Rise of Italian Fascism

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A History 12 slideshow to accompany a lesson on the rise of Italian fascism

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  • Clockwise: Garibaldi, Victor Emanuel II, Fascist rods, fascist fist, Black Shirts marching, Europe after 1815 Congress of Vienna.
  • After 1815 Congress of Vienna (redrawing of Europe’s map after French Napoleonic wars and dissolution of Holy Roman Empire): Italy is fragmented
  • Mazzini wrote “The Duties of Man.”
    France got territory in Italy’s north for her help.
  • Garibali’s family in trade: he was a sea captain: in 1932 meets Mazzini – joins Young Italy movemnt. In 1834 joined in failed Piedmont insurrection. In 1839, traveled to S.America. Involved in liberation movements in Brazil and Uruguay. Returned to Italy after1846 liberal Pope Pius iX named – hope for unified Italy. In 1848 (First War of Independ) Garibaldi rtns but is cautioned to stay out of Rome - occupied by French soldiers. Leads seige, one victory but reinforced French win and with Austrians hunt G’s forces – flee to North. 1950-54 comes to USA, S.Amer and UK. Rtns to Italy for 1854 2nd War of Independ.
    NOTE: Garibali offered to help Lincoln in the USA Civil War:Lincoln offered to Make G a General – declined unless commander of whole army – also, insisted that goal of war be stated as end of slavery – Lincoln not ready to say so at first. G stayed home.
  • France withdrew her garrison from Rome and Papal States after mobilization for war with Prussia. France out of Italy after 1871 - after losing Franco Prussian War - Italy and Bismark of Prussia had been allies since Austro-Prussian War 1866 when Italy annexed Venetia from Aust-Hungary . Napoleon III had garrisoned Rome (to protect the Catholic Church) in 1867 – he had defeated Garibaldi and the patriots at the Battle of Mentana.
    *** Garibali didn’t like Cavour because he had traded his birth city of NICE to the Fr
  • Treaty of London, 1915 – Italy joins the Allies.
  • Mussolini’s message to the king.
  • Eleven days after socialist leader Matteotti spoke out, he was murdered – thus, the opposition is to be eliminated – by 1926 all non-fascist parties are gone. Remember, the Fascists won a huge majority in 1924 because of the 1923 Acerbo Law.
    1925 Freedom of press, assembly, speech, arbitrary arrest were eliminated: these are called “USELESS FREEDOMS.” Trade unions also abolished.
    1926 Calls himself Il Duce
    1928, Non-elected Chamber – Fascist-approved candidates appointed by Fascist Grand Council
    1929, Lateran Pacts signed by Pope - RC is only State religion + Pope rules Vatican City plus Church control of education,
    but Mussolini gets the endorsement of the head of the Church!
  • Pope Pius XI, Mussolini, King Victor Emmanuel
    After Hitler came to power, Pius XI also signed a Concordat with him in 1933. The Pope was attempting to guarantee the Church’s rights. The Reichskonkordat was signed by Pacelli and by the German government in June 1933, and included guarantees of liberty for the Church, independence for Catholic organisations and youth groups, and religious teaching in schools.In February 1936 Hitler sent Pius a telegram congratulating the Pope on the anniversary of his coronation but he responded with criticisms of what was happening in Germany, so much so that von Neurath the foreign secretary wanted to suppress it but Pius insisted it be forwarded.
  • The Cardinal who signed the concordat became Pope Pius XII in 1939, upon the death of Pius XI, who made 12 concordats in total.
  • Italy did not consider annexing Tunisia (large Ital. pop.) it until 1879 when it became apparent that Britain and Germany were encouraging France to add it to its colonial holdings
    North Africa.[4] A last minute offer by Italy to partition Tunisia between the two countries was refused, and France, confident in German support, ordered its troops in from French Algeria, imposing a protectorate over Tunisia in May 1881 under the Treaty of Bardo.[5] The shock of the "Tunisian bombshell", as it was referred to in the Italian press, and the sense of Italy's isolation in Europe, led it into signing the Triple Alliance in 1882 with Germany and Austro-Hungary.[6]
    2. 1886, Italy occupies Massawa, port in Eritrea (secret agreement with UK – halts French expansion in Fr Somaliland
    3. 1887, 1895: two failed Italian attempts to conquer Abyssinia
    4. 1901 – Italy gets 41 hectares on Chinese coast at Tientsin after Boxer Rebellion
    5. The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as the Guerra di Libia, "Libyan war", and in Turkey as the Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitan war") was fought between the
    Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Italy from September 29, 1911 to October 18, 1912.As a result of this conflict, Italy was awarded the Ottoman provinces of Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica. These provinces together formed what became known as Libya. During the conflict, Italian forces also occupied the Dodecanese Islands in the Aegean Sea. Formalized by Mussolini in 1923 Treaty of Laussanne with Turkey
  • Republican poster.
