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Semantics Script02

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Semantics Script02

  1. 1. Lexical semantics • Study of word meaning • Aims: – Represent meaning of each word Lexical Semantics – Meaning of morphemes and multi-word units – Show interrelation of meanings of words Words and lexical items • Lexicon and lexeme 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics “In the beginning was the Word…“ Approaches/ perspectives • Almost everything in language is related to • The orthographic approach words central for understanding of • The phonetic approach language • The phonological approach • Psychological reality of words for speakers • The semantic approach • Associations between concept of word and • The grammatical approach concept of language: eg. Proverbs more than one way of looking at words • Words are vital for communication!? interaction with other elements and linguistic environment 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics Definitions of word Definitions of word • Minimal meaningful unit • A word cannot be interrupted or have its parts – Adjective firm: something fairly hard, solid, cf. the reordered word confirm, firm - a morpheme – no lexical – INTRODUCTion *Our today’s topic is Introduct to lexical meaning semantics ion. • A word can be moved about in a sentence, or its – Wann fangen Sie an? (When do you begin?) position relative to other constituents in a – Heute ruft er seine Freundin an. (Today he’s calling his sentence can be altered by inserting new girlfriend). constituents • Words have a characteristic internal structure: – Our topic is “Lexical semantics”. they normally have no more than one root – Our topic today is “Introduction to lexical • BUTTER-FLY semantics”. • BLACK-BOARD – “Introduction to lexical semantics” is our topic today. • Some words have no lexical root at all: the, and, of 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics 1
  2. 2. Lexical meaning vs. grammatical Meaning below word level meaning Words and grammatical categories • Morphology: form, shape, internal • Names, common nouns, pronouns etc. structure of words and • He walks like a duck. processes of word formation • He‘s walking like a duck. • He walked like a duck. • Basic unit: Morpheme • For semantics = instances of the same lexeme smallest, indivisible (three grammatical words) meaningful component • The meaning of words is a combination of the lexical meaning and the grammatical meaning 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics Types of morphemes Types of morphemes • Free vs. Bound (affixes) • Morphemes, morphs and allomorphs derivational morpheme • Bound morphemes ‘ past tense‘ inflectional allomorph allomorph allomorph • Morphemes, morphs and allomorphs morph morph morph /id/ /d/ /t/ 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics Types of morphemes Word-formation • Roots Inflectional (deals with forms of • Affixes individual lexems) Class-maintaining • Stems Morphology Derivation • Bases (affixation) Class-changing Word-formation (deals with formation compound nouns of new lexemes) Compounding compound verbs (more than 1 root) compound adjectives 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics 2
  3. 3. Word-formation Relations between words • Composition/ compounding • Meaning of words is defined partly by relations • Derivation to other words with words in the same sentence (syntagmatic) • Zero-derivation/ Conversion with related but absent • Clipping words (paradigmatic) • Blending • E.g.: I talked to my mother yesterday. • Backformation • Lexical relations are central to the construction • Acronyms of meaning Student presentation 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics 16/04/07 TU-Chemnitz SS07 PS Semantics 3

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