SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 32
Download to read offline
By Ika Farihah Hentihu
1. Semantics
The study of linguistic meaning dealing with the literal
meaning of words and the meaning of the way they are
combined.
2. Pragmatics
The study of linguistic meaning dealing with
all the ways in which literal meaning must be refined or
enriched to arrive at an understanding of what speaker
meant in uttering
a particular expression.
“I forgot the paper.”
The person who is speaking at some time before the
time of speaking forgot a particular item which is a
paper
“I forgot the paper.”
1. In Sunday morning, Anna (the speaker) has returned to
her flat from the local shop then she realized that she
forgot to buy a copy of the Sunday newspaper for that
morning.
2. Anna comes to her table with wet hands (after washing
hands). When she wants to touch her documents, she
remember that
she did not take tissue.
1. Denotation and Sense
2. Lexical and Structural Meaning
3. Categorematic and
Syncategorematic Expressions
• The two most basic ways of giving the meaning of words
or longer expressions
1. Denotation
giving meaning by denoting (or referring to) something
2. Sense
giving meaning by attempting to match the word with
another expression having the same sense
1. Denotation
- The word „blue‟ denotes blue color
- The word „cow‟ denotes cows
* defining „blue‟ or „cow‟ by pointing the object is called
ostensive definition
2. Sense
The expression „a beautiful girl‟ has the same sense as
„gadis cantik‟ in Indonesian
- Sense can be found in translation
or dictionaries
The winners of Mr. Muscle Beach Contest (an annual
body building competition) are
1. Wade Rodriguez (1992)
2. Denzel Lucas (1993)
3. Josh Minamoto (1994)
4. Rob Cabot (1995)
• Sense of the expression „Mr. Muscle‟ refers to Rodriguez
, Luca, Minamoto, or Cabot (depending on the year).
• „Mr. Muscle‟ denotes one of the winners, but can not
denote anyone who hasn‟t won the competition.
• Sense is more basic than denotation and denotation
depends on the
sense.
1. Lexical Meaning
the meaning of individual words
2. Structural Meaning
the meaning of the way the words are combined (based
on syntactic structure)
1.

2.

Lexical Meaning
there are seven words:
the – rat – that – bit – dog – chase - cat
Structural Meaning (different sentences, different meanings)
a. The rat that bit the dog chased the cat.
b. The cat that chased the dog bit the rat.
c. The rat that chased the cat bit the dog.
d. The dog that chased the rat bit the cat.
e. The dog that bit the rat chased the cat.
f. The dog that chased the cat bit the rat.
g. The dog that bit the cat chased the rat.
h. The dog that chased the cat chased the rat.
i. The dog that chased the rat chased the cat.
and so on…
the – rat – that – bit – dog – chase – cat
A
B
C
D
[The A [that B-ed the C]] D-ed the E
The rat that chased the cat bit the dog.

X is an A
X performed the D action
Y is an E
Y undergoes the D action
X performed the B action
Z is a C
Z is the undergoer of the B action

E
• It must be along with syntactic rules for forming phrases
and sentences.
• Interpretation rules which combine meanings are just as
syntactic rules combine forms.
1.

Categorematic Expressions
lexical items that provide a basis for categorization: in the
term of descriptive content or sense. They are noun, verbs,
& adjectives.
2. Syncategorematic Expressions
lexical items that describe their meaning only by placing
them in context or serve to modify categorematic
expressions
(the rest of all & meaningful
inflections).
1. Categorematic Expressions
*the descriptive content of „chimney„
provides the basis forming the category of
„chimneys‟
*the sense of „blue‟ provides the basis for
the category of „blue things‟
2. Syncategorematic Expressions
* as, some, because, for, to, so on…
*Inflections:
1. Tense: third person(-s), past tense (-ed),
progressive (-ing), past participle (-ed), future (will)
2. Number: pural (-s)
3. Case: comparative (-er), superlative (-est)
* The basis: “He BELIEVE us.”
* modified (syncategorematic) expressions:
He (believes – believed –believing – will believe) us.
Sense is to be more basic to „real‟
meaning than denotation as the
actual denotation of an expression
depends on what the sense of the
expression is.
Lexical sense involves relationships among word senses which
are readily analysable.
One of the most familliar sense relations is opposition or
antonymy.
e.g black and white, night and day
Basic antonyms can be complementaries or Noncomplementaries
Basic antonyms which complementaries mean the entities of the
terms that apply to one thing or the other but anomalous (indicates
semantic anomaly)

e.g A door is either open or closed
..., He neither hit it or missed it (P.7)
b. Non Complementary opposites are based on a scale with
opposite poles and neutral middle zone.
e.g

