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Pragmatics implicature 2
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  1. 1. CFI, Rabat Module: Linguistics Pragmatics: ImplicatureTrainee: M. Bedraoui Trainer: Mr. A. Oulbouch1
  2. 2. ObjectivesWe will be able to 1. get acquainted with implicature. 2. distinguish between an implicature and an entailment. 3. identify types of implicatures. 4. discuss the implications of implicature for ELT. 2
  3. 3. OutlineI. What is an Implicature? 1. Implicature and Entailment 2. Examples 3. Features of ImplicaturesII. What are the Types of Implicature? 1. Conversational Implicature 1. The Cooperative Principle 2. The Conversational Maxims 3. Types of Conversational Implicature 2. Conventional ImplicatureIII. How can knowledge about implicature be useful in foreign language teaching? 3
  4. 4.  Question 1 What is an Implicature?4
  5. 5. Food for thought What does What does she say? she mean? I want to know You are not really whether you are planning to go in going to wear that public wearing tie. that tie, are you? Sentence Speaker meaning meaning Semantic Pragmatic meaning meaning entailment implicature5
  6. 6. Implicature and Entailment What is an entailment? What is an implicature? “any meaning which is conveyed“a meaning that is present on every indirectly or through hints, andoccasion when an expression understood implicitly without everoccurs.” being explicitly stated.”(Grundy: 2000, 73) (Grundy: 2000, 73) A: Would you like some coffee? B: It will keep me awake. Entailment=>……………………… Implicature +>…………………… … 6
  7. 7. Implicature and Entailment Entail: is meant to cover the family of verbs that refer to the literal meaning of a sentence, such as „say‟ and „assert‟. Implicate: is meant to cover the family of verbs such as „imply‟, „suggest‟, „mean‟, which refer to the meaning of an utterance as understood in a given context.7
  8. 8. Implicature: a neology by Paul Grice (1913- 1988) He was a British language philosopher who made remarkable contributions to the field of pragmatics. His most influential work relates to his analysis of speaker meaning and his account of conversational implicature. His legacy is encapsulated in such widely used phrases as “Gricean Cooperative Principle”, “Gricean Maxims”, “Gricean Intention”, and “Gricean Reasoning”. 8
  9. 9. More ExamplesA: Will Sally be at the meeting this afternoon?B: Her car broke down.Entailment=>…………………….. Implicature+>……………….A: Do you like linguistics?B:. Well, let‟s just say I don‟t jump for joy before classEntailment =>………………… Implicature +>………………..An advertisement of Coca-Cola says:It‟s the taste.Entailment =>…………… Implicature +>……………………. 9
  10. 10. Implicatures are context-dependent An expression with a single meaning (expressing the same proposition) can give rise to different conversational implicatures in different contexts. Example: It‟s the taste. A slogan in an • +> It is the unique taste that people look advertisement for Coca Cola for. An utterance made by adaughter to answer why she • +> I found the taste awful. left her sandwich intact. An utterance made by a shop assistant about a • +> The product is in vogue . product 10
  11. 11. Implicatures are cancellable An implicature can be cancelled if additional premises are added without causing contradictions.John is visiting Pat. He and Pat are watching TV. in a room withopen windows. John says:“It‟s a bit chilly here” • +> I want to have the windows closed • => The temperature is low.John may go on and add:“It‟s a bit chilly in here, but I do not want you to close thewindows.”11
  12. 12. Task 1 In some cases, the second sentence is semantically related to the first (an entailment or a presupposition). In other cases it is an implicature . Identify the meanings of the second sentences.12
  13. 13.  Question 2 What are the Types of Implicature?
