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Transformational Generative Grammar


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A brief conclusion about TGG

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Transformational Generative Grammar

  1. 1. welcome
  2. 2. transformational generative grammar By group 2 • Firdaus Asas • Hanri Anggariawan • Ayu Aprilianti • Yuni Ningtyas
  3. 3. origin Noam Chomsky
  5. 5. overview Definition ofTGG Difference bet.TG andTGG Deep Structure and Surface Structure Transformation Types ofTransformation Ways of Analyzing theTransformation Result ofTGG
  6. 6. Definitionof transformational generative grammar • Transformational grammar or transformational-generative grammar (TG, TGG) is a generative grammar, especially of a natural language, that involves the use of defined operations called transformations to produce new sentences from existing ones. (Wikipedia) • Generative Grammar is defined as a description in the form of a set of rules for producing the grammatical sentence of a language. (merriam- • Transformational generative grammar is a set of grammar rules that are used when basic clauses are combined to form more complex sentences. ( • Transformational grammar is a set of rules that indicates the structure and interpretation of sentences which native speakers of a language accept as belonging to the language. (
  7. 7. differencebetween tgandtgg • Traditional grammar is based on the descriptive grammar used to teach Latin for centuries while generative grammar was conceived as a way of describing language structures. • Based on the definitions I could actually understand, it looks likeTG focuses on building language from small parts (subject, verb, etc.) whileTGG focuses on “linguistic transformations and phrase structures.” (tri.du) TG : Prescriptive It prescribes how people ‘should’ produce language. TGG : Descriptive It describes the ‘ORDER’ in which to put words and phrases. prescribes how people ‘should’ produce language.
  8. 8. Deep structure and surface structure • The deep structure represented the core semantic relations of a sentence, and was mapped on to the surface structure (which followed the phonological form of the sentence very closely) via transformations. • The surface structure is the structure of a well-formed phrase or sentence in a language, as opposed to its underlying abstract representation.
  9. 9. transformation Sentence Deep structure Transformations Surface structure Another Sentence
  10. 10. John read the book The book was read by John. George saw Mary -”Who did George see?” -”Who saw Mary?” WH-Movement transformation (cont.)
  11. 11. types of transformation Subject-verb inversion Subject-operator inversion
  12. 12. subject-verb inversion •Best of all would be to get a job in Willingham. •On long wall hung a row of van Goghs. •There is the dog. •Down came the rain. •There’s your sister. •To get a job in Willingham would be best of all •A row of van Goghs hung On long wall •The dog is there. •The rain came down. •Your sister’s there.
  13. 13. Subject-operator inversion •Never again did I think of disobedience. •On no account must he strain. •So badly was he affected by the virus •Not a word did he say •Never have I seen it. •I never thought of disobedience again •He must strain on no account •He was affected by the virus so badly •He did not say a word •I have never seen it
  14. 14. Ways of analyzing the transformation Syntactic Semantic
  15. 15. Syntactic and semantic • If you are asked a question and you do not know what the answer is, you’d probably say … Saya tidak tahu Tidak tahu saya Tidak tahu Tau deh Syntactic
  16. 16. Syntactic and semantic (cont.) • If you are asked by your wife to select her a gown, red or blue, you do not like the red one because it is too eyecatching,… “Kayaknya warna merah terlalu nge- jreng.” Semantic “Biru, kamu terlihat lebih anggun, Sayang.”
  17. 17. Result oftgg Paraphrase When several surface structures relate to one deep structure. 1. John bought the book from Mary. 2. Mary sold the book to John. 3. The book was sold to John by Mary. Ambiguity One surface structure relate to several deep structures. Flying planes can be dangerous. 1. To fly planes. 2. Planes which are flying.
  18. 18. thank you