Bolshevik party.
  10. 10. REVOLUTION OF 1905  CAUSES: general discontent + military defeat against Japan (Russo-Japanese war)  It forced the Tsar to introduce some changes: • A parliament (Duma) was created • A Constitution was written • Political parties were allowed However, in fact the autocracy remained: • 50% of the members of the Duma were appointed by the Tsar. • Laws had to be approved by the Duma & by the Tsar.
  11. 11. BLOODY SUNDAY / RED SUNDAY (St. Petersburg. January 22nd, 1905) It started in January 1905 when people marched pacifically towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and were brutally fired upon by the Imperial Guard.
  12. 12. REVOLUTION OF 1905 Although the revolution failed (Russia continued to be an autocratic regime), it had important consequences: • It broke the bond between the Tsar & most of the Russian population. • It led to the radicalization of the opposition. • It served as a serious warning of what might happen in the future.
  13. 13. Activity 1 a) Define the following words”: • Tsar • Duma b) What problems of the Tsarist Russia were the main causes of the Revolutions of 1905 and 1917? What double opposition did these problems gave rise to? c) Explain the beginning & the outcome of the Revolution of 1905.
  14. 14. REVOLUTION OF 1917  CAUSES: general discontent + problems caused by WW1:  Military defeats  Famine  ≈ 3 million deaths 1st) BOURGEOIS REVOLUTION (moderate reforms; supported Capitalism)  February 1917 2nd) BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION (radical reforms; supported Communism)  October 1917
  15. 15. REVOLUTION OF 1917: Bourgeois revolution (February 1917)  In February 1917 protests over the scarcity of food erupt in Petrograd (modern day St. Petersburg).  Russian army unexpectedly switched their support to the protesters.
  16. 16. REVOLUTION OF 1917: Bourgeois revolution (February 1917)  Nicholas II was forced to abdicate his throne & a republic was established.  A liberal & bourgeois government took control provisionally (until the summoning of elections).
  17. 17. REVOLUTION OF 1917: Bourgeois revolution (February 1917)  The slow & moderate reforms undertaken by the liberal & bourgeois government, and their decision to remain in WW1, didn’t satisfy the working class, who continued riots & organized themselves in “soviets”: councils of proletariats, peasants & soldiers.
  18. 18. REVOLUTION OF 1917: Bolshevik revolution (October 1917)  In October 1917 a radical revolution overthrew the liberal & bourgeois government, and the Bolsheviks took control provisionally. The new government was led by Lenin.
  19. 19. REVOLUTION OF 1917: Bolshevik revolution (October 1917)  Measures undertaken by the provisional government of the “Bolsheviks” (or Communist Party):  Russia abandoned WW1 (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918)  Private property was abolished. Land, factories, banks, transports, etc. were nationalized and…:  Large estates of land were transferred to the peasants  Factories were controlled by the proletariat
  20. 20. REVOLUTION OF 1917: Bolshevik revolution (October 1917)  Russians voted to form a democratically elected Constituent Assembly (assembly to create a Constitution). The Bolsheviks expected to win the elections, but didn’t (only 25% of the votes).  In January 1918 the Lenin took power by a coup d’état, when the Bolshevik Red Guards dissolved the Constituent Assembly by force. This led to a civil war between Bolsheviks & people that opposed the revolution.
  21. 21.  1918 – 1921: CIVIL WAR RED ARMY (Bolsheviks) Led by Trotsky WHITE ARMY (coalition of counter- revolutionaries)  supporters of monarchy, liberalism, less radical forms of socialism…. Helped by liberal democratic countries (UK, France, US…) VS REVOLUTION OF 1917: Civil War (1918 – 21)
  22. 22.  During the Civil War the Imperial Romanov family was executed by the Bolsheviks (July 1918) . REVOLUTION OF 1917: Civil War (1918 – 21)
  23. 23.  During the Civil War the Bolsheviks established an economic policy called “War Communism”:  Factories were controlled by the State.  The State took peasants’ agricultural surpluses.  The State rationed food .  Private companies were banned and now controlled by the State. REVOLUTION OF 1917: Civil War (1918 – 21) RESULT  - Drop of industrial production - A Black Market flourished - Drop of harvests & famine
  24. 24.  1921: the Red Army’s victory consolidate the Bolshevik revolution. Lenin Bolshevik propaganda depicting Trotsky (Red Army) as a knight killing a dragon (that represents the counter-revolution, word that is written on its body). REVOLUTION OF 1917: Civil War (1918 – 21)
  25. 25. LENIN’S GOVERNMENT (1921 – 24)  Lenin established a dictatorship: he held all the power.  He created the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)  it was a federal state made up of Russia & other Asian republics.