  • In 1939, Mussolini used debts owed by Albania as grounds for an ultimatum to King Zog - of course, Zog said, no!
    The Italian military’s positions at sea/on land were too much to oppose.
    The territorial nucleus of the Albanian state forms in the Middle Ages, as the Principality of Arbër and the Kingdom of Albania. The first records of the Albanian people as a distinct ethnicity also date to this period. The area was conquered in the 15th century by the Ottoman Empire and remained under Ottoman control as part of the Rumelia province until 1912, when the first independent Albanian state was declared. The formation of an Albanian national consciousness dates to the latter 19th century and is part of the larger phenomenon of rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire. A short-lived monarchy (1914–1925) was succeeded by an even shorter-lived first Albanian Republic (1925–1928), to be replaced by another monarchy (1928–1939), which was annexed by Fascist Italy during World War II. After the collapse of the Axis powers, Albania became a communist state, the Socialist People's Republic of Albania, which was dominated by Enver Hoxha (d. 1985).
  • When Italy's Fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini, came to power, he began proclaiming Italy's military superiority and building up his country's war machine. In 1935, in an uneven match, he invaded Ethiopia and later sent troops and planes to support Franco in the Spanish Civil War. With the advent of World War II, he hoped to emulate the military successes of his ally, Hitler. But his ventures in France, East Africa, North Africa, and particularly Greece met with crushing failure, and he required rescue by Nazi forces. In a speech on February 23, 1941, Mussolini blamed defeats in Libya on the fact that the British attacked before he was ready to launch his own offensive.
    Mussolini, 1941 
Ink, crayon, and opaque white over graphite underdrawing on layered paper 
Published by NEA Service, Inc. (17)
    http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/swann/herblock/dove.html
  • Rise of Italian Fascism

    1. 1. The Rise of Italian Fascism: from red shirts to black J. Marshall, 2011
    2. 2. Part One: Italian Unification Bringing the Pieces Together
    3. 3. Pre-Unification: 3 obstacles to unification: 1. Lombardy: occupied by Austria-Hungary 2. The Papal States: divided Italy in two (north/south) 3. Many independent states: Piedmont/Sardinia Tuscany Parma Sicily, etc 1. Lombardy: occupied by Austria-Hungary 2. The Papal States: divided Italy in two (north/south) 3. Many independent states: Piedmont/Sardinia Tuscany Parma Sicily, etc
    4. 4. Count Camillo Cavour:Count Camillo Cavour: (Piedmont) “Let’s expel A/H and then slowly annex the South.” Gets help from France’s Napoleon II - together they beat A/H, 1859. The NORTH is unified. Giuseppi Mazzini:Giuseppi Mazzini: Patriot - use of secret societies (Young Italy, 1831) to spread nationalism and republicanism.
    5. 5. Mazzini’s essay: The Duties of Man Liberty alone will not improve the lot of the working class As citizens of the state, one must labour to benefit all Merely demanding more rights won’t achieve anything Government, operated by the common consent of the people, will bring about equality and social improvement HOW CAN THIS ESSAY BE USED TO UNDERSTAND MUSSOLINI AND FASCIST ITALY?
    6. 6. Giuseppe Garibaldi: Revolutionary In 1860, 1000 strong, the Red Shirts land in Sicily and then move north towards ROME.
    7. 7. 1861 Unification after elections1861 Unification after elections Cavour is the first P.M. Victor Emmanuel II is king 1870 Rome joins Italy and becomes the capital in 1871
    8. 8. Part Two: Mussolini the chameleon changes stripes (This is the material for which you are responsible)
    9. 9. References: pp 38-39 A Map History pp 35-38 Global Forces pp 67-79 DeMarco pp 47-52 Falk workbook Recall Orlando’s dissatisfaction with the Paris Peace Treaty talks (little land) and look at the poet D’Annunzio’s exploits in Fiume, 1919 Desire for strong government to “slap back.”