  14. 14. Types of Implicature Conversational Implicature Implicature Conventional implicature14
  15. 15. Types of Implicature Particularized Conversational IndefiniteImplicatures Generalized Conventional Scalar15
  16. 16. Conversational Implicature Conversational implicatures are the assumptions suggested by the speaker and inferred by the hearer in an exchange situation. These assumptions are not encoded in the words said but are generated by the interlocuters‟ cooperation to achieve rational communication. Cooperatio Speaker n Hearer The cooperative principle16
  17. 17. The Cooperative Principle RelevanceMeet certain Itis an umbrella termprinciples for the principles that guide our conversation. Make your conversational Grice called these contribution such as is required, at rules Maxims of the stage which it occurs, by the Conversation. accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are The maxims are: engaged.  The Quality Maxim (truthfulness)  The Quantity Maxim Truthfulness (informativeness) Informativeness  The Relevance Maxim manner  Manner Maxim 17
  18. 18. A: I might win the lottery. B: Yes, and pigs might fly! +>……………………… Do not say what you believe to be false Flouting the maxim implicature To flout a maxim: to blatantly fail to fulfill it and the hearer recognizes that the maxim is not fulfilled.18
  19. 19. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence A: Where is he right now? B: People say he is in prison. +>………………………..19
  20. 20.  A: How are you? Do not make your B: my recent medical contribution more check up came out negative, my wife was informative than is fired, my dog is ill and I required. am soon expecting my fifth child. +>……………………….. Make your contribution to a conversation as informative as  A: Where are you going? possible B: Out. +>………………………….20
  21. 21. A: Wheres the roast beef? B1: The dog looks happy +>………………………… Be relevant A: Is the chicken good? B: I once tried one of their entrees. Now I always go for the salad. +>…………………………….21
  22. 22. A: Lets get the kids something. Avoid B: OK, but not I-C-E C-R-E-A- Avoid M.obscurity of ambiguity +>…………………………….expression Be brief A: Did John like the joke? B: His lips turned slightly upwards. +>……………………………. Be orderly A: what happened? B: The teacher came in and the students left. +>………………………………22
  23. 23. 1. Which maxim is being flouted in the conversations? 2. Are the implicatures successfully inferred in both conversations?23
  24. 24. Task 2 Recover the implicatures suggested by the B‟s utterances and identify which maxims are flouted.24
  25. 25. What is an implicature?25
  26. 26. What is the difference between an implicature and an entailment?26
  27. 27. How is an implicature worked out?27
  28. 28. What are the maxims of the cooperative principle?28
  29. 29. What are the types of implicature?29
  30. 30. Types of Conversational Implicatures Particularized CIConversational implicatures Generalized CI30
  31. 31. Particularized Conversational Implicature Leila: Wow! Has your boss gone crazy? Mary: Let go get some coffee Particularized • Leila has walked into Mary‟s office and noticed all the work is on herconversational implicatures desk. She has addressed Maryare the inferences which are without realizing that the Boss is in some corner in the office. worked out while drawing totally on the specific A: I‟ m going to the prison context of the utterance. tomorrow. B: Will 200Dhs do? • A is visiting a detainee and proposing to B to help in funding the shopping for that detainee. 31
  32. 32. Generalized Implicature A: Did you invite Bella and Cathy? B: I invited Bella. While working out +>……………………… generalized CI “no specialbackground knowledge of the context of utterance isrequired in order to make the A: Did you buy bread and necessary inferences”. cheese. Yule (1996:40) B: I bought bread. +>………………………… 32
  33. 33. Generalized Conversational Implicatures Phrases with indefinites ‘a’/’an‟Iwas sitting in a garden one day. A child looked over the fence.+>………………………… An X +> not speaker‟s X There is a car in front of the house.+>……………………….. 33
  34. 34. Scalar ImplicaturesScalar implicatures are given rise by the use of certainscales of value. The use of one expression indicatesone point on the scale and cancels the otherexpressions indicating higher points on the scale. <All, most, some, few> <always, often, sometimes> <certain, probable, possible> <do badly, progress, do well> Some of the boys went to the party. +>not all of the boys went to the party.34
  35. 35. Scalar Implicature The courses are sometimes interesting. +> the courses are not always/ not often interesting.  It‟s possible that they were delayed. +> It‟s not certain/ not probable that they were delayed. 35
  36. 36. Scalar ImplicatureI can‟t lend you 10$.+> I can‟t lend you more 10$.36