  26. 26. LENIN’S GOVERNMENT (1921 – 24)  Lenin adopted a New Economic Policy (NEP):  Combined communism & capitalism: • The Government controlled major businesses • People could control small businesses & earn some profits.  It enabled the Russian economy to recover.
  27. 27. STALIN’S GOVERNMENT (1927 – 53)  A totalitarian political system was established, which used state violence to purge society of any opponent.
  28. 28. A secret police (KGVD) to crush any opposition to Stalin’s regime inside the Communist Party, the Army of among the population. Stalin’s Great Terror
  29. 29. Gulag: system of forced labour camps. Stalin’s Great Terror
  30. 30. Propaganda was used to show Stalin as a winner & a leader that cared for the people.
  31. 31. STALIN’S GOVERNMENT (1927 – 53)  Stalin abandoned the NEP and established a communist economy (totally controlled by the State):  Land was collectively owned  Large factories were created by the state (metallurgical, chemical & arms industries)  Banks, transports & other services were nationalized  The state planned each area of production (5- years plans established objectives to be fulfilled in that period of time) Made the USSR became a major economic & military power
  32. 32. Activity 2 a) Define: Soviet / USSR / NEP / Gulag / Stalinism b) Fill in the chart c) What decisions did the Communist Party took after the October Revolution? d) Lenin definitely held the power of Russia in January 1918. Was he chosen democratically? Explain your answer e) Who confronted in the Russian Civil War? When did it take place and who won? Chronology Type of reforms & economic system they wanted? Consequences BOURGEOIS REVOLUTION BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION
  33. 33. ECONOMY IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD - The Roaring Twenties - The Great Depression
  34. 34. RISE OF TOTALITARIANISM - Fascism - Nazism
  35. 35. Crisis of democracy & rise of totalitarianism Post war difficulties (Great Depression) encouraged the development of new ideologies against democratic & parliamentary systems: TOTALITARIAN REGIMES. • One party had total control over society • Supported by the middle class (unhappy due to the decrease of their standard of living). DEMOCRACY Maintained in:  US  UK  France  Others… (Netherlands, Belgium, Scandinavian countries…) TOTALITARIAN REGIMES Appeared in:  Italy (Fascist)  Germany (Fascist)  Spain (Fascist)  Russia (Communist)
  36. 36. Characteristics of totalitarianism Economic control -The state directed the economy. -They were: •Anti-capitalist (doesn’t support free market) •Anti-communist (doesn’t deny private property nor support equality) Rejection of equality Certain groups were considered superior: - members of the single party - certain races (racism) - men Fanaticism (irrational thinking) -Defended blind obedience to their leader. - Used symbols, songs, emblems, uniforms… to unify their followers ULTRA- NATIONALISM - Exalted the greatness of the nation - Supported imperialism (conquest of new territories) MILITARISM Defended a strong military & war as instruments of power & prestige. Social control Through…: -Propaganda - Education (e.g.: Hitler Youth) - Censorship of the media Authoritarian political system - One political party held absolute power. Led by a charismatic leader: · Mussolini  Italy · Hitler  Germany - No personal freedom nor political pluralism. All opposition was repressed violently.
  37. 37. Germany: ADOLF HITLER (Führer) Leader of the NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS’ PARTY (Partido Nacionalsocialista Obrero Alemán) Italy: BENITO MUSSOLINI (Il Duce) Leader of the NATIONAL FASCIST PARTY (Partido Nacional Fascista)
  38. 38. Propaganda used by the NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS’ PARTY “Our Last Hope: HITLER”
  39. 39. HITLER YOUTH (“Juventudes Hitlerianas”)  Indoctrinated children in Nazi ideology, including racism.  Many activities closely resembled military training.  Membership became compulsory for youngsters over 10 years old. Belly-button scene (“Life is Beautiful”) Youth organization of the Nazi Party
  40. 40. TOTALITARIAN FANATICISM
  41. 41. Activity 3 a) Define: • Führer • Hitler Youth b) What caused the rise of totalitarianism? c) P. 132  exercises 1, 2, 3
  42. 42. Fascism in Italy Italy: BENITO MUSSOLINI (Il Duce) Leader of the NATIONAL FASCIST PARTY (Partido Nacional Fascista)
  43. 43. Fascism in Italy CAUSES OF THE RISE OF FASCISM IN ITALY:  Discontent with the peace agreements of WW1 (Italy didn't receive the territories they had been promised).  Economic crisis after WW1 that led to workers’ revolutionary movements that frightened the most conservative population who didn’t want Communism to rise. Fascism was presented as an alternative between democracy (liberalism) & communism.