    10. 10. The First World War
    11. 11. PostPostwarwarItaly:Italy: • Stricken with unemployment • 500+% inflation, 1914-21 • Plagued by strikes and lockouts • Unhappy over poor Treaty gains • Nearing economic collapse • Peasants taking land • Courting social REVOLUTION
    12. 12. Socialist, ex-soldier, pacifist, internationalist, journalist, war hawk, anarchist, statist, bully, but mostly an opportunistic PRAGMATIST! Many blame democracy (since 1912) for Italy’s post- war problems (little experience). Workers strike (Socialists warn of revolution) Owners fear loss of property and power. April, 1919, Fasci Combattimento (Black Shirts) start their “brawls.” At first, a socialist - not wanted - okay, then… Next, anti-socialist (plus, anti-liberal, anti-democracy and anti-free speech).
    13. 13. Race for Power:Race for Power: FastFast andand ViolentViolent 1920: 88 Fascist groups / 20,615 members 1921: 834 groups / 250,000+ members * In the first 4 months: 207 deaths, 800 people wounded. * Police/Army sympathized so no punishment. * Liberals thought they could control Mussolini and were intimidated by threats. May 1921: Fascists win 35 of 535 seats in Chamber of Deputies, but… Oct 1922: March on Rome
    14. 14. Result: King Victor Emmanuel III asks Mussolini to be P.M. on 29 Oct, 1922. = dictatorial power for 1 year to get control THEN: the 26,000 fascists made their march - by train? Okay, some walked. Oct 1922Oct 1922:: “Either the government is“Either the government is handed over or we take it by attack onhanded over or we take it by attack on Rome.”Rome.”
    15. 15. Stepstototalcontrol: Fascist Non-Fascist
    16. 16. Lateran Accords: a most unholy pact
    17. 17. Reichskonkordat, 1933
    18. 18. 33 Phases:Phases: 1. 1922 - 1925 a state seeking an ideology 2. 1925 - 1938 - first state operation strong modern nation-state capitalism syndicalism Encourage monopolies: more productivity = stronger state. At this point 400 deputies are still being approved by the people BUT In 1928 the election is gone:election is gone: Il Duce has total power and doesn’t have to hide it. 3. After 1938, Mussolini is Hitler’s puppet Corporate State
    19. 19. Corporate State = law and order? “Mussolini is always right” Climate of fear In theory, management and workers run business together In reality, it was a means to enact a centralized economy that eliminated workers’ rights – unions outlawed. Terror became commonplace
    20. 20. Mare Nostrum: the glories that were once Rome
    21. 21. Libya, 1912 Eritrea, 1886 Italian Somaliland, 1889 Abyssinia 1936 = Italian East Africa, 1938
    22. 22. And did appeasement work? 1. Remember Sykes-Picot 2. The Spanish Civil War allowed Italians to test equipment & tactics, and 3. Learn to coordinate with the Germans on the battlefield. 4. Albania… “The claw of Italian invaders will enslave us”
    23. 23. King Zog falls King Zog falls 19391939
    24. 24. All that was left to do was solidify… THE PACT OF STEEL 1939
    25. 25. Cult of Personality!
    26. 26. Chronology Review: dondon’t yell out the answers or I’ll sick the OVRA on you’t yell out the answers or I’ll sick the OVRA on you ___1. The Pope and Mussolini sign the Lateran Accord. ___2. The Acerbo Law will give a winner with 25%, 2/3 of the seats. ___3. Mussolini rides to Rome ahead of the marchers demanding power and WINS. ___4. Albania’s King Zog is exiled. ___5. Italy’s voters can’t vote any more. A) 1922 B) 1923 C) 1928 D) 1929 E) 1939
    27. 27. Chronology Review: dondon’t yell out the answers or I’ll sick the OVRA on you’t yell out the answers or I’ll sick the OVRA on you _D_1. The Pope and Mussolini sign the Lateran Accord. _B_2. The Acerbo Law will give a winner with 25%, 2/3 of the seats. _A_3. Mussolini rides to Rome ahead of the marchers demanding power and WINS. _E_4. Albania’s King Zog is exiled. _C_5. Italy’s voters can’t vote any more. A) 1922 B) 1923 C) 1928 D) 1929 E) 1939
    28. 28. end

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