The water is neither hot nor cold
The performance was neither good nor

bad (P.7)
Complementary :
HIT

Non-complementary:

MISS

-----hot

cool

cold
Semantic features is word senses may also be
analyzed in terms of sense components,
particularly those which determine classifications
like system illustrated below;
e.g (P.10)
Human

man

woman

child

girl

boy

horse

stallion

mare

foal

filly

colt

sheep

ram

ewe

lamb

-

-
Basic category words is the complex words
which indicate the whole content. There
must be some other role for all the
information which seems to attach those
words.
e.g

BIRD

1. flies, has wings
2. sings sweetly
3. is small and light
4. lays eggs in a nest
5. is timid
Family Resemblances is different physical features that may make
members of a family alike as a group although no feature is shared
by all.

e.g

soccer, basketball, hurling, etc
rules for play
competition/contest
scoring system
physical skill/strategy
1.
2.
3.
4.

Denotations
Possible Worlds, Extension, & Intention
Truth Conditions
Compositional Formal Theory
*not discussed in detail
1. Names denote to the owners of the names, but
do not describe the owners.
* name: Midge
* denotation of „Midge‟ = Midge (a small brown
dog)
2. Most personal names are coded as male and
female by convention, but the convention can
be broken.
* „Michael‟ is a name for male; in fact, Michael
Learned is an American actress . Commonly
the names for female are „Michelle‟ or
„Michaela‟
3. Denotations of Categorematic (or called „predicate‟) are
the sets of things.
*word (noun): dog –
denotation of dogs = the set of dogs
* word (noun): brown
denotation of brown = the set of brown
things
• The term of „possible worlds‟ is used in
semantics for hypothetical ways reality might be
or might been.
• The way things actually are is the „actual world‟
• The actual world is included in „possible world‟
because it is obviously a possible reality
• A possible world is a whole alternative universe;
actual world is just an alternative version of
Planet Earth
• Many possible worlds have dogs in them, which the word
dog applies to.
• We can collect together all the dogs in the real world to
form the set of all real dogs – this set is the extension of
dog
• What we think of as the „real meaning‟ of the word dog,
we need the intension (the set of all dogs in all possible
worlds; simply, the set of all possible dogs)
• So, there are two kinds of denotation for predicates:
word (noun): dog
extension: the set of all dogs in the actual world
intension: the set of all dogs in the possible worlds
• The analysis of sentences whether the sentences are
true.
• E.g. Midge is grinning
To find out whether the sentence is true, find the relevant
facts; in this case, find Midge and check her facial
expression
1.

2.
•
•
•

The extension of a sentence is its truth value; either true or
false
The intension of a sentence is the set of possible worlds in
which that sentence is true
Sentence: Midge is grinning
Extension: truth value (true or false) in the actual world
Intension: the set of possible worlds
in which Midge is grinning
(the truth set)
Please…
our beloved lecturer is
always ready to
answer
^_^

More Related Content

What's hot

SEMANTIC = LEXICAL RELATIONS
SEMANTIC = LEXICAL RELATIONS SEMANTIC = LEXICAL RELATIONS
SEMANTIC = LEXICAL RELATIONS Ani Istiana
 
Semantics (seven types of meaning)
Semantics (seven types of meaning)Semantics (seven types of meaning)
Semantics (seven types of meaning)AliAsghar276
 
Introduction to Linguistics: Semantics
Introduction to Linguistics: SemanticsIntroduction to Linguistics: Semantics
Introduction to Linguistics: Semanticsjulitakenny
 
Word Meaning (Semantics, Semantic Features and Prototype)
Word Meaning (Semantics, Semantic Features and Prototype)Word Meaning (Semantics, Semantic Features and Prototype)
Word Meaning (Semantics, Semantic Features and Prototype)Huseyin Kirik
 