  44. 44. In 1919 – 1920 a wave of strikes & revolts of the proletariat frightened the most conservative people, who were afraid of the rise of Communism in Italy.
  45. 45. Fascism in Italy Benito Mussolini created the NATIONAL FASCIST PARTY (1921), that used paramilitary violent groups (the “Blackshirts”) to crush the workers’ revolutionary movement.
  46. 46. The symbol of the NATIONAL FASCIST PARTY was a “Fasces”: bundle of wooden sticks to which an axe is attached. It suggested strength through unity (a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is very difficult to break).
  47. 47. Fascism in Italy The successful interventions of the Blackshirts to stop the workers’ revolts granted Mussolini the support of the middle & upper classes, the Church & the king (Victor Emmanuel III), as they saw him as the way to halt Communism. His increasing popularity encouraged Mussolini to organise a MARCH ON ROME (1922), after which he was appointed Prime Minister by the King.
  48. 48. Fascism in Italy Once in power, Mussolini established a dictatorship (1922 – 1943):  Complete control over the country  One single party (PNF), the rest were prohibited  Restricted freedoms  All opposition was repressed with a secret police (OVRA)  Directed the economy  Social control (propaganda & censorship)
  49. 49. Organizzazione per la Vigilanza e la Repressione dell'Antifascismo (OVRA) • Secret police during the fascist dictatorship of Benito Mussolini to stop any anti-Fascist activity. • It is believed that about 4,000 people were arrested by the OVRA and either tried by the Tribunale Speciale or sent into exile on remote Mediterranean islands.
  50. 50. Benito Mussolini died in the final days of WW2 (April 1945), when he was executed by Italian communists.
  51. 51. VIDEO ITALIAN FASCISM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=58tC23t_X5A
  52. 52. Activity 4 a) Define: • Fascism • Blackshirts • March on Rome • OVRA b) Explain the main causes of the rise of Fascism in Italy. c) Which social groups supported Mussolini’s National Fascist Party and why? d) Give 5 characteristics of Mussolini’s dictatorship.
  53. 53. Nazism in Germany Germany: ADOLF HITLER (Führer) Leader of the NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS’ PARTY (Partido Nacionalsocialista Obrero Alemán)
  54. 54. Nazism in Germany At the Paris Peace Conference (1919-20), Germany had to sign the Treaty of Versailles which was seen as an insult to national pride. At the end of WW1 there was a revolution in Germany that forced the emperor (William II) to abdicate. Germany became a democratic republic: “WEIMAR REPUBLIC” (1918 – 1933)
  55. 55. Nazism in Germany CAUSES OF THE RISE OF NAZISM IN GERMANY:  Dissatisfaction with the Treaty of Versailles at the end of WW1. Germany felt humiliated.  Economic problems after WW1 (unemployment, inflation, debt…)  Social unrest during the Weimar Republic (attempts of revolutions & coup d'états)
  56. 56. Nazism in Germany The post-war crisis led to the foundation of the NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS’ PARTY (NSDAP or Nazi Party) in 1920. • Its leader was Adolf Hitler. • It had a violent paramilitary group (“SA”) that attacked the communists, trade unions, jews…
  57. 57. Nazism in Germany Hitler was supported by:  Middle class, specially after the crisis of 1929, when many were ruined  Upper class (capitalists) who were afraid of the expansion of communism.
  58. 58. Nazism in Germany ELECTIONS OF 1932: the Nazi Party won the elections (over 13 millions votes  37%). Thus, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor (Primer Minister) of Germany.
  59. 59. Nazism in Germany Once in power, Hitler ended the Weimar Republic and established a fierce dictatorship known as “Third Reich” (1933 – 1945):  One single party (NSDAP or Nazi Party), the rest were prohibited  No individual freedoms  All opposition was repressed with the secret police (Gestapo).  Idea of superiority of the Aryan race & persecution of Jews (anti-Semitism)  Control of the economy  Trade unions were forbidden  Social control (propaganda, censorship, Hitler Youth)  Military & expansionist policy that led to WW2  Hitler rejected the Treaty of Versailles and began a rearmament policy.