  37. 37. Types of Implicatures Particularized Conversational IndefiniteImplicatures Generalized Conventional Scalar37
  38. 38. Conventional Implicatures Conventional implicatures are associated with specific words and result in additional conveyed meanings when those words are used. She put on her clothes, and left the house. p q+> After she had put on her clothes, she left the house.+> q after p She was happy and ready to work. p q+> she was both happy and ready to work.+> p plus q 38
  39. 39. Conventional ImplicaturesJohn is poor but happy.  +> In contrast to what p q John should feel as a poor person, he is happy.  P but q +> p is in contrast to q 39
  40. 40. Conventional Implicatures Denis isn‟t here yet.  +> Denis is expected to not p be here later. Not p yet +> p is expected to be true later. 40
  41. 41. Conventional Implicatures Even Mary came to the  +> contrary to what party. was expected, Mary p came to the party.  Even p +> contrary to what is expected, p. 41
  42. 42. Task 3Recover the implicatures that these utterances maygive rise to and identify their types. Sometimes, oneutterance may suggest implicatures of different types42
  43. 43.  Question 3In what lesson components can our knowledge about implicature be relevant and useful? 43
  44. 44. Implications for Foreign Language Teaching Bouton (1994) found out that non-native students had performed significantly poorer in interpreting conversational implicatures than native ones. Boersma (1994) showed that non-native students could interpret conversational implicatures after an explicit formal teaching on how inferences can be drawn from utterances. Lee (2000) pointed out that high linguistic proficiency would allow students to derive the same interpretations as native speakers, though they might display a slower pace at working out implicatures. A number of studies (Alcon, 2005; House, 1996; Rose& Ng Kwai-fun, 2001; Tateyama, 2001) provide evidence for the benefit of both implicit and explicit teaching of pragmatic aspects of language in foreign language contexts. 44
  45. 45. Implications for Foreign Language Teaching Designing the instructional materials Teaching Testing45
  46. 46. Designing the Instructional Material Examples of Culturally rich Rich pragmatic different types of material content implicatures Media clips from TV shows and Comic strips movies46
  47. 47. Comic Strips47
  48. 48. Teaching Implicit Explicit instruction instruction Using questions Consciousnes to elicit s- raising inferences activities Matching Analyzing exercises jokes, puns (utterances and and proverbs appropriate inferences) Multiple choice questions on the implicatures contained in Discussing reading and interpretations listening texts48
  49. 49. Teaching Functions Off-record Requests:. • indirect requests that eliminate the potential for the speaker to impose on the addressee by allowing the addressee to draw an implicature from the statement  Its hot in here. (Open the window.)  My car is in the shop. (Give me a ride.)  I really dislike chicken. (Serve a different meat instead.)  You look nice in blue. (Wear blue more often.)  Washing your hands before eating is recommended. (Wash your hands before eating.)  All reports are due tomorrow. (Finish your report by tomorrow.)49
  50. 50. Testing Teachers need to consult a checklist when designing tests targeting the students‟ pragmatic ability to interpret implicatures.  Do the question items require the use of inference skills that were already taught?  Are the targeted implicatures well-contextualized?  Is there any grading of questions in terms of the difficulty level?  Do the targeted implicatures have one answer or multiple answers?50
  51. 51. References• Ishihara, N., & Cohen, A. D. (2010). Teaching and learning pragmatics: Where language and culture meet. Harlow, England: Pearson Longman.• Griffiths, P. (2006). An introduction to English semantics and pragmatics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. n.• Grundy, P. (1995). Doing pragmatics. London: E. Arnold.• S. E., & nez, F. A. (2008). Investigating pragmatics in foreign language learning, teaching and testing. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.• Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.••• fakultaet/iph/thph/braeuer/lehre/implikaturen/Bach%20TopTen%20Misconceptions.pdf 51
  52. 52. Flouting the puns jokes ambiguity maxims52
  53. 53. The Maxims of ConversationIn a conversation, the speaker may take one of these options:  S/He may observe the maxims. (This is the default assumption)  S/He may flout a maxim, to the full knowledge of the addressee. (This gives rise to conversational implicatures)  S/He may violate a maxim, e.g., lie.53
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