Unit 8 Words and Things - Extensions and Prototypes
Unit 8   Words and Things - Extensions and PrototypesUnit 8   Words and Things - Extensions and Prototypes
Unit 8 Words and Things - Extensions and PrototypesAshwag Al Hamid
 
Semantics and meaning
Semantics  and meaning Semantics  and meaning
Semantics and meaning Richard Chasi
 
Translation studies....
Translation studies....Translation studies....
Translation studies....AdnanBaloch15
 
Paradigmatic vs syntagmatic relations 2
Paradigmatic vs syntagmatic relations 2Paradigmatic vs syntagmatic relations 2
Paradigmatic vs syntagmatic relations 2Hoshang Farooq
 
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in SemanticsReference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in SemanticsErsa Dewana
 
Functional theories
Functional theoriesFunctional theories
Functional theoriesLy Berns
 

What's hot (20)

Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
REFERENCE
REFERENCEREFERENCE
REFERENCE
 
SEMANTIC = LEXICAL RELATIONS
SEMANTIC = LEXICAL RELATIONS SEMANTIC = LEXICAL RELATIONS
SEMANTIC = LEXICAL RELATIONS
 
Semantics (seven types of meaning)
Semantics (seven types of meaning)Semantics (seven types of meaning)
Semantics (seven types of meaning)
 
Semantics ppt
Semantics  pptSemantics  ppt
Semantics ppt
 
Introduction to Linguistics: Semantics
Introduction to Linguistics: SemanticsIntroduction to Linguistics: Semantics
Introduction to Linguistics: Semantics
 
3 the referential-theory2
3 the referential-theory23 the referential-theory2
3 the referential-theory2
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
 
Semantic vs Pragmatics
Semantic vs PragmaticsSemantic vs Pragmatics
Semantic vs Pragmatics
 
Word Meaning (Semantics, Semantic Features and Prototype)
Word Meaning (Semantics, Semantic Features and Prototype)Word Meaning (Semantics, Semantic Features and Prototype)
Word Meaning (Semantics, Semantic Features and Prototype)
 
Pragmatics: Deixis
Pragmatics: DeixisPragmatics: Deixis
Pragmatics: Deixis
 
Unit 8 Words and Things - Extensions and Prototypes
Unit 8   Words and Things - Extensions and PrototypesUnit 8   Words and Things - Extensions and Prototypes
Unit 8 Words and Things - Extensions and Prototypes
 
Case theory
Case theoryCase theory
Case theory
 
Semantics: Meanings of Language
Semantics: Meanings of LanguageSemantics: Meanings of Language
Semantics: Meanings of Language
 
Semantics and meaning
Semantics  and meaning Semantics  and meaning
Semantics and meaning
 
Sense reference
Sense referenceSense reference
Sense reference
 
Translation studies....
Translation studies....Translation studies....
Translation studies....
 
Paradigmatic vs syntagmatic relations 2
Paradigmatic vs syntagmatic relations 2Paradigmatic vs syntagmatic relations 2
Paradigmatic vs syntagmatic relations 2
 
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in SemanticsReference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
 
Functional theories
Functional theoriesFunctional theories
Functional theories
 

Viewers also liked

Semantics: The Meaning of Language
Semantics: The Meaning of LanguageSemantics: The Meaning of Language
Semantics: The Meaning of LanguageJeffren Miguel
 
Perjuangan Menegakkan Harga Diri (Karaeng Galesong)
Perjuangan Menegakkan Harga Diri (Karaeng Galesong)Perjuangan Menegakkan Harga Diri (Karaeng Galesong)
Perjuangan Menegakkan Harga Diri (Karaeng Galesong)Ika Hentihu
 
Semantic Modelling of User Interests Based on Cross-Folksonomy Analysis @ IS...
Semantic Modelling of  User Interests Based on Cross-Folksonomy Analysis @ IS...Semantic Modelling of  User Interests Based on Cross-Folksonomy Analysis @ IS...
Semantic Modelling of User Interests Based on Cross-Folksonomy Analysis @ IS...Martin Szomszor
 
Answer if you can..?
Answer if you can..?Answer if you can..?
Answer if you can..?Sapna Mahajan
 