  60. 60. GESTAPO SS (Schutzstaffel) Responsible for enforcing the racial policy of Nazi Germany, and running the concentration camps. Secret police in charge of investigating anti-Nazi activities (spying, treason & sabotage cases against the Nazi party.
  61. 61. NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES (1934) (“Noche de los cuchillos largos”) • Series of political extrajudicial executions to purge Germany of any opposition and consolidate Hitler's power. • Many of those killed were leaders of the SA.
  62. 62. Nuremberg Laws (1935): antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany. • Marriages between Jews and Germans were forbidden • Only those of German blood were considered to be citizens (the rest were classified as State subjects)
  63. 63. NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS (1938) (“Noche de los cristales rotos”) • Massacre & persecution against Jews carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians. • Jewish businesses, homes, synagogues, hospitals, schools… were destroyed or damaged.
  64. 64. JEWISH GHETTOS During WW2 the Nazis set up ghettos across occupied Europe in order to segregate and confine Jews.
  65. 65. PEOLPE LIVED IN MISERABLE CONDICTIONS IN THE CONCENTRATION CAMPS
  66. 66. CONCENTRATION CAMPS  Auschwitz (POLAND) Jews arrived at Auschwitz by train “Work sets you free”: slogan at the entrance of concentration camps. Gas chamber & crematorium
  67. 67. NAZI CONCENTRATION CAMPS & JEWISH GHETTOS
  68. 68. NAZI HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION • Nazi Physicians undertook medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, at concentration camps. • Typically, the experiments resulted in death, trauma, disfigurement or permanent disability.
  69. 69. VICTIMS OF THE HOLOCAUTS http://www.abc.es/cultura/20130305/abci-nuevo- estudio-sobre-holocausto-201303051315.html Calculating the numbers of individuals who were killed as the result of Nazi policies is a difficult task. There is no single wartime document created by Nazi officials that spells out how many people were killed in the Holocaust or World War II. Historical estimations
  70. 70. It is believed that Adolf Hitler committed suicide together with his wife (Eva Braun) in his bunker in Berlin at the end of WW2 (April 1945). http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/adolf- hitler-commits-suicide-in-his-underground-bunker Both he and his wife swallowed cyanide capsules. For good measure, he shot himself with his pistol.
  71. 71. VIDEO GERMAN NAZISM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SgVJ9rNE4ak
  72. 72. Activity 5 a) Define: • Nazism • SA • Gestapo • SS b) Explain the main causes of the rise of Nazism in Germany. c) Which social groups supported Hitler’s National Socialist German Workers’ Party and why? d) Give 7 characteristics of Hitler’s dictatorship.
  73. 73. WW2 1939 - 1945
  74. 74. WW2 (1939 - 1945): main contenders THE ALLIES (“Los aliados”) UK France USSR (1941) USA(1941) THE AXIS POWERS (“Las potencias del Eje”) Germany Italy Japan (1940) VS
  75. 75. The “Pact of Steel” (May 1939) Military alliance between Hitler & Mussolini. Japan joined this alliance in 1940.
  76. 76. MAP PARTICIPANTS IN WW2 ALLIES VS AXIS POWERS
  77. 77. MAP PARTICIPANTS IN WW2 ALLIES VS AXIS POWERS
  78. 78. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Characteristics WW2 is considered the most important & most destructive war in history. WAROFENORMOUS REACH
  79. 79. WW2 (1939 - 1945): CharacteristicsLONG-LASTINGWAR (6years)
  80. 80. WW2 (1939 - 1945): CharacteristicsEXTREMEBRUTALITY
  81. 81. L O N G - T E R M C A U S E S O F W W 2 The rise of Totalitarian regimes that promoted militarism & ultra- nationalism Economic crisis caused by the Crash of 1929 (Great Depression) Treaty of Versailles, that made Germans feel humiliated and want a revenge WW2 (1939 - 1945): Causes
  82. 82. I M M E D I A T E C A U S E S & T H E S P A R K O F W W 2 WW2 (1939 - 1945): Causes In the 1930’s, prior to WW2, the Axis powers undertook an aggressive expansionist policy that set the path to WW2: • Japan  invaded Manchuria (part of China) • Italy  invaded Ethiopia & Albania • Germany  annexed Austria & Czechoslovakia
  83. 83. JAPANESE TERRITORIAL EXPANSION In 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria (part of China). In 1937, they continued invading other parts of China, and this led to the beginning of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War (some historians consider it the beginning of WW2)
  84. 84. ITALIAN TERRITORIAL EXPANSION As part of Mussolini's plan to create an Italian Empire, he invaded and occupied Ethiopia (1935) and Albania (1939)
  85. 85. Hitler ignored the Treaty of Versailles and undertook a militaristic & expansionist policy: • 1935-36: formation of an air force, start of compulsory military service & remilitarization of the Rhineland (“Renania”). All these actions went against the Treaty of Versailles. • 1938: annexation of Austria • 1938-39: annexation of Czechoslovakia GERMAN TERRITORIAL EXPANSION
  86. 86. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Causes At first, the Western democracies (UK, France, USA) did little to stop these expansions in order to avoid conflicts. Instead, they chose to follow a policy of appeasement.
