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Meaning of meaning

Published in: Education, Lifestyle, Spiritual
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  1. 1. By Ika Farihah Hentihu
  2. 2. 1. Semantics The study of linguistic meaning dealing with the literal meaning of words and the meaning of the way they are combined. 2. Pragmatics The study of linguistic meaning dealing with all the ways in which literal meaning must be refined or enriched to arrive at an understanding of what speaker meant in uttering a particular expression.
  3. 3. “I forgot the paper.” The person who is speaking at some time before the time of speaking forgot a particular item which is a paper
  4. 4. “I forgot the paper.” 1. In Sunday morning, Anna (the speaker) has returned to her flat from the local shop then she realized that she forgot to buy a copy of the Sunday newspaper for that morning. 2. Anna comes to her table with wet hands (after washing hands). When she wants to touch her documents, she remember that she did not take tissue.
  5. 5. 1. Denotation and Sense 2. Lexical and Structural Meaning 3. Categorematic and Syncategorematic Expressions
  6. 6. • The two most basic ways of giving the meaning of words or longer expressions 1. Denotation giving meaning by denoting (or referring to) something 2. Sense giving meaning by attempting to match the word with another expression having the same sense
  7. 7. 1. Denotation - The word „blue‟ denotes blue color - The word „cow‟ denotes cows * defining „blue‟ or „cow‟ by pointing the object is called ostensive definition 2. Sense The expression „a beautiful girl‟ has the same sense as „gadis cantik‟ in Indonesian - Sense can be found in translation or dictionaries
  8. 8. The winners of Mr. Muscle Beach Contest (an annual body building competition) are 1. Wade Rodriguez (1992) 2. Denzel Lucas (1993) 3. Josh Minamoto (1994) 4. Rob Cabot (1995)
  9. 9. • Sense of the expression „Mr. Muscle‟ refers to Rodriguez , Luca, Minamoto, or Cabot (depending on the year). • „Mr. Muscle‟ denotes one of the winners, but can not denote anyone who hasn‟t won the competition. • Sense is more basic than denotation and denotation depends on the sense.
  10. 10. 1. Lexical Meaning the meaning of individual words 2. Structural Meaning the meaning of the way the words are combined (based on syntactic structure)
  11. 11. 1. 2. Lexical Meaning there are seven words: the – rat – that – bit – dog – chase - cat Structural Meaning (different sentences, different meanings) a. The rat that bit the dog chased the cat. b. The cat that chased the dog bit the rat. c. The rat that chased the cat bit the dog. d. The dog that chased the rat bit the cat. e. The dog that bit the rat chased the cat. f. The dog that chased the cat bit the rat. g. The dog that bit the cat chased the rat. h. The dog that chased the cat chased the rat. i. The dog that chased the rat chased the cat. and so on…
  12. 12. the – rat – that – bit – dog – chase – cat A B C D [The A [that B-ed the C]] D-ed the E The rat that chased the cat bit the dog. X is an A X performed the D action Y is an E Y undergoes the D action X performed the B action Z is a C Z is the undergoer of the B action E
  13. 13. • It must be along with syntactic rules for forming phrases and sentences. • Interpretation rules which combine meanings are just as syntactic rules combine forms.
  14. 14. 1. Categorematic Expressions lexical items that provide a basis for categorization: in the term of descriptive content or sense. They are noun, verbs, & adjectives. 2. Syncategorematic Expressions lexical items that describe their meaning only by placing them in context or serve to modify categorematic expressions (the rest of all & meaningful inflections).
  15. 15. 1. Categorematic Expressions *the descriptive content of „chimney„ provides the basis forming the category of „chimneys‟ *the sense of „blue‟ provides the basis for the category of „blue things‟
  16. 16. 2. Syncategorematic Expressions * as, some, because, for, to, so on… *Inflections: 1. Tense: third person(-s), past tense (-ed), progressive (-ing), past participle (-ed), future (will) 2. Number: pural (-s) 3. Case: comparative (-er), superlative (-est) * The basis: “He BELIEVE us.” * modified (syncategorematic) expressions: He (believes – believed –believing – will believe) us.
  17. 17. Sense is to be more basic to „real‟ meaning than denotation as the actual denotation of an expression depends on what the sense of the expression is.
  18. 18. Lexical sense involves relationships among word senses which are readily analysable. One of the most familliar sense relations is opposition or antonymy. e.g black and white, night and day Basic antonyms can be complementaries or Noncomplementaries
  19. 19. Basic antonyms which complementaries mean the entities of the terms that apply to one thing or the other but anomalous (indicates semantic anomaly) e.g A door is either open or closed ..., He neither hit it or missed it (P.7)
  20. 20. b. Non Complementary opposites are based on a scale with opposite poles and neutral middle zone. e.g The water is neither hot nor cold The performance was neither good nor bad (P.7)
  21. 21. Complementary : HIT Non-complementary: MISS -----hot cool cold
  22. 22. Semantic features is word senses may also be analyzed in terms of sense components, particularly those which determine classifications like system illustrated below; e.g (P.10) Human man woman child girl boy horse stallion mare foal filly colt sheep ram ewe lamb - -
  23. 23. Basic category words is the complex words which indicate the whole content. There must be some other role for all the information which seems to attach those words. e.g BIRD 1. flies, has wings 2. sings sweetly 3. is small and light 4. lays eggs in a nest 5. is timid
  24. 24. Family Resemblances is different physical features that may make members of a family alike as a group although no feature is shared by all. e.g soccer, basketball, hurling, etc rules for play competition/contest scoring system physical skill/strategy
  25. 25. 1. 2. 3. 4. Denotations Possible Worlds, Extension, & Intention Truth Conditions Compositional Formal Theory *not discussed in detail
  26. 26. 1. Names denote to the owners of the names, but do not describe the owners. * name: Midge * denotation of „Midge‟ = Midge (a small brown dog) 2. Most personal names are coded as male and female by convention, but the convention can be broken. * „Michael‟ is a name for male; in fact, Michael Learned is an American actress . Commonly the names for female are „Michelle‟ or „Michaela‟
  27. 27. 3. Denotations of Categorematic (or called „predicate‟) are the sets of things. *word (noun): dog – denotation of dogs = the set of dogs * word (noun): brown denotation of brown = the set of brown things
  28. 28. • The term of „possible worlds‟ is used in semantics for hypothetical ways reality might be or might been. • The way things actually are is the „actual world‟ • The actual world is included in „possible world‟ because it is obviously a possible reality • A possible world is a whole alternative universe; actual world is just an alternative version of Planet Earth
  29. 29. • Many possible worlds have dogs in them, which the word dog applies to. • We can collect together all the dogs in the real world to form the set of all real dogs – this set is the extension of dog • What we think of as the „real meaning‟ of the word dog, we need the intension (the set of all dogs in all possible worlds; simply, the set of all possible dogs) • So, there are two kinds of denotation for predicates: word (noun): dog extension: the set of all dogs in the actual world intension: the set of all dogs in the possible worlds
  30. 30. • The analysis of sentences whether the sentences are true. • E.g. Midge is grinning To find out whether the sentence is true, find the relevant facts; in this case, find Midge and check her facial expression
  31. 31. 1. 2. • • • The extension of a sentence is its truth value; either true or false The intension of a sentence is the set of possible worlds in which that sentence is true Sentence: Midge is grinning Extension: truth value (true or false) in the actual world Intension: the set of possible worlds in which Midge is grinning (the truth set)
  32. 32. Please… our beloved lecturer is always ready to answer ^_^