SEMANTICS A: READER
SEMANTICS A: READERSEMANTICS A: READER
SEMANTICS A: READERMitchCaroL
 
Concep tual meaning change
Concep tual meaning changeConcep tual meaning change
Concep tual meaning changejiheonkang
 
06 making information pay 2011 -- solomon, madi (pearson)
06   making information pay 2011 -- solomon, madi (pearson)06   making information pay 2011 -- solomon, madi (pearson)
06 making information pay 2011 -- solomon, madi (pearson)bisg
 
Semantic and other disciplines
Semantic and other disciplinesSemantic and other disciplines
Semantic and other disciplinesGustina Savhira
 
Semantics and Computational Semantics
Semantics and Computational SemanticsSemantics and Computational Semantics
Semantics and Computational SemanticsMarina Santini
 
Translation session
Translation sessionTranslation session
Translation sessionBassiouny99
 
Language and meaning (ch 3) power point
Language and meaning (ch 3) power pointLanguage and meaning (ch 3) power point
Language and meaning (ch 3) power pointms451711
 
'Meaning is its use' - Towards the use of distributional semantics for conten...
'Meaning is its use' - Towards the use of distributional semantics for conten...'Meaning is its use' - Towards the use of distributional semantics for conten...
'Meaning is its use' - Towards the use of distributional semantics for conten...Cataldo Musto
 

Viewers also liked (20)

SEMANTICS
SEMANTICS SEMANTICS
SEMANTICS
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
Semantics: The Meaning of Language
Semantics: The Meaning of LanguageSemantics: The Meaning of Language
Semantics: The Meaning of Language
 
Perjuangan Menegakkan Harga Diri (Karaeng Galesong)
Perjuangan Menegakkan Harga Diri (Karaeng Galesong)Perjuangan Menegakkan Harga Diri (Karaeng Galesong)
Perjuangan Menegakkan Harga Diri (Karaeng Galesong)
 
Semantic Modelling of User Interests Based on Cross-Folksonomy Analysis @ IS...
Semantic Modelling of  User Interests Based on Cross-Folksonomy Analysis @ IS...Semantic Modelling of  User Interests Based on Cross-Folksonomy Analysis @ IS...
Semantic Modelling of User Interests Based on Cross-Folksonomy Analysis @ IS...
 
Answer if you can..?
Answer if you can..?Answer if you can..?
Answer if you can..?
 
Extension
ExtensionExtension
Extension
 
SEMANTICS A: READER
SEMANTICS A: READERSEMANTICS A: READER
SEMANTICS A: READER
 
Semanticfieldtosemanticchange
SemanticfieldtosemanticchangeSemanticfieldtosemanticchange
Semanticfieldtosemanticchange
 
Concep tual meaning change
Concep tual meaning changeConcep tual meaning change
Concep tual meaning change
 
Semantics Script02
Semantics Script02Semantics Script02
Semantics Script02
 
06 making information pay 2011 -- solomon, madi (pearson)
06   making information pay 2011 -- solomon, madi (pearson)06   making information pay 2011 -- solomon, madi (pearson)
06 making information pay 2011 -- solomon, madi (pearson)
 
Semantic and other disciplines
Semantic and other disciplinesSemantic and other disciplines
Semantic and other disciplines
 
Semantics and Computational Semantics
Semantics and Computational SemanticsSemantics and Computational Semantics
Semantics and Computational Semantics
 
Speech Communities
Speech CommunitiesSpeech Communities
Speech Communities
 
SEMANTICS
SEMANTICSSEMANTICS
SEMANTICS
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
Translation session
Translation sessionTranslation session
Translation session
 
Language and meaning (ch 3) power point
Language and meaning (ch 3) power pointLanguage and meaning (ch 3) power point
Language and meaning (ch 3) power point
 
'Meaning is its use' - Towards the use of distributional semantics for conten...
'Meaning is its use' - Towards the use of distributional semantics for conten...'Meaning is its use' - Towards the use of distributional semantics for conten...
'Meaning is its use' - Towards the use of distributional semantics for conten...
 