  87. 87. Analyze this cartoon… what idea do you think that it wanted to communicate?
  88. 88. Cartoons about the appeasement policy of Western Democracies.
  89. 89. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Causes The failure of the appeasement policy was obvious and it came to its end after Germany’s invasion of Poland (September 1st 1939), when finally UK & France declared the war to Germany.
  90. 90. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Causes The USSR initially remained neutral since Hitler & Stalin signed the “German-Soviet non-aggression pact” (August 1939) in which they agreed:  No military action against each other for 10 years  Division of Eastern Europe between them.
  91. 91. Activity 6 a) Define: • Pact of Steel • German-Soviet Nonagression Pact b) Which two blocks confronted in WW2? Which were the main countries in each of them? c) Devise a diagram of the causes of WW2 d) What was the initial reaction of the Western Democracies towards the axis powers’ expansionist actions? Was it successful? e) Which event is considered the spark of WW2?
  92. 92. 1939 – 41 Victories of the Axis powers 1942 – 45 Victories of the Allies WW2 (1939 - 1945): Stages & events
  93. 93. WW2: Stages & events 1939 – 41: Victories of the Axis powers DURING THIS PERIOD THE AXIS POWERS DOMINATED THE WAR. • 1st September 1939: Germany occupied Western Poland. Soon after, the USSR occupied Eastern Poland & the Baltic republics (Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania) VICHY FRANCE
  94. 94. WW2: Stages & events 1939 – 41: Victories of the Axis powers • Due to Russia’s neutrality, Hitler could focus on one single front. By 1940 Germany had occupied most Western Europe:  Denmark  Norway  Low Countries  Belgium  Northern France  the south resisted to the invasion (“Vichy France”) VICHY FRANCE
  95. 95. OCCUPIED FRANCE (north) & VICHY FRANCE (south) Despite Vichy France was not occupied by the Germans, it collaborated with the Nazis.
  96. 96. BLITZKRIEG  literally means “lighting war”. Military tactic that consisted in a quick & intense attack using tanks & planes together.
  97. 97. WW2: Stages & events 1939 – 41: Victories of the Axis powers • Germany also tried to defeat UK by heavy air bombing (Battle of Britain, 1940), but failed. VICHY FRANCE
  98. 98. WW2: Stages & events 1939 – 41: Victories of the Axis powers • The Axis powers also invaded the Balkans & Allies’ colonies in the North of Africa. VICHY FRANCE
  99. 99. WW2: Stages & events 1939 – 41: Victories of the Axis powers • In 1941 Hitler ignored his pact with Stalin & invaded the USSR in need of energy resources & food, so the USSR joined WW2 on the side of the Allies. This was a turning point in WW2 & probably Hitler’s greatest mistake as he opened another front in Europe.
  100. 100. WW2: Stages & events 1939 – 41: Victories of the Axis powers • In 1941 Japan, attacked the US naval base in Pearl Harbour (Hawaii) in order to increase their influence in the Pacific. This event made the USA entered WW2 on the side of the Allies. It was another decisive turning point in WW2.
  101. 101. WW2: Stages & events 1942 – 45: Victories of the Allies DURING THIS PERIOD THE BALANCE OF POWER SHIFTED & THE ALLIES DOMINATED THE WAR. • 1942-43: the war evened out as the Axis powers were weakened.  Germany suffered defeats in North Africa & in Russia.  Italy was invaded by the Allies.  Japan was halted by the US in the Pacific.
  102. 102. Battle of El Alamein (Egypt) Battle of Stalingrad (Russia) Germany suffered defeats in North Africa & in Russia.
  103. 103. Italy was invaded by the Allies.