Similar to Meaning

Similar to Meaning (20)

Semantics lecture 2
Semantics   lecture 2Semantics   lecture 2
Semantics lecture 2
 
Definition and Key concept education. Pdf
Definition and Key concept education. PdfDefinition and Key concept education. Pdf
Definition and Key concept education. Pdf
 
7557923.ppt
7557923.ppt7557923.ppt
7557923.ppt
 
semantics slides.ppt
semantics slides.pptsemantics slides.ppt
semantics slides.ppt
 
What is Syntax in English
What is Syntax in EnglishWhat is Syntax in English
What is Syntax in English
 
Chapter 5
Chapter 5Chapter 5
Chapter 5
 
Morphology and syntax
Morphology and syntaxMorphology and syntax
Morphology and syntax
 
Semantics, the Study of Meaning
Semantics, the Study of MeaningSemantics, the Study of Meaning
Semantics, the Study of Meaning
 
Semantics session 4_20_10_2021 Reference and Sense.pdf
Semantics session 4_20_10_2021 Reference and Sense.pdfSemantics session 4_20_10_2021 Reference and Sense.pdf
Semantics session 4_20_10_2021 Reference and Sense.pdf
 
ENGLISH SEMANTICS.pptx
ENGLISH SEMANTICS.pptxENGLISH SEMANTICS.pptx
ENGLISH SEMANTICS.pptx
 
Chapter 1 about semantics
Chapter 1 about semanticsChapter 1 about semantics
Chapter 1 about semantics
 
unit I.ppt
unit I.pptunit I.ppt
unit I.ppt
 
unit I [Autosaved].ppt
unit I [Autosaved].pptunit I [Autosaved].ppt
unit I [Autosaved].ppt
 
Idiomi, lecture 01, 12 13
Idiomi, lecture 01, 12 13Idiomi, lecture 01, 12 13
Idiomi, lecture 01, 12 13
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
Syntax
SyntaxSyntax
Syntax
 
06 syntax
06 syntax06 syntax
06 syntax
 
M1-Using Correct Grammar in Making Definitions.pptx
M1-Using Correct Grammar in Making Definitions.pptxM1-Using Correct Grammar in Making Definitions.pptx
M1-Using Correct Grammar in Making Definitions.pptx
 
semantics the study of meaning
 semantics the study of meaning semantics the study of meaning
semantics the study of meaning
 
Semantics 1
Semantics 1Semantics 1
Semantics 1
 

More from Ika Hentihu

Nilai-nilai Religius yang Tercermin Dalam Nasehat Suku Bugis (Pappaseng), Sul...
Nilai-nilai Religius yang Tercermin Dalam Nasehat Suku Bugis (Pappaseng), Sul...Nilai-nilai Religius yang Tercermin Dalam Nasehat Suku Bugis (Pappaseng), Sul...
Nilai-nilai Religius yang Tercermin Dalam Nasehat Suku Bugis (Pappaseng), Sul...Ika Hentihu
 
Teaching English for Young Learners
Teaching English for Young LearnersTeaching English for Young Learners
Teaching English for Young LearnersIka Hentihu
 
Teaching Listening 2
Teaching Listening 2Teaching Listening 2
Teaching Listening 2Ika Hentihu
 
Teaching Listening
Teaching ListeningTeaching Listening
Teaching ListeningIka Hentihu
 
The concept of future tense
The concept of future tenseThe concept of future tense
The concept of future tenseIka Hentihu
 
Teaching Listening Using MP3 Players
Teaching Listening Using MP3 PlayersTeaching Listening Using MP3 Players
Teaching Listening Using MP3 PlayersIka Hentihu
 
Listening Comprehension
Listening ComprehensionListening Comprehension
Listening ComprehensionIka Hentihu
 

More from Ika Hentihu (11)

Nilai-nilai Religius yang Tercermin Dalam Nasehat Suku Bugis (Pappaseng), Sul...
Nilai-nilai Religius yang Tercermin Dalam Nasehat Suku Bugis (Pappaseng), Sul...Nilai-nilai Religius yang Tercermin Dalam Nasehat Suku Bugis (Pappaseng), Sul...
Nilai-nilai Religius yang Tercermin Dalam Nasehat Suku Bugis (Pappaseng), Sul...
 
Sapir and Whorf
Sapir and WhorfSapir and Whorf
Sapir and Whorf
 
Blog dan blog
Blog dan blogBlog dan blog
Blog dan blog
 
Teaching English for Young Learners
Teaching English for Young LearnersTeaching English for Young Learners
Teaching English for Young Learners
 
Teaching Listening 2
Teaching Listening 2Teaching Listening 2
Teaching Listening 2
 
Teaching Listening
Teaching ListeningTeaching Listening
Teaching Listening
 
The concept of future tense
The concept of future tenseThe concept of future tense
The concept of future tense
 
Teflin semarang
Teflin semarangTeflin semarang
Teflin semarang
 
Teaching Listening Using MP3 Players
Teaching Listening Using MP3 PlayersTeaching Listening Using MP3 Players
Teaching Listening Using MP3 Players
 
Connotation
ConnotationConnotation
Connotation
 
Listening Comprehension
Listening ComprehensionListening Comprehension
Listening Comprehension
 

Recently uploaded

How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17Celine George
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEMISSRITIMABIOLOGYEXP
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptxDhatriParmar
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsArubSultan
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipKarl Donert
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...DhatriParmar
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
 

Meaning

  • 1. By Ika Farihah Hentihu
  • 2. 1. Semantics The study of linguistic meaning dealing with the literal meaning of words and the meaning of the way they are combined. 2. Pragmatics The study of linguistic meaning dealing with all the ways in which literal meaning must be refined or enriched to arrive at an understanding of what speaker meant in uttering a particular expression.
  • 3. “I forgot the paper.” The person who is speaking at some time before the time of speaking forgot a particular item which is a paper
  • 4. “I forgot the paper.” 1. In Sunday morning, Anna (the speaker) has returned to her flat from the local shop then she realized that she forgot to buy a copy of the Sunday newspaper for that morning. 2. Anna comes to her table with wet hands (after washing hands). When she wants to touch her documents, she remember that she did not take tissue.
  • 5. 1. Denotation and Sense 2. Lexical and Structural Meaning 3. Categorematic and Syncategorematic Expressions
  • 6. • The two most basic ways of giving the meaning of words or longer expressions 1. Denotation giving meaning by denoting (or referring to) something 2. Sense giving meaning by attempting to match the word with another expression having the same sense
  • 7. 1. Denotation - The word „blue‟ denotes blue color - The word „cow‟ denotes cows * defining „blue‟ or „cow‟ by pointing the object is called ostensive definition 2. Sense The expression „a beautiful girl‟ has the same sense as „gadis cantik‟ in Indonesian - Sense can be found in translation or dictionaries
  • 8. The winners of Mr. Muscle Beach Contest (an annual body building competition) are 1. Wade Rodriguez (1992) 2. Denzel Lucas (1993) 3. Josh Minamoto (1994) 4. Rob Cabot (1995)
  • 9. • Sense of the expression „Mr. Muscle‟ refers to Rodriguez , Luca, Minamoto, or Cabot (depending on the year). • „Mr. Muscle‟ denotes one of the winners, but can not denote anyone who hasn‟t won the competition. • Sense is more basic than denotation and denotation depends on the sense.
  • 10. 1. Lexical Meaning the meaning of individual words 2. Structural Meaning the meaning of the way the words are combined (based on syntactic structure)
  • 11. 1. 2. Lexical Meaning there are seven words: the – rat – that – bit – dog – chase - cat Structural Meaning (different sentences, different meanings) a. The rat that bit the dog chased the cat. b. The cat that chased the dog bit the rat. c. The rat that chased the cat bit the dog. d. The dog that chased the rat bit the cat. e. The dog that bit the rat chased the cat. f. The dog that chased the cat bit the rat. g. The dog that bit the cat chased the rat. h. The dog that chased the cat chased the rat. i. The dog that chased the rat chased the cat. and so on…
  • 12. the – rat – that – bit – dog – chase – cat A B C D [The A [that B-ed the C]] D-ed the E The rat that chased the cat bit the dog. X is an A X performed the D action Y is an E Y undergoes the D action X performed the B action Z is a C Z is the undergoer of the B action E
  • 13. • It must be along with syntactic rules for forming phrases and sentences. • Interpretation rules which combine meanings are just as syntactic rules combine forms.