  104. 104. WW2: Stages & events 1942 – 45: Victories of the Allies • 1944: the Allies carried out a double offensive that enabled them to gain advantage:  In the West  the Normandy Landings enabled the Allies to freed Paris from Nazi occupation & to enter Germany through the West.  In the East  the Red Army marched towards Germany occupying several Eastern countries.
  105. 105. Normandy Landings (“El Desembarco de Normandía”) Invasion of Normandy (northern France) by the Allies that enabled them to freed Paris from Nazi occupation & to enter Germany through the West.
  106. 106. WW2: Stages & events 1942 – 45: Victories of the Allies • 1945: WW2 reached its end:  April: the USSR entered Berlin & Hitler committed suicide. Mussolini was captured & executed in Italy. WW2 had finished in Europe.  August: Japan surrendered after two atomic bombs were dropped by the USA in Hiroshima & Nagasaki. WW2 had definitely finished.
  107. 107. ATOMIC BOMBS OF HIROSHIMA & NAGASAKI (August 1945) • They were dropped by the USA to achieve a quick & cheaper victory over Japan. • It is estimated that these bombs killed about 240.000 people.
  108. 108. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Consequences Consequences of WW2 Democracies were established in Germany & Italy. A new international order was imposed: - Europe lost its hegemony - The USA & the USSR emerged as the hegemonic powers. Territorial changes: a new map of Europe was drawn. - 50 – 60 million deaths (mostly civilians) - 70 million wounded people - 40 million refugees displaced from their homes - Material devastation: many cities, industries & infrastructures were destroyed.
  109. 109. Activity 7 a) Define: • Blitzkrieg • Vichy France • Normandy landings • Pearl Harbour b) Devise a diagram of the stages of WW2 c) Which can be considered the two major turning points of WW2? d) What happened in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945?
  110. 110. Activity 8 a) When did the Yalta Conference took place? Who attended this conference and organized the new world after WW2? b) Was democracy established in all Europe after WW2? c) What agreement did the Allies reached concerning Germany & Berlin? d) What were the Nuremberg trials? e) What happened to most countries in Eastern Europe after WW2? f) What does U.N. stands for? When was it created & what was its main aim? g) What international conflict began after WW2? Who confronted in it?
  111. 111. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Peace after WW2 The Allies held several conferences & signed several treaties to establish a new map of Europe & a new international order after WW2. The most important conferences were: • YALTA CONFERENCE (Feb. 1945) • POTSDAM CONFERENCE (Jul. 1945)
  112. 112. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Peace after WW2  February 1945  Churchill (UK), Roosevelt (USA) & Stalin (USSR) YALTA CONFERENCE POTSDAM CONFERENCE  July 1945  Attlee (UK), Truman (USA) & Stalin (USSR)
  113. 113. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Peace after WW2 AGREEMENTS REACHED:  To hold elections in the countries freed from Nazi occupation to establish democratic governments in them. However, Stalin did not meet this compromise.
  114. 114. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Peace after WW2  Division of Germany & Berlin into 4 military zones occupied by USSR, UK, US & France. AGREEMENTS REACHED:
  115. 115. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Peace after WW2  Nazi war criminals would be punished. They were judged at the Nuremberg trials (1945-46; Germany) AGREEMENTS REACHED:  Germany had to be demilitarized & had to pay war reparations.
  116. 116. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Peace after WW2  New map of Europe: • Germany  lost territories annexed during the 3rd Reich. • Poland  annexed former parts of Germany • USSR  annexed territories in the Baltic region & occupied several Eastern Countries on which Communist regimes were imposed. • Italy & Japan  were occupied by Allies’ armies & lost their colonies. AGREEMENTS REACHED:
  117. 117. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Peace after WW2  Creation of the United Nations (U.N.): • International organization created mainly to maintain world peace through peaceful solutions to conflicts & protect human rights • Created in 1945 (San Francisco Conference) • Headquarters: New York (USA) • Initially: 50 States AGREEMENTS REACHED: San Francisco Conference (1945) Foundation of the UN
  118. 118. The Charter of the U.N.  signed on June 26th 1945, in San Francisco. UN Headquarters (NYC)
  119. 119. WW2 (1939 - 1945): Peace after WW2 Despite their collaboration during WW2, once the war ended the US & the USSR entered into a period of competition and confrontation known as the Cold War (1945 – 1991).
  120. 120. http://www.rtve.es/alacarta/videos/especial-segunda-guerra-mundial/segunda-guerra- mundial-mundo-despues-yalta/571341/ VIDEO «THE WORLD AFTER YALTA»

×