  • 14. 1. Categorematic Expressions lexical items that provide a basis for categorization: in the term of descriptive content or sense. They are noun, verbs, & adjectives. 2. Syncategorematic Expressions lexical items that describe their meaning only by placing them in context or serve to modify categorematic expressions (the rest of all & meaningful inflections).
  • 15. 1. Categorematic Expressions *the descriptive content of „chimney„ provides the basis forming the category of „chimneys‟ *the sense of „blue‟ provides the basis for the category of „blue things‟
  • 16. 2. Syncategorematic Expressions * as, some, because, for, to, so on… *Inflections: 1. Tense: third person(-s), past tense (-ed), progressive (-ing), past participle (-ed), future (will) 2. Number: pural (-s) 3. Case: comparative (-er), superlative (-est) * The basis: “He BELIEVE us.” * modified (syncategorematic) expressions: He (believes – believed –believing – will believe) us.
  • 17. Sense is to be more basic to „real‟ meaning than denotation as the actual denotation of an expression depends on what the sense of the expression is.
  • 18. Lexical sense involves relationships among word senses which are readily analysable. One of the most familliar sense relations is opposition or antonymy. e.g black and white, night and day Basic antonyms can be complementaries or Noncomplementaries
  • 19. Basic antonyms which complementaries mean the entities of the terms that apply to one thing or the other but anomalous (indicates semantic anomaly) e.g A door is either open or closed ..., He neither hit it or missed it (P.7)
  • 20. b. Non Complementary opposites are based on a scale with opposite poles and neutral middle zone. e.g The water is neither hot nor cold The performance was neither good nor bad (P.7)
  • 22. Semantic features is word senses may also be analyzed in terms of sense components, particularly those which determine classifications like system illustrated below; e.g (P.10) Human man woman child girl boy horse stallion mare foal filly colt sheep ram ewe lamb - -
  • 23. Basic category words is the complex words which indicate the whole content. There must be some other role for all the information which seems to attach those words. e.g BIRD 1. flies, has wings 2. sings sweetly 3. is small and light 4. lays eggs in a nest 5. is timid
  • 24. Family Resemblances is different physical features that may make members of a family alike as a group although no feature is shared by all. e.g soccer, basketball, hurling, etc rules for play competition/contest scoring system physical skill/strategy
  • 25. 1. 2. 3. 4. Denotations Possible Worlds, Extension, & Intention Truth Conditions Compositional Formal Theory *not discussed in detail
  • 26. 1. Names denote to the owners of the names, but do not describe the owners. * name: Midge * denotation of „Midge‟ = Midge (a small brown dog) 2. Most personal names are coded as male and female by convention, but the convention can be broken. * „Michael‟ is a name for male; in fact, Michael Learned is an American actress . Commonly the names for female are „Michelle‟ or „Michaela‟
  • 27. 3. Denotations of Categorematic (or called „predicate‟) are the sets of things. *word (noun): dog – denotation of dogs = the set of dogs * word (noun): brown denotation of brown = the set of brown things
  • 28. • The term of „possible worlds‟ is used in semantics for hypothetical ways reality might be or might been. • The way things actually are is the „actual world‟ • The actual world is included in „possible world‟ because it is obviously a possible reality • A possible world is a whole alternative universe; actual world is just an alternative version of Planet Earth
  • 29. • Many possible worlds have dogs in them, which the word dog applies to. • We can collect together all the dogs in the real world to form the set of all real dogs – this set is the extension of dog • What we think of as the „real meaning‟ of the word dog, we need the intension (the set of all dogs in all possible worlds; simply, the set of all possible dogs) • So, there are two kinds of denotation for predicates: word (noun): dog extension: the set of all dogs in the actual world intension: the set of all dogs in the possible worlds
  • 30. • The analysis of sentences whether the sentences are true. • E.g. Midge is grinning To find out whether the sentence is true, find the relevant facts; in this case, find Midge and check her facial expression
  • 31. 1. 2. • • • The extension of a sentence is its truth value; either true or false The intension of a sentence is the set of possible worlds in which that sentence is true Sentence: Midge is grinning Extension: truth value (true or false) in the actual world Intension: the set of possible worlds in which Midge is grinning (the truth set)
  • 32. Please… our beloved lecturer is always ready to answer ^_^